Der Erste Weltkrieg, kostete 13 Mio. Im Jahr , wurde von der USA bzw. Doch die Destabilisierung der iranischen Wirtschaft war nur der Erste Schritt. Duch die ehem. Daniel Yergin, S. Kristen Blake — The U. Press of America, Melvyn P. Press, Tim Weiner — Legacy of Ashes, Doubleday, Ausbildete — um somit die Frage der Aggression im Ukraine-Konflikt eindeutig zu beweisen.
Die USA haben heute mehr als 1. Afrika verlor 50 Mio. Zinn p. Die Konzerne u. Bankenelite diktierten schon damals das politische und wirtschatliche Spiel und zerschlugen jeden Aufstand blutig nieder. United Fruit Co. Oliver Stone — The untold History, p. Oliver Stone, p. Stone, p. Morgan am meisten involviert war.
Vor dem US-Kongress, berichtete. Mira Beham — Kriegstrommeln und John R. Hier zum Video.
- Related titles.
- Women Psychoanalysts in Great Britain.
- EREMENTAR GERADE Vol. 13 (Shonen Manga)?
- The Legend of the Spring Roll Monkey: A Beautifully Illustrated Humorous Story About Friendship (Morgie and Peejs Wagging Dog Tales Book 1);
- Isle of Slaves and Other Plays.
Verlag Orac, Wien Jeremy Scahill — Dirty Wars, Perseus, Dr walter Leisering Hrsg. Zambon, Oktober Lamuv-Verlag, Bornheim-Merten Chronik einer aggressiven Nation. Hugendubel, Kreuzlingen u. Richard A. Harris, Daniel J. Tichenor — A History of the U. James C. Die einen propagierten es als sexuelle Befreiung und die anderen zeigten die innere Leere und die Sklaverei dahinter!
Kann die penetrante Erscheinung von erotischen bzw. Genau das ist der kritische Punkt: Die Ausklammerung sozialer, psychischer und sogar biologischer Aspekte! Akon mit Mio. Aufrufe ; Tom Jones — Sex Bomb usw. Betrifft das nur eine kleine Gruppe, oder sind wir alle davon betroffen? Falls sich diese Aussage nicht von selbst versteht, liste ich einige Fakten auf: Dr. Auch die Kinder mit ihren Videogames, bzw. Herrschaftsinstrument zur Ab - Lenkung der Massen?
Dabei wird fast alles andere zur Nebensache. Auf beiden Seiten der Leinwand stehen Opfer. Among their intimate friends were writers and artists such as Hugo von Hofmannsthal, Richard Strauss and Gustav Mahler. After completing a two-year course specialising in juvenile delinquency, Ilse Hellmann went to France and worked from in a home for young offenders near Paris. At the same time, she attended evening classes in psychology at the Sorbonne.
From to she worked with children from multi-problem families in a child assessment center in Paris. The further development of these "war babies", separated from their parents and living in the therapeutic community of Hampstead, continued to be an object of her research during the following decades. In Ilse Hellman began her psychoanalytic training at the London Institute of Psychoanalysis, her training analyst was Dorothy Burlingham. She became an associate member in and a full member in of the British Psychoanalytical Society.
From onwards she was training analyst and one of the leading figures in the Anna Freudian Group. For some years she was in charge of the department for adolescents at Hampstead and directed, together with Liselotte Frankl , a research project on adolescence. Their daughter Margaret was born in Increasing ill health forced Ilse Noach to abandon the practice at the age of Meakin and Sarah Anne Budgett. Before her birth her father was a tea planter in India, in he moved with his family to Tangier, where he established two years later the Times of Morocco.
Subsequently she worked for two years with a mission in the Glasgow slums. After graduation she held appointments as assistant medical officer at the Camberwell Infirmary and the Grove Hospital. In she went to India to do mission work. She was appointed medical officer at the Zenana Hospital in Hyderabad, acting first physician to the Cama Hospital in Bombay and, from to , medical superintendent of the Victoria Hospital for Women and Children in Calcutta. They had four children: Harold, Martin, Sylvia and George.
During the following years Ethilda B. She published three papers on gynaecological topics in and In the family returned to England and settled at Reading. She became an associate member of the BPAS in and a full member in Ethilda Budgett Meakin Herford specialized in the treatment of functional nervous disorders by psychoanalysis and became a director of the British Hospital for Functional Nervous Disorders in Camden Town. She practised psychoanalysis in Reading and was appointed Hon.
In addition, she translated three works of Sigmund Freud into English. Her father was a Professor of Economics of Labour knighted in Her mother, the younger sister of John Bowlby, creator of the attachment theory, was interested in psychoanalysis and analysed by Joan Riviere. She chose Enid Balint as her training analyst and was supervised by Donald W. In she married Keith Hopkins , a historian and sociologist, with whom she had three children: Edmund, Ben and Rachel. Juliet and Keith Hopkins divorced in As well as her training in child and adult psychoanalytic psychotherapy, Juliet Hopkins had also completed family therapy training.
Juliet Hopkins was a founder member of the independent child psychotherapy training run by the British Association of Psychotherapists, of which she remains a senior member. She has retired from private practice as a psychotherapist for adults and children but is still involved in teaching at the Tavistock Clinic. Juliet Hopkins has always affiliated herself with the Group of Independents.
She has published widely on aspects of child psychotherapy and child development and has a special interest in infancy and attachment behaviours. A collection of her articles was translated into German and published under the title Bindung und das Unbewusste. Susan Sutherland Isaacs was one of the most important representatives of the psychoanalytic theory of education in England. Her mother, Miriam Sutherland, died when Susan was six years old.
At the age of fifteen, her father removed her from her Bolton secondary school, because she had become an agnostic. She worked as a private tutor and governess, before training as a teacher of young children at Manchester and subsequently studying philosophy in Manchester and psychology at Newnham College, Cambridge. In she married the botany professor William B. Brierley and moved with him to London, where she was appointed tutor in psychology at London University in At that time she still supported a biological approach, as can be seen in her book An Introduction to Psychology.
In she became an associate member and in a full member of the British Psychoanalytical Society. She divorced Brierley - who later became the husband of her friend Marjorie - and married Nathan Isaacs , a metallurgist and educationalist, in The fact that the children were encouraged to express their sexual curiosity, led in to the closure of the institution. From to she directed the Department of Child Development, founded by her at the London University.
Between and , under the pseudonym of "Ursula Wise", Isaacs replied to parents' questions in Nursery World. She stated that the intellectual development of the child was intimately connected with emotional development. Starting with the opinion that an education free of repression will prevent learning inhibitions and developmental disturbances, she soon turned to Melanie Klein's view of a particularly harsh super-ego active within the earliest years of life.
Too much tolerance can moderate its strength, but also set free the feelings of guilt and aggression linked with it. As the most sharp-witted spokeswoman for Melanie Klein in the dispute with the Anna Freudians, Susan Isaacs opened the Controversial Discussions in with her paper The nature and function of phantasy , one of the most important essays of the Kleinian writing. In this paper she defined phantasy - differentiating unconscious "phantasy" from daydreaming "fantasy" - as the psychical representative of the drives.
