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Neal, Derek A. The role of premarket factors in black-white wage differences. Journal of Political Economy The study of discrimination often clusters around discrimination against certain socially salient groups and discrimination in certain areas—such as in housing, the labor market, or other important social and economic arenas. The subheadings in this section address discrimination against specific socially salient groups defined on the basis of race , sex , sexual orientation , ethnicity and national origin , religion , age , and disability.

Also included is sexual harassment , which is typically considered a form of sex-based discrimination. Race discrimination is one of the largest fields of research on discrimination in the social sciences. This counterfactual definition of racial discrimination requires a conceptual specification of what race is in order to determine whether or not someone has been treated differently because of race. Yet, in social science and in law the question of how we define race such that we can identify when an agent has discriminated on that basis is a much-debated topic see Methodology.

Loury offers a very sociological account of the category of race, focusing on African Americans, and explores the operation, explanation, and signification of racial discrimination. Omi and Winant develops a historical, constructivist approach to the category of race and racial discrimination. For an international comparative treatment of both state-imposed racial stratification and different national modes of racial discrimination, including the now-dismantled system of racial apartheid in South Africa, see Marx There is a vast literature on racial discrimination in a number of different arenas, much of which concentrates on discrimination against African Americans.

Massey presents a very helpful overview of research on racial discrimination in a variety of contexts, including housing, lending markets, labor markets, product markets, and criminal justice. Quillian offers a detailed review article on racial discrimination, with a focus on audit methodologies and recent innovations in social-psychological studies of prejudice. Pager and Shepherd summarizes key research literature on racial discrimination in the areas of employment, housing credit, and consumer markets. Citro, eds. Measuring racial discrimination. The first main section of the volume is dedicated to a discussion of methodology in the detection and measurement of racial discrimination.

It is a valuable resource for identifying important, high-quality studies that employ the various methodologies discussed. There is also a very informative discussion of the concept of cumulative discrimination accessible to students new to the concept. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. A comprehensive discussion of both invidious intentional and disparate impact racial discrimination as interpreted and defined under federal law. Loury, Glenn C. The anatomy of racial inequality. A sophisticated, yet accessible, discussion of the conceptual category of race.

The author argues that popular conceptualizations of racial discrimination defined as unequal reward for the same activities are inadequately narrow and that we must also attend to development bias—the systematic exclusion of black Americans from opportunities to acquire valued economic and social capacities. Marx, Anthony W. This book presents a comparative study of public and private modes of racial discrimination and domination in South Africa, Brazil, and the United States, exploring state policies of racial exclusion through the lens of state-building and the forging of ruling political alliances.

Massey, Douglas S. Categorically unequal: The American stratification system. Massey discusses racial discrimination, both its invidious and institutional forms, in the context of exploring the mechanisms responsible for generating social and economic stratification. Chapter 3 deals with racial stratification and provides a very helpful overview of the major research on discrimination in housing, lending markets, labor markets, product markets, and criminal justice.

Omi, Michael, and Howard Winant. Racial formation in the United States from the s to the s. New York: Routledge. Taking race as a socially constructed category, the authors explore the social mechanism and historical contests around the meaning of race in America in recent history, debating a number of alternative theoretical conceptions of race in the process. Also contains discussions of discrimination in the context of specifying a historical-constructivist theory of race.

This review article is a great resource to identify key studies of racial discrimination in each area it addresses: labor markets, housing credit markets, and consumer goods markets. It also offers an interesting discussion of the literature on the causes of discrimination, at the individual, organizational, and societal level. This is a broad review essay on the conceptualization and empirical study of racial discrimination. It contains many citations to numerous studies on the topic. Sex discrimination is most often defined as disadvantageous treatment or outcomes on the basis of sex or gender.

As with other forms of discrimination, there is significant debate over the both the concept of sex and the scope of conduct that qualifies as discrimination. For example, the Supreme Court has recognized in its landmark case Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins that federal antidiscrimination law Title VII is not limited to discrimination on the basis of biological sex as such, but prohibits discrimination for failure to conform to gender norms.

