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Essential reading on a crucial yet previously neglected topic, this collection will interest scholars of eighteenth-century religious, intellectual, cultural, and political history. Smith This link opens in a new window This link opens in a new window This link opens in a new window. Surveying a range of philosophical and natural-scientific texts, dating from the Spanish Renaissance to the German Enlightenment, this book charts the evolution of the modern concept of race and shows that natural philosophy, particularly efforts to taxonomize and to order nature, played a crucial role.
Smith demonstrates how the denial of moral equality between Europeans and non-Europeans resulted from converging philosophical and scientific developments, including a declining belief in human nature's universality and the rise of biological classification. The British engagement with India was an intensely visual one.
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Drawing on the collections of the British Library, John McAleer weaves together the stories of individual objects, their creators, and the people and events they depict, and explores the East India Company and its complex relationship with India, its people and cultures. Jamaica and Saint-Domingue were especially brutal but conspicuously successful 18th century slave societies and imperial colonies.
These plantation regimes were, to adopt a metaphor of the era, complex "machines," finely tuned over time by planters, merchants, and officials to become more efficient at exploiting their enslaved workers to serve their empires. Burnard and Garrigus find deep and unexpected similarities in the two colonies. Events of that period, notably a slave poisoning scare in Saint-Domingue and a near-simultaneous slave revolt in Jamaica, cemented white dominance. The authors argue that local political concerns, not emerging racial ideologies, explain the rise of distinctive forms of racism in these two societies.
By the s whites were prospering as never before--and blacks were suffering in new and disturbing ways. Political Magic by Christopher F.
Loar This link opens in a new window This link opens in a new window This link opens in a new window. Political Magic examines early modern British fictions of exploration and colonialism, arguing that narratives of intercultural contact reimagine ideas of sovereignty and popular power. By examining works by Cavendish, Defoe, Behn, Swift, and Haywood in conjunction with contemporary political writing and travelogues, Political Magic locates a subterranean discourse of sovereignty in the century after Hobbes, finding surprising affinities between the government of "savages" and ofBritons.
Sebastiani Publication Date: The Scottish Enlightenment shaped a new conception of history as a gradual and universal progress from savagery to civil society. Whereas women emancipated themselves from the yoke of male-masters, men in turn acquired polite manners and became civilized. Such a conception, however, presents problematic questions: why were the Americans still savage?
Why was it that the Europeans only had completed all the stages of the historic process? The British country house has long been regarded as the jewel in the nation's heritage crown. But the country house is also an expression of wealth and power, and as scholars reconsider the nation's colonial past, new questions are being posed about these great houses and their links to Atlantic slavery. This book, authored by a range of academics and heritage professionals, grew out of a conference on 'Slavery and the British Country house: mapping the current research'.
It asks what links might be established between the wealth derived from slavery and the British country house and what implications such links should have for the way such properties are represented to the public today. Lavishly illustrated and based on the latest scholarship, this wide-ranging and innovative volume provides in-depth examinations of individual houses, regional studies and critical reconsiderations of existing heritage sites.
Slavery and the Enlightenment in the British Atlantic, by Justin Roberts This link opens in a new window This link opens in a new window This link opens in a new window. This book examines the daily details of slave work routines and plantation agriculture in the eighteenth-century British Atlantic, focusing on case studies of large plantations in Barbados, Jamaica and Virginia.
Work was the most important factor in the slaves' experience of the institution. Slaves' day-to-day work routines were shaped by plantation management strategies that drew on broader pan-Atlantic intellectual and cultural principles. Although scholars often associate the late eighteenth-century Enlightenment with the rise of notions of liberty and human rights and the dismantling of slavery, this book explores the dark side of the Enlightenment for plantation slaves.
Many planters increased their slaves' workloads and employed supervisory technologies to increase labor discipline in ways that were consistent with the process of industrialization in Europe. British planters offered alternative visions of progress by embracing restrictions on freedom and seeing increasing labor discipline as central to the project of moral and economic improvement.
Slavery and the Enlightenment in the British Atlantic, (Book, ) [abepivurev.tk]
A digital copy of this book is also available. Focusing on eighteenth-century cultural productions, Wendy Sutherland examines how representations of race in philosophy, anthropology, aesthetics, drama, and court painting influenced the construction of a white bourgeois German self. He is the recipient of multiple fellowships, including awards from the Huntington Library, John D. Smith International Center for Jefferson Studies. He received his Ph. Table of Contents Introduction; 1. Clock work: time, quantification, amelioration, and the Enlightenment; 2. Sunup to sundown: agricultural diversity and seasonal patterns of work; 3.
Lockstep and line: gang work and the division of labor; 4. Negotiating sickness: health, work, and seasonality; 5.
Labor and industry: skilled and unskilled work; 6. Working lives: occupations and families in the slave community; Conclusion. We need to reimagine slaves as much more complex than just politicized actors engaged with their master in an endless contest for freedom … scholars much avoid fetishizing the violence within slavery or casting the system as unique. They need to recognize it as part of an early modern world in which most laborers and whole groups of people, such as women or children experienced some degree of coercion p.
Managers expected gangs to operate as single units p. Again, important distinctions existed between Barbadian, Jamaican, and Virginian systems. Slaves were less likely to be rotated and diversified on land-tight sugar-exclusive Barbadian plantations than on larger Jamaican farms or crop-diverse Virginia establishments.
Yet even on Barbados, slaves were expected to perform a broad range of domestic and field tasks. At the same time, gangs and families competed with one another for easier work, better food rations, and greater trust and leverage with masters.
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Far from uniting against their master, slave families jockeyed for power and prestige, allying with and competing against rival families and networks to survive under an extraordinary variety of environmental, physical, and social obstacles pp. Slavery and the Enlightenment triumphs as an economic history, and will be particularly valuable to historians seeking to analyse the complex social and hierarchal frameworks underpinning 18th-century trade.
The same Enlightenment philosophies that at once promoted slave amelioration alongside ruthless time-keeping and harsh productivity also brought about an equally fascinating paradox: the increasing pressure to emancipate the slaves while compensating slave owners — but not the slaves themselves — for their economic loss. In The Price of Emancipation: Slave-ownership, Compensation and British Society at the End of Slavery , Draper examined the political and economic minutiae of the compensation process between and c. Abolitionist efforts to combat slavery via the courts stretched back to at least the mid 18th century.
But anti-abolitionists long maintained a strong hand, stressing the vast economic losses both they and Britain would supposedly suffer if the slaves were to be freed. Individuals both in the British Isles and throughout the empire earned income from slave-derived work in both diverse and indirect ways. Draper poses an important and long-unanswered question: who in Britain owned slaves? Through tracing back via complex compensation claims, cases, and remittances, he persuasively demonstrates the broad swath of British slave ownership.
In short, numerous men and women from many walks of life earned income from the world of slavery, even if they did not expressly identify themselves as part of that culture pp.
ISBN 13: 9781107025851
The Slave Compensation Commission ultimately handled claims of tens of thousands of slave owners, stretching from Maria Macandrew of Edinburgh, whose charges Mrs E. Clark and Mrs A. Rothschild, Baring Brothers, and the Duke of Cleveland. It is a difficult question to undertake, given the immense rarity of surviving slave accounts.