According to her, unconscious phantasies constitute the primary content of psychical life and the basis of all unconscious and conscious mental processes. Susan Isaacs' numerous clinical and theoretical contributions were collected and reprinted in the anthology Childhood and After. She died of cancer in She was the daughter of an electrical engineer, whose Jewish ancestors had arrived in England in the earlyth century from Alsace.
In her first employment she helped in the starting up of a child guidance clinic in Salford near Manchester , where she began an analysis with Michael Balint in After the war she finished her psychoanalytic training in London and became a member of the British Psychoanalytical Society in In the mids she was appointed a training analyst of the BPAS. She became a collaborator of Melanie Klein and went into further analysis with Paula Heimann from to Betty Joseph demonstrated and drew out the technical implications of Kleinian concepts, particularly those of projective and introjective identification.
She was interested in the way some patients tried to maintain their often painful psychic equilibrium, although they had a conscious wish for psychic change. Based on Melanie Klein's concept of the "total transference situation", Betty Joseph developed her own distinctive technique. She paid close attention to the interaction between patient and analyst in the immediate here and now of the analytic process and highlighted the analyst's counter-transference, i.
Many of Betty Joseph's most important papers are collected in Psychic Equilibrium and Psychic Change , published in Hansi Hanna Engl was born in Vienna, the younger of two girls, to parents who were of eastern European, Jewish descent. In economic conditions led her father to move the family hat-making firm to London. In , a year after the "Anschluss" of Austria to Nazi Germany, the rest of the family followed him into emigration.
In London Hansi Engl worked from to as a childcare worker in the Hampstead War Nurseries, a residential care home for children made homeless by the war which was founded by Anna Freud and Dorothy Burlingham. At the same time she studied psychology at King's College, then at Birkbeck College, and graduated in psychology in During this time she received her training in child psychoanalysis at the Hampstead Child Therapy Course founded by Anna Freud in Her training analyst was Dorothy Burlingham.
With him, she had two sons, born and Kennedy then held the position of the Centre's First Child Therapist until she retired in She was an editorial advisor for The Bulletin of the Hampstaed Clinic , later The Bulletin of the Anna Freud Centre , from to , and on the editorial board of the Psychoanalytic Study of the Child from to Hansi Kennedy was especially interested in memory, its distortion over time by fantasy and repression, and its reconstruction in child analysis. Her experience as a child analyst led her to refine the child analytic technique and to understand the relative capacities of a child's insight at various stages of development.
From to she studied psychology at Bedford College, University of London, with sociology as a subsidiary subject, and subsequently qualified as a social and industrial psychologist. She received her psychoanalytic training from to at the Institute of Psycho-Analysis in London.
Her training analyst was the Kleinian John Rickman, who left the Kleinian group while she was in analysis with him. During her training she did research in social and industrial psychology at the Tavistock Institute of Human Relations. After Rickman's death in she went into further analysis with Marion Milner. In she became an associate member and in a full member of the British Psychoanalytical Society, where she joined the Middle Group of the independents.
In she was appointed as a training analyst. Pearl King held numerous offices within the BPAS and was the first non-medical president of the society between and Also she played a significant role internationally in the organisational life of psychoanalysis, amongst others as Honorary Secretary of the IPA from to and of the EPF from to Besides her interest in the psychoanalysis of the elderly, a main focus of Pearl King's work lay on the history of psychoanalysis. From to she was Honorary Archivist of the BPAS and initiated a computerised search program concerning the history of psychoanalysis in Britain.
She published a book in collaboration with Riccardo Steiner on the famous controversy between Melanie Klein and Anna Freud during the s. In , along with Hanna Segal , she was awarded the Sigourney Prize for outstanding contributions to psychoanalysis. Melanie Klein played a significant role in the history of psychoanalysis, as the founder of her own school focussing on pre-oedipal development and the early object relations.
She was born as the youngest of four children into a Jewish family in Vienna. Her father, Moriz Reizes, was a general practitioner from Galicia. Contrary to her first wish for a medical training, she enrolled to study history and art at the University of Vienna. However, when she was 21 she married Arthur Klein, a chemical engineer. She moved with him to Rosenheim, where their children Melitta and Hans came into the world. Their youngest son, Ernst , was born in Budapest, where the family settled in Chronically depressive, Melanie Klein went c.
Her first probands were her own children. After presenting her paper Der Familienroman in statu nascendi [ The development of a child ] - which based on the psychoanalytic observation of her son Erich - she became a member of the Hungarian Psychoanalytical Society in After separating from her husband, Melanie Klein went to Berlin in Three years later she began a training analysis with Karl Abraham. In she was accepted as a member of the Berliner Psychoanalytischen Vereinigung and established a psychoanalytic practice in Berlin.
At that period she developed her technique of play analysis, substituting free verbal association with the actions of children at play. Through Alix Strachey she received an invitation from Ernest Jones to come to London, where she settled in In contrast to Vienna and Berlin her work was greatly appreciated in England.
Winnicott and Wilfred Ruprecht Bion. They disagreed especially on the origin of the super-ego, which superseded, according to Sigmund and Anna Freud , the Oedipus complex. The archaic and harsh Kleinian super-ego, however, occurred out of early experiences of loss and had its origin in the infant's sadistic impulses, not in the identification with the parents.
Melanie Klein described an inner world of early childhood largely independent of the outer world and populated by phantasmatic "good" and "bad" partial objects, originating from instinctual conflicts. Referring to Sigmund Freud's theory of the death instinct, Melanie Klein stated, that these internal objects, finally, were manifestations of an innate conflicting drive structure.
For Klein, the motor of the psychic development was fear as a response to destructive impulses, which were derivatives of the death instinct. Melanie Klein demonstrated the basic ideas of her theory in her main work The Psycho-Analysis of Children , published in In her essays A contribution to the psychogenesis of manic-depressive states , Mourning and its relation to manic-depressive states and Notes on some schizoid mechanism , she completed her theory with the important concepts of the paranoid-schizoid and the depressive position, which took into account the conflict of simultaneous feelings of love and hate.
The characteristics of these positions were mechanisms of splitting, projective identification and reparation. After the end of the war, Melanie Klein withdrew from the BPAS and concentrated on her activity as a training and supervising analyst. In she initiated the foundation of the Melanie Klein Trust.
In her last major contribution Envy and Gratitude , she described envy as an innate destructive drive, which was particularly important for the child's development. Melanie Klein died in - unreconciled with her daughter Melitta - subsequent to a successful operation for colon cancer, of complications resulting from a broken hip. There she underwent a training analysis with Therese Benedek and continued it with Hanns Sachs in Berlin. In she became a member of the Deutsche Psychoanalytische Vereinigung, where she joined the circle of Marxist analysts around Otto Fenichel and Wilhelm Reich.