Ridgeway and England presents a conceptual typology of sex discrimination and discusses the individual-level and institutional-level causes sociologists have advanced to explain sex discrimination. Many researchers have investigated whether discrimination is the causal culprit behind observed sex earnings differentials or occupational segregation.

England addresses the empirical evidence on occupational sex segregation and income gaps, and explores the complex methodological and theoretical issues involved in attributing gaps to discrimination, as opposed to sex differences in human capital, productivity, effort, or occupational preferences. McCall argues that there has been inadequate attention to the structural determinants of gender wage inequality and regional variation in labor market conditions. Tomaskovic-Devey and Skaggs investigate various theories accounting for the relationship between occupational sex composition and lower average female wages, including the explanations that implicate employer discrimination and those that point to supply-side factors, such as human capital or preferences.

Levanon, et al. Audit studies have also been used to detect sex discrimination see Audit Studies. Goldin and Rouse found that masking the sex of applicants to the selection committee at live orchestra auditions increased the probability a woman was advanced and eventually hired. Sex discrimination is also studied as an explanation for other observed outcomes: Kessler, et al.

England, Paula. Comparable worth: Theories and evidence. New York: Aldine De Gruyter. Although the data contributing to the empirical evidence in this book are now almost two decades old, the methodological and theoretical discussions in this book are still relevant to any student of sex discrimination. The book also contains extensive explorations of theories of labor market operation across disciplinary boundaries, including various models of sex discrimination. Goldin, Claudia, and Cecilia Rouse. American Economic Review This paper exploits a natural experiment—the adoption of screens for blind auditions across major orchestras across the country—to get at the question of sex discrimination in hiring.

The authors find that the adoption of blind auditions account for 25 to 33 percent of the increase in female new hires in the sampled orchestras during this period. Kanter, Rosabeth Moss. Men and women of the corporation. New York: Basic Books. She argues that certain jobs are more prone to discriminatory behavior—those in which judging skill and capacities are more opaque and prone to uncertainty—because those in positions of power seek to minimize this uncertainty by selecting candidates that look like themselves in important respects, namely race and gender.

Kessler, Ronald C. Mickelson, and David R. The prevalence, distribution, and mental health correlates of perceived discrimination in the United States. Journal of Health and Social Behavior The authors explore the experience of discrimination as a stressor and possible cause of observed disparities in mental health between men and women, and racial minorities and whites, in the United States. Occupational feminization and pay: Assessing causal dynamics using — US census data. Social Forces The authors explore competing explanations for the existence and persistence of certain facts about gender earnings differentials, such as the fact that occupations with higher proportions of females pay lower wages, even after controlling for education and skill requirements.

The authors employ a complex methodology of sort out evidence of two different types of demand-side sex discrimination that would give rise to this phenomenon: queuing and devaluation. McCall, Leslie. Complex inequality: Gender, class and race in the new economy. The author argues that gender inequality must be understood as the result of both discriminatory practices and historical shifts in economic structures. Further, she shows that patterns of sex inequality vary between regional labor markets, because the patterns of economic restructuring have varied regionally.

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Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins U. Ridgeway, Cecilia, and Paula England. Sociological approaches to sex discrimination in employment. In Sex discrimination in the workplace: Multidisciplinary perspectives. Edited by Faye J. Crosby, Margaret S. Stockdale, and S. Ann Ropp, — Malden, MA: Blackwell.

This is a helpful volume for beginning students of sex discrimination because it provides a range of disciplinary perspectives and covers a variety of topics. Much of the volume is dedicated to sex discrimination law, litigation, or legal perspectives, but Part 3 contains four essays on the academic study of sex discrimination. Tomaskovic-Devey, Don, and Sheryl Skaggs. Sex segregation, labor process organization, and gender earnings inequality. American Journal of Sociology This article explores various theories that account for the observed correlation between higher female composition in an occupation and lower wages, including social closure theories men occupy positions of authority and control in workplaces and exclude females from desirable positions and training opportunities , and gendered labor process gender meanings infuse the very process of valuation and organization of work process.