In , after Hitler came to power, Barbara Lantos emigrated first to Paris, where her son was born in Barbara Lantos was appointed as a training analyst and lecturer at the Hampstead Child Therapy Course, founded by Anna Freud after the end of the war. As the scientific secretary of the BPAS, she later took a more independent position. Based on the theory of ego-psychology, Barbara Lantos wrote essays about the nature of work, which were still influencing later discussions. Herbert Marcuse judged her paper Work and the instincts as the most far-reaching attempt at that time to answer the question of the drive structure of work.
Lantos saw work as a highly integrated ego activity serving self-preservation instincts, in contrast to play, which is gratifying in itself and determined by pregenital impulses. Her mother was a child psychiatrist, her stepfather a mathematician. In she became a member and later a training analyst of the British Psychoanalytical Society. In the mids, she married the Canadian psychoanalyst Moses Moe Laufer , whose main focus was on treating disturbed and delinquent adolescents.
In , together with her husband and others, she was a co-founder of the Brent Adolescent Centre in London, an institution for the analytic treatment of adolescents and research into adolescent disturbances. They base their theory on Sigmund Freud's proclamation that the pubertal processes give sexual identity its final shape, which they describe as a compromise between what is wished and what can be allowed. In this context, the central masturbation fantasy plays an important role, it contains the various regressive satisfactions and the main sexual identifications.
An adolescent breakdown takes place when the regressive elements in the central masturbation fantasy are too powerful and cannot be integrated with the reality of the changing sexual body. The unconscious rejection of the sexual body becomes manifest in symptoms like suicide attempts, self-mutilations, anorexia, and psychotic disorders.
She studied psychology at the University of Manchester, graduating in M. She became a member, and in a training analyst of the BPAS. Lewinsky ran a psychoanalytical practice in Manchester and worked for child guidance clinics in the North West. She left England in to open a practice in New York. Hilde Lewinsky published essays on topics like shyness, obsession, homosexuality and masochism.
In her most famous paper On some aspects of masochism she centralized the narcissistic satisfactions gained through masochism, which had the significance of a proof of what one can stand. Suffering from chronic post-scarlatinal arthritis, Hilde Lewinsky died at the early age of Margaret Isabel Little was born in Bedford as the second of five children.
Her father was a maths teacher, her mother was musical and artistic, but also chaotic and controlling. Margaret Little read medicine and completed her clinical training at St. Mary's Hospital in From to she worked as a general practitioner in Edgware in West London. During this time she had been a clinical assistant at the Tavistock Clinic to , where she trained as a psychotherapist. Due to personal problems Margaret Little undertook her first analysis from to with a Jungian analyst she called "Dr. From to she went into analysis with Ella Sharpe , who became her training analyst. X and Ella Sharpe failed to realize the psychotic character of Margaret Little's anxieties, so she began a further analysis with Donald W.
In her book Psychotic Anxieties and Containment she gave an account of this successful analysis, lasting from to , and resuming in Margeret Little is particularly known for her contributions on counter-transference. In her article Countertransference and the patient's response to it she went beyond Paula Heimann's view of counter-transference as a signal for the analyst and stated, that counter-transference is of the same importance as transference: Patients often noticed unconsciously the analyst's counter-transference and if the analyst took no account of his counter-transference then they also would not believe in transference.
In Margaret Little withdrew from professional life. Besides her work as a psychoanalyst she was a painter and poet. An anthology of her essays and poems was published in under the title Transference Neurosis and Transference Psychosis. Toward Basic Unity. She was an art teacher in South Kensington before she studied at the London School of Medicine for Women, graduating in She worked, among others, as resident medical officer at an orphanage in Hawkhurst, Kent, and set up her own practice as a general practitioner in London. Constance Long, whose psychotherapic practice was focused on hypnotism and dream analysis, was a member of the Psycho-Medical Society formerly the Medical Society fo the Study of Suggestive Therapeutics and the Society for Psychical Research, which had the purpose of understanding parapsychological phenomena.
Jung in Zurich, whose theories she regarded as an extension of classical psychoanalysis. Even after the break between Jung and Freud, she continued participating in the meetings of the London Psycho-Analytical Society - to the annoyance of Ernest Jones, who dissolved the London Society and reformed it as the British Psycho-Analytical Society in , expelling the Jungians. Constance Long pioneered in propagating the theories of Jung in Great Britain, especially by editing a volume of Jung's works entitled Collected Papers on Analytical Psychology However, she became seriously ill and returned to England after the conference.
She did not participate in founding the C. Jung Club in London in , because she went to the U. Apparently, she was no longer directed by Jung's ideas, after she had become an adherent of the Russian mystic Peter D. Ouspensky in She was the youngest of eleven children in a Jewish family.
Her father Maximilian Loewe was a participant in the Hungarian revolution of and had fled to England after its failure. Her mother Therese Schacherl was the daughter of an Austrian rabbi. After qualifying as a teacher at the Maria Grey Training College, she taught for several years in girls' schools and in a boys' school. She was a member of the Labour Party and the left-wing intellectual Fabian Society.
Barbara Low was introduced to psychoanalysis by David Eder, her sister Edith's husband, who was a co-founder of the London Psycho-Analytic Society in In she was the only female founding member of the British Psycho-Analytical Society. Lawrence, a friend of hers, whom she had introduced into psychoanalysis, gave her the manuscript of Sea and Sardinia , which enabled her to pay for her training analysis. Impressed by the psychoanalytic polyclinic in Berlin, Barbara Low urged the setting up in London of a similar organisation for the free treatment of patients without means, which opened in Like Susan Isaacs and Nina Searl she was especially interested in the application of psychoanalysis to education and published a number of papers on this subject in the International Journal of Psychoanalysis.
In Barbara Low's book Psycho-Analysis. A Brief Account of the Freudian Theory was published. In this introduction for a wider public she conceived the term "Nirvana-principle", which Sigmund Freud acknowledged and used in Beyond the Pleasure Principle. This meant for Low the desire to return into an ante-natal stage of omnipotence, where no non-fulfilled desires exist - in Freud's words: the effect to reduce, to keep constant or to remove internal tension due to stimuli. In addition to her activities at the Psychoanalytic Institute, which Barbara Low served as its librarian for several years, she was a co-director of Imago Publishing Company and a lecturer and therapist at the Institute for the Study and Treatment of Delinquency.
During her last years she retired from public life and lived with her older sister Florence, who also remained unmarried, in Hampstead Garden Suburb. A Brief Account of the Freudian Theory. London, New York A revived sensation-memory. IJP 1, , Sanity in sex. IJP 2, , Education and mental health. National Health 18, The psychology of the free child. IJP 7, , An interesting invented "portemanteau" word. Its Influence Upon Freudian Theory. London A note on the influence of psychoanalysis upon english education during the last 18 years. IJP 10, , The psychological compensation of the analyst.
Her World and Her Work. Stuttgart ] Yorke, Clifford: Low, Barbara. In Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse Paris , [International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis. Detroit u. Gidal and Volker Friedrich: Die Freudianer. Auf dem In the "Sonntagskreis" she met her future husband, Karl Mannheim He lectured in philosophy at the Humanistic University of Budapest until he emigrated in to Germany after the suppression of the Hungarian Soviet Republic. Julia Mannheim was introduced to psychoanalysis during her work at a Child Guidance Clinic, directed by the paediatrician H.
At the beginning of the s she started psychoanalytic training in Frankfurt am Main, but had to interrupt it, when Karl Mannheim was dismissed in because of his Jewish origins. Julia and Karl Mannheim emigrated via Holland to England. In London Julia Mannheim continued her psychoanalytic training and became a member of the British Psychoanalytical Society in In addition to her private praxis as a psychoanalyst and her teaching activity in Anna Freud's Child-Therapy Course, she devoted herself after her husband's death to the editing of his writings.
Her promising membership paper on the case of a female drug addict was destined to be her only analytical publication, when she died at the age of Bion, was a pioneer of the psychoanalytic study of organisations. She studied psychology and economics at St Andrews University, where she lectured in economics from to After the end of the war she began psychoanalytic training in London and was the only woman in a group of psychiatrists and psychologists - among them her analyst Wilfred R. In she became a member, and in a training analyst of the British Psychoanalytical Society. In she qualified as a child analyst.
Beside her private practice as a psychoanalyst, she acted as consultant to a number of institutions and carried out many research studies with the TIHR until , most significantly in the context of healthcare. She worked, inter alia, with the nursery nurses at the Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital in Stanmore, in order to improve the situation of children being treated as inpatients for a long period of time.
In she married the psychoanalyst Oliver Lyth and moved to Oxford. In her most famous paper, first published in , The functioning of social systems as a defense against anxiety , drawing on her experiences working with nurses at the London King's College Hospital, Isabel Menzies was able to analyse the dynamics of certain social systems. She maintained, that the nurses' unconscious defense against anxiety connected with their task lead to detachment and depersonalisation of their relations to the patients.
This was reinforced institutionally by a rigid hierarchy of roles and tasks, uniforms etc.. According to Menzies, social structures such as these are dominated by defense mechanisms, which have been described by Melanie Klein as the paranoid-schizoid defenses. Merrell Middlemore studied medicine and qualified in at the London School of Medicine. Trained as an obstetrician, she was in the s one of the few analysts whose knowledge was based on the empiric observation of infants during the first two years of life.
In her posthumously published book The Nursing Couple , dealing with the feeding responses of infants in the first days of life, she showed how varied and complex even the earliest responses of the new-born were, and how intimately the experiences of being handled and suckled influenced the succeeding phases of feeling and later fantasy.
Middlemore stressed, that in connection with the different habits of sucking, rudimentary psychic processes arose, which were within a few months organised so as to become fantasy. Merrell Middlemore died suddenly of cardiac failure. Nina Marion Blackett was born in London as the youngest of three children.
Her father Arthur Blackett worked as a stock jobber on the London Stock Exchange, her mother Caroline Maynard was an enthusiastic painter. After first starting as a Montessori teacher, Marion Blackett studied psychology and physiology at University College London. She graduated as a psychologist in and subsequently worked under Cyril Burt at the National Institute of Industrial Psychology. In she went on a fellowship to Boston and attended the seminars of the industrial psychologist Elton Mayo, who was then working on his famous Hawthorne Experiments.
The same year she married Dennis Milner , inventor, amateur economist, play writer, and also well-known for his call for a minimum income for all citizens. Their son John was born in Introduced to psychoanalytic ideas by her brother Patrick Blackett, the physicist and later Nobel prize-winner, Marion Milner went into analysis in Boston with Irma Putnam , at that time a Jungian. After her return to England in , she worked as a psychologist for the Girls' Public Day Schools Trust from until war broke out in She did research on "difficult" pupils' problems The Human Problem in Schools and gave psychology lectures for the Workers Education Association.
In under the pseudonym of "Joanna Field" her autobiographical book A Life of One's Own , the first and best known of her journal based books, was published. In Marion Milner began a training analysis with Sylvia Payne and trained as an analyst for children and adults at the London Psychoanalytic Institute. One of her patients was Melanie Klein's year-old grandson Michael, whose case she described in her paper Aspects of symbolism in comprehension of the not-self.
In she became a member of the British Psychoanalytical Society, where she joined the Independent Group. She undertook further analysis with Donald W. Winnicott and at the same time she began analysing a schizophrenic young woman, "Susan", a foster daughter of Winnicott's wife Alice. She continued her own analysis in with Clifford Scott.
Marion Milner was especially interested in the mechanisms of symbolisation. Inspired by Melanie Klein's thesis of symbolism as the basis of all sublimation, she arrived at the formulation that creativity lay in the capacity for making a symbol - not only in the service of defense Ernest Jones or reparation Melanie Klein , but of making something new. Artistic activity, she concluded, repeats the illusion of inner-outer fusion and omnipotence experienced in the mother-child-relation, but in a conscious way. Milner, who made use of painting and doodling in her therapy and was an enthusiastic painter herself, argued in her famous book On Not Being Able to Paint , that inhibitions to create are based on the fear of regression to an undifferentiated state in which the boundaries between self and object become blurred.
She highlighted the fusion of inner and outer experience as a major precondition for psychological health and was one of the few to combine psychoanalysis with mysticism. Marion Milner was a member of the Imago Society, founded in to explore the extension of psychoanalysis to art and other non-clinical matters. Juliet Mitchell was born in Christchurch, New Zealand, when her mother, a botanist, went there on a research project.
In they returned to England and Juliet Mitchell went to the progressive co-educational King Alfred School in London until the age of seventeen. She was the only woman on the editorial board of The New Left Review at its inception in and played an active part in the British New Left. Laing and the anti-psychiatry movement. Juliet Mitchell was the first Anglo-Saxon feminist who used psychoanalysis as a tool to liberate women.
Struck by American feminists' attacks on Sigmund Freud's theories about sexuality, Mitchell became interested in psychoanalysis. As a response she published in her famous book Psychoanalysis and Feminism , in which she stressed, that psychoanalysis was no glorification of the patriarchal system, but its analysis. Anti-Freudian feminists would often ignore, that Freud - e. In spite of some mistakes, Freud had delivered a theoretical instrument to help understand and to fight the oppression of women. Mitchell's conclusion from her implicitly Lacanian reading of Freud was, that he had much more to offer to the feminist movement than the apparently more radical approaches of Wilhelm Reich and Ronald D.
After publishing her main work, Mitchell began psychoanalytic training at the London Institute of Psychoanalysis in Her training analyst was Enid Balint. In she became an associate member and in a full member of the British Psychoanalytical Society, where she joined the Independent Group. From to she operated a psychoanalytic practice in London.