Sexual harassment is most often defined as unwelcome physical contact, advances, requests, speech, jokes, or other conduct of a sexual nature that either makes the working environment hostile or is imposed as a condition of employment opportunities. This definition follows the framework laid out by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission , and its guidelines are useful in understanding not just the legal definition of sexual harassment, but also how most social scientists conceptualize the phenomenon.

The pioneering work of MacKinnon was formative in brining legal and public recognition to sexual harassment as a form of sex discrimination. A number of articles from a special issue of the Journal of Social Issues deal with measurement, detection, and variable construction in the social scientific study of sexual harassment.

Frazier, et al. Arvey and Cavanaugh discusses the methodological hurdles involved in using survey methods to generate reliable and generalizable estimates of the prevalence and nature of sexually harassing experiences in workplaces or other settings. Legal scholars have generated a large body of literature on sexual harassment. MacKinnon and Siegel is an outstanding volume of essays on sexual harassment law and theory.

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The wide range of topics covered is accessible and informative to non-lawyers and lawyers alike. A very cogent philosophical treatment of the wrongs of sexual harassment and corresponding legal conceptualizations of such wrongs can be found in Anderson Saguy offers a comparative sociological analysis of the legal concept of sexual harassment, its depiction in mass media, and organizational responses inside major corporations in the United States and France. Anderson, Elizabeth. Recent thinking about sexual harassment: A review essay.

Philosophy and Public Affairs — This article overviews recent legal and theoretical scholarship on sexual harassment and offers a very helpful framework for interpreting the normative debates in the field. Arvey, Richard D. Using surveys to assess the prevalence of sexual harassment: Some methodological problems. Journal of Social Issues The authors review a number of studies using survey methods to measure the incidences of sexual harassment and discuss methodological pitfalls. This paper provides a very useful discussion of external and internal validity concerns in such measurement techniques, and discusses the interplay between social scientific study of sexual harassment and legal definitions.

Policy guidance on current issues of sexual harassment. Frazier, Patricia A. Social science research on lay definitions of sexual harassment. The authors used survey data from a sample of individuals associated with a Midwestern university, including faculty, staff, and graduate and undergraduate students, to assess the consistency of subjective definitions of sexual harassment. Although the data are now out of date, the methodological discussion is still quite useful.

MacKinnon, Catharine. Sexual harassment of working women: A case of sex discrimination. A seminal treatment of the topic, often credited with bringing public and legal recognition to sexual harassment as a practice of gender-based domination with structural implications, as opposed to merely a private affront.

MacKinnon, Catharine A. Siegel, eds. Directions in sexual harassment law. An extensive collection of essays by prominent legal scholars on various topics relating to sexual harassment, including theoretical perspectives on why sexual harassment is a form of sex discrimination, its social and cultural function and significance, the implication of various legal doctrines on the rights of sex discrimination claimants, and the intersection of sex and other-basis such as race and sexual orientation discrimination. Saguy, Abigail Cope. What is sexual harassment?

From Capitol Hill to the Sorbonne. Berkeley: Univ. This book presents a comparative cultural sociological study comparing the legal content, public conceptualization, and corporate practices around sexual harassment in the United States and France. The author discusses the various structural and cultural forces that can account for the observed differences between the two countries in these realms.

Uggen, Christopher, and Amy Blackstone. Sexual harassment as a gendered expression of power. American Sociological Review 64— Discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation includes a wide variety of individual behaviors and institutional practices, from antigay workplace harassment to laws prohibiting same-sex couples from marriage or adoption.

Conceptually identifying the object of study is difficult here as in other areas of discrimination studies: a researcher must specify the meaning of sexual orientation in order to conclude a practice is discriminatory on that basis. Fausto-Sterling , an exploration of the conceptualization of sex, gender, and sexuality, is helpful to any social scientist attempting to forge an operational definition of sexual orientation. A number of studies, including Pascoe and Human Rights Watch , document harassment of gay and non-gender-normative students in elementary and high schools, and explore how male—female gender norms are constructed and policed through the use of homosexuality as a counterpoint to heteronormativity.