In addition she has been a visiting professor and lecturer at more than twenty universities. She was one of three sisters. In the family left Nazi Germany and emigrated to England. Adele Mittwoch studied chemistry, physics and mathematics and obtained her master's degree in organic chemistry. She first worked in the food industry as a research chemist and subsequently as a member of the scientific staff of the Medical Research Council in London.
In she began psychoanalytic training with the British Association of Psychotherapists. A decade later, she was in the first cohort to train as a group analyst at the Institute of Group Analysis IGA in London, which was founded in As an associate member she worked for many years in the Group Analytic Practice, adept at working with difficult patients. In addition she belonged to the editorial board of the journal Group Analysis. What is at stake? Lois Mary Munro studied medicine and obtained her medical qualifications in at the London School of Medicine for Women.
In the s she trained as a psychotherapist at the Tavistock Clinic and subsequently at the London Institute of Psychoanalysis, where she was analysed by Paula Heimann. She qualified as an associate member of the British Psychoanalytical Society in , becoming a member in From to , she served as the director of the London Clinic of Psychoanalysis, and in she was a founder member of the Royal College of Psychiatry. At the time of her death, she was the Hon. Treasurer of the European Psychoanalytical Federation. Lois Munro was an "independent Kleinian" and highly esteemed for her intuition and empathy, but also for her talent as a storyteller.
The second problem relates to the syndrome of decay of the individual and of mankind as a species. Using the types of nonproductive life that Fromm had previously explicated principally in Man for Himself , The Heart of Man: Its Genius for Good and Evil presents a systematic treatment of the polarity of possible orientations on the basis of character.
The related questions concerning the antithesis of instinct and character, the inherent human destructive instinct postulated by behavioral research, and the skepticism concerning mans potential goodness that this view entails and the doubt this skepticism casts on humanism were the interests that guided Fromms research for some five years. The results of his work over this period are summarized in The Anatomy of Human Destructiveness. His last major publication, To Have or to Be?
Here, Fromm identifies two fundamentally antithetical orientations of human existence--having and being--and links his abundant insights into the individual and societys psyche to the tradition of humanistic religion and of significant historical figures. Then, too, his language is clear and uncomplicated, although with no loss of depth in either the formulation of problems or the presentation of insights, and this makes him suspect in some quarters.
There is every reason to believe Fromm when he says, There is not a single theoretical conclusion about mans psyche, either in this or in my other writings, which is not based on a critical observation of human behavior carried out in the course of this psychoanalytic work. Birnbach says in Neo-Freudian Social Philosophy, pp. On this judgment, see also B.
Studies on the Future of Religion
Beyond the Chains of Illusion a , p. So it is not the lack of rigorous research that inspires the charge of unscientific speculation. Rather, such attacks are the result of Fromms disputes with positivistic tendencies that have no use for anything but precisely demonstrable, objective insights confined to a single discipline. Fromm believed that responsible scientific work cannot ignore the ends of its activity or refuse to synthesize insights from a variety of disciplines.
Neither can it be neutral toward the ethical relevance of its findings. Science therefore requires a frame of orientation that is ultimately not deducible from the insights of any single humane discipline. Fromm and M. Maccoby, Social Character in a Mexican Village b. There is a correspondence in method between this piece of fieldwork and Fromms major sociopsychological study from the thirties, Arbeiter und Angestellte am Vorabend des Dritten Reiches.
Eine sozialpsychologische Untersuchung a. Social Psychology The Questioning of Freuds Concept of Man The Molding of Man by Socioeconomic Conditions: The Sociopsychological Method Erich Fromm has no doubts on this matter: Sigmund Freud is the founder of a truly scientific psychology, and his discovery of unconscious processes and of the dynamic nature of character traits is a unique contribution to the science of man which has altered the picture of man for all time to come.
For as the motor of human behavior, [psychoanalysis] has shown drives and needs which are fed by physiologically anchored drives which are themselves not directly observable. This libido causes painful tension, which is reduced only by the act of physical release; to this liberation from painful tension Freud gave the name of pleasure.
This dynamism which leads from tension to release of tension to renewed tension, from pain to pleasure to pain, Freud called the pleasure principle. This occurs in partnership with the reality principle, which opposes the individuals pleasure principle and embodies the demands of reality and society, insisting on the renunciation or postponement of pleasure so that greater displeasure may be avoided or greater future pleasure gained. The active and passive adaptation of biological facts, the drives, to social facts is the core concept of psychoanalysis. While it is true that in his late 1.
For the perspective of psychoanalysts on Fromms reception and critique of Freud, see especially the studies by R. Wyss, Die tiefenpsychologischen Schulen von den Anfngen bis zur Gegenwart, pp. Wiesenhtter, Freud und seine Kritiker, pp. Heigl, Die humanistische Psychoanalyse Erich Fromms. Fromm, ber Methode and Aufgabe einer analytischen Sozialpsychologie a , p. But see the discussion on the death instinct on p. Erich Fromms first objection to this understanding of man is addressed to Freuds nonchalant acceptance of societys structure and demands as givens.
If such a determination of social structure is discoverable, it must be asked whether psychic structure is not also shaped by socioeconomic conditions through the family as the psychological agency of society. In that case, it would not be the structure of drives that determines mans nature and behavior; instead, in the interplay of interacting psychic drives and economic conditions, the latter have primacy. Viewed superficially, this method represents a fusion of Marxist social theory and Freudian psychoanalysis; concretely, it involves the application of psychoanalytic insights to social phenomena.
It is in his reinterpretation of the Oedipus complex that Fromms different understanding of the psychic structure of social entities becomes apparent. The male child develops sexual desires for his mother, which simultaneously occasion hatred of the father as rival and avenger. This phase must be passed through if further psychological maturation--the rise of the superego, the development of guilt feelings and of conscience, the capacity for genuine love, and so on--is to occur.
Neurotic symptoms in later life are essentially traceable to an unsuccessfully negotiated oedipal phase. Fromm raises the following objection to this Freudian view: The absolutizing of the Oedipus complex led Freud to base the whole development of mankind on the mechanism of father hatred and the resultant reactions,13 without any regard for the material living conditions of the group under study. It is only toward contemporary sexual morality that Freuds position is truly critical. See E. Fromm, Sozialpsychologischer Teil a , pp.
Mullahy, Oedipus: Myth and Complex a ; and the writings of P. Mullahy; E. Fromm, Sigmund Freuds Mission a , pp. Birnbach, Neo-Freudian Social Philosophy, pp. Fromm et al. Freud, Totem and Tabu. Fromms reinterpretation of the Oedipus complex suggests not only that Freud interpreted his phylogenetic knowledge incorrectly, but also that he was mistaken in his ontogenetic interpretation of the Oedipal phase in the child. In certain fundamental respects, the instinctual apparatus itself is a biological given; but it is highly modifiable.
The role of primary formative factor goes to the economic conditions. The family is the essential medium through which the economic situation exerts its formative influence on the individuals psyche. The task of social psychology is to explain the shared, socially relevant, psychic attitudes and ideologies--and their unconscious roots in particular--in Bachofen, Mother Right. Briffault, The Mothers. See also E. Turel, Bachofen-Freud.
Zur Emanzipation des Mannes vom Reich der Mtter. Heinrichs, ed. The matricentric complex, on the other hand, is characterized by a feeling of optimistic confidence in an unconditional maternal love, minor guilt feelings, reduced strength of the superego and greater capacity for happiness and pleasure. At the same time, the development of the motherly qualities of compassion and love for the weaker and those in need of help is seen as an ideal.
Mullahy, Oedipus Myth and Complex, p. This view of Fromms has important consequences for therapy. There is a further consequence for self-understanding and the reciprocal attribution of sexual roles by man and woman. Fromm shows that a psychological agency like the super ego and the ego, a mechanism such as repression or sado-masochistic impulses which condition mans feelings, thinking and acting decisively are not natural things but are ultimately conditioned in part by mans existence, the mode of production and the social structure resulting from it.
According to Fromm, character is not formed by the phases of libidinal development but is a psychic entity that is created by the various ways in which man relates to the world. Both believe that character traits underlie behavior and must be inferred from it. Freuds theory of character is based on two observations. He also became convinced that all innate passions except the drive for self-preservation have their roots in sexual and libidinous desires.
It appears when the anal phase of libidinal development is beset by special difficulties in what is referred to as toilet training. Fromm, 0ber Methode and Aufgabe einer analytischen Sozialpsychologie a , pp. Fromm, Sozialpsychologischer Teil a , p. Fromm, Man for Himself a , p. Fromm, Psychoanalytic Characterology c , p. See also C. Thompson, Die Psychoanalyse, pp. Part of the libido which persists in a pregenital phase may remain unchanged throughout the entire life of the adult.
The result of such a process was referred to as a perversion and not considered a genuine character development. The other two possibilities are the development of reaction formations against the drive and the sublimation of the drive. These two latter are responsible for the character and it was assumed that this was the way human beings mature.
Since man was considered to be primarily a creature of the libido, it was only by way of reaction formation and sublimation that he would become a social being. Thompson, Die Psychoanalyse, p. Fromm elaborates a wholly different perspective. For him, the development of character is not tied primarily to libidinal development, its sublimations, and reaction formations. Nor does he subscribe to the causal relation between erogenous zones mouth, anus, genitals and a given character structure that the Freudian theory postulates.
We believe that man is primarily a social being and not, as Freud assumes, primarily self-sufficient and only secondarily in need of others in order to satisfy his instinctual needs. In this sense, we believe that individual psychology is fundamentally social psychology or, in Sullivans terms, the psychology of interpersonal relationships; the key problem of psychology is that of the particular kind of relatedness of the individual toward the world, not that of satisfaction or frustration of single instinctual desires.
The problem of what happens to mans instinctual desires has to be understood as one part of the total problem of his relationship toward the world and not as the problem of human personality. Therefore, in our approach, the needs and desires that center about the individuals relations to others, such as love, hatred, tenderness, symbiosis, are the fundamental psychological phenomena, while with Freud they are only secondary results from frustrations or satisfactions of instinctive needs.
Fromm, Escape from Freedom a , p. The connection between character traits and erogenous zones during the development of the libido that Freud observed is not rejected by Fromm. Such a connection does, in fact, exist, but it is not causal: character traits are the expression of the character orientation that was acquired through assimilation and socialization. Evans, Dialogue with Erich Fromm f , pp. Fromm, Sex and Character b , pp. The concept human energy becomes psychic energy shortly after this quotation, and thus comes close to what C.
Jung meant by psychic energy. In a note to the translation of his essay ber Methode and Aufgabe einer analytischen Sozialpsychologie in The Crisis of Psychoanalysis a , Fromm uses the term passionate forces rather than libidinal forces. The Anatomy of Human Destructiveness a , p. Fromm received the initial impetus toward the solution of this question from Marxs distinction between the constant drives the sexual drive and hunger fall into this category whose form and direction, though nothing else, social conditions can change, and the relative drives or desires that owe their origin to a particular type of social organization.
Fromm, Marxs Contribution to the Knowledge of Man h , p. In this, his first sociopsychological work, Fromm attempts to understand the ideas and ideologies, by which he means belief in Christ up to the Nicene Creed, by looking at men and their social and economic conditions and not by interpreting men by their ideas and ideologies.
In contrast to all previous attempts such as T. Reiks Dogma und Zwangsidee , the psychoanalytical interpretation of the development of the dogma of Christ becomes possible only on the basis of an analysis of the socioeconomic situation of those social groups that adopted and passed on the Christian doctrine.
And it is only through the knowledge of the common psychic characteristics of this group that were molded in this fashion that an adequate understanding of the ideas and ideologies becomes possible. Fromm, The Dogma of Christ a , pp.
References in: The Dialectics of the Religious and the Secular
Fromm, Die psychoanalytische Characterologie and ihre Bedeutung fr die Sozialpsychologie , especially p. Fromm, Escape from Freedom a , pp. Maccoby, Social Character in a Mexican Village , pp. Fromm, To Have or to Be? The following are some of the titles in the secondary literature: G. Hammond, Man in Estrangement, pp. Riesman, The Lonely Crowd; U. To explain the psychic attitudes shared by a society, one must assume a formation process of psychic energy.
This process of transforming general psychic energy into specific psychosocial energy is mediated by the social character. The ideas, once created, also influence the social character and, indirectly, the social economic structure. Fromm defines its function as follows: Every society is structuralized and operates in certain ways which are necessitated by a number of objective conditions; such conditions are the methods of production and distribution which in turn depend on raw material, industrial techniques, climate, etc. Negative criticism: J. Schaar, Escape from Authority, pp.
Fenichel, Psychoanalyse und Gesellschaft bei Erich Fromm. In her essay Aufklrung and Radikalismus-Kritik der psychologischen Anthropologie Fromms, Agnes Heller suggests that her own judgment is flawless, but considering her inadequate nuances, certain imputations, and obtrusive labeling, her claim must be questioned. Fromm, The Anatomy of Human Destructiveness a , p. Fromm, Sex and Character , p. Beyond the Chains of Illusion a , pp. He emphasizes that in the concept of the social character, the connection between the economic basis and the superstructure is understood in their interaction Fromm and Maccoby, Social Character in a Mexican Village [b], p.
For a reaction to this attempted solution, see A. Schaff, Marxismus and das menschliche Individuum, pp. Fromm used this model of the social character repeatedly: in the historical analyses of the link between Protestantism and early capitalism in Escape from Freedom and with reference to the 19th and 20th centuries in The Sane Society [a]. Die Entwicklung des Christusdogmas a is basically done in the same way, even though its formulations are still those of Freuds libido theory. There is no society in general but only specific social structures which operate in different and ascertainable ways.