Badgett and Frank is an edited volume with a wealth of essays on sexual orientation discrimination in various institutional contexts, from labor markets to public policies, across a number of countries. Labor market discrimination against gays and lesbians is easier to identify in the United States than other forms of discrimination, because most federal courts have interpreted Title VII to not forbid explicit discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation De Vos , and many gay employees are excluded from fringe benefits if their same-sex partnership is not recognized as a marriage.

Badgett discusses recent findings on labor market discrimination in hiring, pay, promotion, or job placement and the methodological limitations of existing data sources, noting that representative quantitative data on both labor market outcomes and sexual practices or preferences is hard to come by. Although there is no federal statute explicitly banning sexual orientation discrimination, a number of states and localities have laws banning sexual orientation and transgender discrimination, and the use of these laws is some indication of the prevalence of sexual orientation discrimination.

Rubenstein attempts to quantify the frequency with which these laws are invoked, relative to the gay or lesbian workforce in the locality, and compares the population-adjusted discrimination complaint filing frequency to other forms of discrimination i. Badgett, M. Discrimination based on sexual orientation: A review of the literature in economics and beyond. In Handbook on the economics of discrimination. Edited by William M. Rodgers III, — Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar. This article offers a very helpful review of empirical studies of sexual orientation discrimination, including some international studies, and presents a thorough discussion of methodological issues such as constructing an operational definition of sexual orientation.

Most studies found that gay or bisexual men consistently earned less than similarly situated heterosexual men, and the findings for lesbian or bisexual women are less consistent. Badgett, Lee, and Jefferson Frank, eds. Sexual orientation discrimination: An international perspective. London and New York: Routledge. This volume contains a number of essays presenting empirical data on discrimination, harassment, and disparities on the basis of sexual harassment from a variety of nations.

Blandford, John M. The nexus of sexual orientation and gender in the determination of earnings. Industrial and Labor Relations Review This study discusses the theoretical importance of disaggregating the effect of gender-role nonconformity along other dimensions apart from firm sexual practices from sexual orientation per se, and includes a number of controls for occupation in estimating the earnings differentials between similarly situated gay or lesbian and heterosexual workers.

De Vos, Tanya. Sexuality and transgender issues in employment law. Georgetown Journal of Gender and the Law — This accessible and brief article provides a clear overview of how federal courts have dealt with claims of sexual orientation or transgender discrimination under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act and outlines other legal remedies available to victims of such discrimination at the state and local level.

Elmslie, Bruce, and Edinaldo Tebaldi. Sexual orientation and labor market discrimination. Journal of Labor Research The authors also test for occupation-specific effects, finding evidence of wage discrimination most pronounced in heavily masculinized occupations such as building, construction, and production. Fausto-Sterling, Anne. Sexing the body: Gender politics and the construction of sexuality. An excellent resource to explore competing conceptualizations of gender, sex, and sexuality categories; includes discussions of conceptions from different disciplines from medical to anthropological and historical trends in the debates.

Human Rights Watch. Hatred in the hallways: Violence and discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender students in U. New York: Human Rights Watch. This is a report from a national advocacy organization; although it did not draw its data from a random, representative sample, the qualitative information gleaned form hundreds of interviews of students, teachers, and administrators in seven states is a valuable resource.

Pascoe, C. This book draws on data from an ethnographic study at one high school, examining the construction of gender norms through the foil of homosexuality, often in the form of antigay harassment. Rubenstein, William. Do gay rights laws matter? An empirical assessment. Southern California Law Review 65— The author estimates the population-adjusted filing rates of discrimination lawsuits for sexual orientation, sex, and race discrimination claims lawsuits in jurisdictions with sexual orientation antidiscrimination statute.