Although these social structures do change in the course of historical development, they are relatively fixed at any given historical period and society can exist only by operating within the framework of its particular structure. It is the function of the social character to shape the energies of the members of society in such a way that their behavior is not left to conscious decisions whether or not to follow the social pattern but that people want to act as they have to act and at the same time find gratification in acting according to the requirements of the culture.
In other words, the social character has the function of molding human energy for the purpose of the functioning of a given society. When one considers the factors that shape the social character, one observes the interplay of the following elements 1.
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Social and economic factors, which have a certain preponderance because it is difficult to change them. Religious, political, and philosophical views ideas and ideals , which, though rooted in the social character, also define and stabilize it.
Fundamental human needs such as those for relatedness, rootedness, and transcendence, which all must be satisfied and are indispensable to successful human life, play an active role in this interplay. This element of satisfaction that is present because someone whose action is determined by the social character of his group wishes to do what he must do also explains why people can yet-and sometimes only-be happy under political arrangements that suppress them, even though ideology and brainwashing are needed.
Conversely, where we find an intent to change social conditions, the function of the social character explains why consciousness of the class situation and the progress of socialism in the Communist states, for example, does not result quasi-automatically in the change Marxists hope for. This contradiction is resolved when the family is seen as the psychic agency of society. The family fulfills this task in two ways: 1 by the influence the character of the parents has on that of the child; 2 by the pedagogic methods used in a given culture.
As long as the interaction between these elements remains harmonious and stable, the social character has a predominantly stabilizing function. But if conditions change so that a discrepancy develops between the factors that determine social character and the already existing social character, the social character becomes an element of disintegration, dynamite instead of a social mortar, as it were. These ideas themselves are largely determined by the results of his sociopsychological analyses. If this change is not possible, the outcome will probably be that such a society will collapse, because of its lack of vitality and its destructiveness.
Fromm in the discussion on Psychoanalytic Characterology and Its Application to the Understanding of Culture c , p. In his Gesellschaft and Charakter, Ronald Wiegand proposes to demonstrate the sociological implications of the neopsychoanalysis that was practiced by Erich Fromm, Karen Horney and Harry Stack Sullivan! But instead of tracing Fromms independent development of the sociopsychological method, he observes that Fromm is hampered in his analyses of religious experiences and interprets this as the after effect of his strongly religious childhood which even in Fromms psychoanalytic training was not wholly dispelled p.
This essentially unqualified claim that is proved now--hereWiegand calls it an argument that is surely not improper--becomes the hub for a further judgment of Fromm that deteriorates in part into pure imputation as, for example on pp. The repetition of allegations on pp. A reading of Bruno W.
Reimanns Psychoanalyse und Gesellschaftstheorie yields a similar result. The polemical attacks e. It is therefore not surprising that Reimann should feel that Fromms attempt to reconstruct the deformation processes of capitalist society remains abstract because it rests on a distortion of psychoanalytic theory and, lacking stringent analytical categories, is incapable of showing the negative mediation of concrete human nature with restrictive social patterns and patterns of domination Fromms approach makes it impossible to lay hold of the psychic deformations of the social subject under oppressive social conditions.
This becomes possible only when the category of the unconscious is not surrendered and the unconscious is reconstructed as a socially mediated potential, the libidinal component being retained pp. Helmut Dahmers critique of Fromm is wholly the product of his commitment to Wilhelm Reichs theories.
See, e. In contrast to these interpretations of Fromms social psychology in the German language, all of which misunderstand the concept of character and therefore perpetuate a caricature of Fromms sociopsychological method, it is pleasing to note that Predrag Vranickis study in Vol. In spite of the critical distance in his judgment, a similar effort was made by U.
Summary: The critique of Freuds concept of man Freuds concept of man can be described as a physiological and mechanical one: Freuds man is the physiologically driven and motivated homme machine. Viewed as a being controlled by the dynamics of his libido development, man is fundamentally unrelated: his relation to those who make up his environment, to society, culture, and history, is not primary.
Erich Fromm: The Courage to Be Human
His social being is seen as the product of his striving for optimal satisfaction and as only a secondary phenomenon. Man must use others mother, father, and other persons as objects; that is, he is forced by his drives into relationships with others66 in order to satisfy his libidinal interests. Thus both phylogenetically and ontogenetically, sociality, character qualities, society, and cultural manifestations such as art, religion, technique, and science are the products of physiologically determined instinctual action--nothing but frustrations of the primarily libidinal striving for satisfaction.
The primary striving for satisfaction that the pleasure principle postulates is based on the need to eliminate displeasure; that is, it is based on a want, a lack. On the other hand, love and tenderness are surplus phenomena that can play no role in Freuds system.
Although the term pleasure principle conjures up fulfillment, joy, happiness, these goals cannot be realized in Freuds system because his pleasure principle, which determines man, is a principle of want. Closely connected is Freuds rejection of the view that man is a morally good being. Conscience is not a constructive impetus toward altruism but merely the internalization of the reality principle that curtails egoistic libidinal strivings for satisfaction.
The picture of history that this concept of man implies is characterized by both an optimism concerning the possibilities of progress and a tragic aspect. Freud differs from Herbert Marcuse in opting for the partial suppression of drives that makes culture possible, and he harbors an optimism that implies the necessity of renunciation this is the tragic element.
For Freud, there can be no free society, but only a On what follows, see also Escape from Freedom a , pp. Fromm, Freuds Model of Man d , pp. Freuds introduction of the death instinct into his system caused a fundamental change in his concept of history and of man.
He became convinced72 there was a drive in man that had the same importance as the drive serving the preservation of life, so that both drives are constantly active as tendencies, combat each other, and merge, until finally the death instinct proves to be the stronger force and has its ultimate triumph in the death of the individual.
The following aspects of his changed image of man can nonetheless be observed: The self-sufficient and asocial quality of man as defined by the libido theory now becomes his aggressive and destructive nature: homo homini lupus. But the actual import is that man must resign from the task of determining his own fate. On the basis of his instinctive orientation and also of a profound conviction of the wickedness of human nature, Freud is prone to interpret all ideal motives in man as the result of something mean.
He can never liberate himself decisively from the tragic alternative of destroying others or himself. Freud himself acknowledges, As a result of this primary hostility of man for man, society is constantly threatened by disintegra71 Fromm and Evans, Dialogue with Erich Fromm f , pp. It is principally in Beyond the Pleasure Principle that Freud develops his new view. In that book, he asserts that there is a phylogenetic principle whose principal task is to restore an earlier state and ultimately to take organic life back to its original form of inorganic existence: If it is true that-at some immeasurably remote time and in a manner we cannot conceive-life once proceeded out of inorganic matter, then, according to our presumption, an instinct must have arisen which sought to do away with life once more and to reestablish the inorganic state.
If we recognize in this instinct the self-destructiveness of our hypothesis, we may regard the selfdestructiveness as an expression of adeath instinct which cannot fail to be present in every vital process New Introductory Lectures on PsychoAnalysis, Vol. XXII, p. In the case of the earlier libido theory, on the other hand, it was precisely the fact that it was anchored in the chemical and physiological and that the development of the libido was tied to physical erogenous zones that could be cited in support of the correctness of the theory. Fromm, The Present Crisis of Psychoanalysis d , pp.
Freud, Civilization and Its Discontents, Vol. XXI, p. Fromm, Freuds Model of Man d , p. Concerning the knowledge of mans nature and of social processes, Fromms sociopsychological starting point, shaped by Marxism and sociology, is fundamental. In contrast to Freud, Fromm begins with the sociobiological question: What kind of ties to the world, persons and things must--and can--man develop in order to survive, given his specific equipment and the nature of the world around him? The ideological, religious, economic and political forces that operate in the social process have a dynamism of their own.
A product of man, they also create man. For Freud, the libido is a psychic energy that develops as an instinct according to its own, physiologically determined law, so that the development of mans character remains tied to the phase-by-phase development and psychic energy of the libido, and social processes depend on the latter.
Fromm, on the other hand, believes that what makes man specifically human is his relative independence from the instincts. Against the libido theory, he sets the vision of an individual and social character that makes possible a new understanding of social processes and therefore of the things that shape man. A further important insight of Fromms, which has been hardly touched upon so far, leads to an even more fundamental critique of Freud: the analysis of the social character of certain socioeconomic structures with their corresponding ideas and ideologies yielded a set of criteria for evaluating the concept of man, of history, and of the world that had a determining influence on Freuds psychoanalytic insights.
In both variants, the persons essentially remain strangers to the other, being related only by the common aim of drive satisfaction. Much more important is Fromms critique of the instinctual nature of Thanatos. For Fromm, the death instinct is no biological necessity. While Eros must be viewed as the biologically normal goal of development, the death instinct should be seen as the expression of the failure of normal development and in this sense as a pathological though deeply rooted striving.
Fromm, Zur Theorie and Strategie des Friedens h , pp. Fromm, The Heart of Man a , pp. The character theory The dynamic concept of character Fromm sees character as that constitutive part of the personality that is acquired and shaped and that is the opposite of the inherent, innate psychic qualities. The difference between inherited and acquired qualities is on the whole synonymous with the difference between temperament, gifts and all constitutionally given psychic qualities on the one hand and character on the other.
It thus differs from both everyday usage and the understanding of the term in other branches of science. Fromm calls this kind of relatedness orientation. A further fundamental difference is that between character and behavior. From a behaviorist perspective, behavior is the ultimately attainable and at the same time scientifically satisfactory datum in the study of man.
From this standpoint, behavior traits and character traits are identical and from a positivistic standpoint, even the concept character may not be legitimate in scientific parlance. The same behavior can spring from different motives, while of course the same motives can give rise to the most variegated behavior. Behaviorism does not recognize that behavior itself, separated from the behaving person, cannot be adequately described.
See ibid. Fromm, Aggressivitt wurzelt im Charakter. This article, which is based on a conversation between Erich Fromm and Adalbert Reif that was published as Aggression and Charakter b , can be viewed as a brief and easily understandable presentation of Fromms characterology. The first systematic presentation of the characterology is to be found in Man for Himself a.
It coincides with the comments in The Anatomy of Human Destructiveness a , pp. Mullahy, Oedipus Myth and Complex, pp. Fromm, Man for Himself a , pp. Riesman, Psychological Types and National Character, p. For this reason, Fromm makes a strict terminological distinction between forms of behavior and character traits. The term forms of behavior is reserved for adaptive responses to a given social situation and [is] essentially a result of learning. He derived the psychic energy of individual character traits from the sexual drive, which is to say he combined his characterology and his libido theory and interpreted the dynamic nature of character traits as the expression of their libidinous source.
In contrast to Freud, Fromm ascribes to man a primary relatedness to the world, to others, and to himself. It follows that the genesis of character must be understood through this antecedent relatedness. Accordingly, character traits are not the sublimations or reaction formations of various forms of the sexual drive but rather a syndrome which results from a particular organization or This insight into the difference between form of behavior and the character trait that determines this form of behavior has significant consequences for an ethical judgment: It is, then, not a matter of judging and eventually condemning someone on the basis of his overt behavior and of educating him to observe certain forms of behavior.
What is decisive for ethical judgment is the diagnosis of the character trait in back of the form of behavior, and it is not the forms of behavior but these determining character traits that are the object of pedagogy. On the concept system, cf. On the historical development of this view of character that is an original contribution, see especially his essay Selfishness and Self-Love b , in which he makes use of the example of love and hate to develop the principle that love and hate, e. He postulates that character is a structure of numerous readinesses In contrast to Freud, Fromm already felt at that time that while some of these readinesses are rooted in biological instinct, many others have arisen as a reaction to individual and social experiences p.
The distinction between character traits and the character orientations that determine them is not sufficiently evident when Fromm calls character traits passions. That is the reason the use of the concepts rational and irrational passions for character traits that correspond to a productive and a nonproductive character orientation, respectively--a use that Fromm borrowed from Spinoza-is not adopted here. That talk about passions may cause a reader to forget the relation to characterology that is shown by Hans Peter Balmers essay Befreiung von Destruktivitt?
Erich Fromm in der Debatte um die menschliche Aggression. While this author does mention Fromms characterology see p. For otherwise he could not have written: At the center are questions that arise in connection with Fromms doctrine of affects[! In view of such misunderstandings of the sociopsychological approach of Fromms characterology, it is not surprising that Balmer does not hesitate to argue for a necrophilous view of human life and go along with George Bataille in making a case for a need for destruction and loss p.
Passion, the exuberance of eroticism, is never without violence The specific form of relatedness is expressed in the individuals character and is at the same time an expression of that character. These orientations, by which the individual relates himself to the world, constitute the core of his character so that character can be defined as the relatively permanent form in which human energy is canalized in the process of assimilation and socialization.
The character structure as a whole is formed by the entire social configuration-that is, it is the result of a dynamic interrelation between system-man with the needs, possibilities and limitations deriving from mans nature and the system-society in which he lives. What character means for man is properly understood only when character is seen as a substitute for animal instinct and its functions. Since character is the relatively permanent form in which human energy is channeled, this channeling has an extremely important biological function.
For the character structure can then be viewed as the human substitute for the instinctive apparatus of the animal. Man, in contrast, came into existence at that very point in evolution when an enlarged brain mass made possible an alloplastic behavior vis--vis the environment. Human instinctual adaptation to the environment therefore decreased to a minimum and character took over the functions of instinct, thus becoming mans second nature. To begin with, it means a consistent rejection of the Freudian theory according to which man is shaped instinctually, by the development of the sexual drive.
It also repudiates behaviorist thinking, which proposes to understand human behavior as conditioned reflex. And it is most opposed to the kind of research that takes its cue from the analysis of animal behavior to explain, for example, that aggressive behavior is inherent in man, a legacy of his animal ancestors, and the implication of this view for the image of man.