The article also offers a helpful overview of sexual orientation antidiscrimination laws, and debates surrounding such laws, at various levels of government. Ethnic or national origin discrimination encompasses any disadvantaging treatment because of country of origin, ancestry, or ethnic affiliation, which, among other things, extends to discrimination based on physical, linguistic, or cultural traits associated with an ethnic or national identity.

There are innumerable studies of ethnic discrimination in countries across the globe. Myers and Corrie is an edited collection of essays on ethnic and caste discrimination in various national contexts including India, Russia, and Australia, and International Labour Organization is a report that details legal and policy approaches to ethnic and racial discrimination in a number of nation-states.

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission provides a clear explanation of the legal framework governing national origin and ethnic discrimination in the United States that is also useful to the social scientific conceptualization of the phenomena. The studies of race and ethnic discrimination often intersect, and definitions of the two are frequently contested and indeterminate.

Foner and Fredrickson provides an illuminating discussion of the conceptual differences between race, ethnicity, and skin color, including how various ethnic groups have merged into and out of different racial classifications in US history. Massey provides an extensive discussion of racial and ethnic socioeconomic stratification, including a substantial exploration of discrimination based on ethnicity, national origin, and immigration status.

Telles and Ortiz documents experiences with discrimination and segregation in various domains, and tracks trends in important outcomes, such as education and employment, using a unique longitudinal and intergenerational dataset on Mexican Americans. Some scholars contest the conclusion that the earnings gap between non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics is evidence that skill is rewarded differently in the labor market—i. Carneriro, et al. Kenney and Douglas constructed a matched-pair audit test of labor market discrimination against Hispanic youths in comparisons to white youths, finding Hispanic testers were less likely than white testers to be successful at each stage of job seeking.

Carneriro, Pedro, James J. Heckman, and Dimitriy V. Understanding the sources of ethnic and racial wage gaps and their implications for policy. Nelson, 99— This paper uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to argue that a high proportion of the ethnic and racial wage gap can be explained by differences in skills, such that earnings differentials are mostly a factor of premarket factors as opposed to market discrimination. The article engages the extensive debate on this topic and provides resources to track the key articles and issues in this long-ranging debate.

EEOC compliance manual for national origin discrimination,. These guidelines define ethnic and national origin discrimination within the legal framework of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act prohibiting employment discrimination , yet the conceptual discussion is quite helpful to social scientists in delineating the phenomenon. Foner, Nancy, and George M. Fredrickson, eds.

Not just black and white: Historical and contemporary perspectives on immigration, race, and ethnicity in the United States. This is a multiauthor edited volume containing a wealth of articles helpful to clarifying the conception of race and ethnicity, and its relation to immigration and historical changes in the United States. The various articles discuss racial, ethnic, and national origin discrimination across a number of cases, in addition to how groups come to define and contest ethnic and racial status. International Labor Organization. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labor Office.

This report provides a helpful starting point for students interested in the legal and policy framework addressing ethnic discrimination in a large number of countries across various regions, including Latin America, Africa, the Middle East, and Europe. It also provides details on how international law and conventions have defined discrimination and how these conventions have been adopted at the nation-state level.

Kenney, Genevieve M. An analysis of the correlates of discrimination facing young Hispanic job-seekers. This was one of the early studies using audit methods to test for labor market discrimination. The authors found that white testers were more successful than Hispanic testers at each successive level of the application process, from being offered an interview to being offered a job, although the gap in interview offers was the largest and the job offer gap narrowed contingent on interview.

Mason, Patrick L. Annual income, hourly wages, and identity among Mexican-Americans and other Latinos.

Attitude Theory, Formation, Measurement, and Change

Industrial Relations The author conducts a quantitative study of the variation in earnings of Hispanic Americans, finding that acculturation into a white racial identity is associated with increased earnings and that darker complexions and non-European phenotypes are associated with lower earnings, irrespective of acculturation.

This book offers an extensive discussion of discrimination on the basis of ethnicity and immigration in the context of developing a comprehensive theory of social stratification. It also includes an extended exploration of Hispanic immigration and is a rich resource for citations of empirical studies of discrimination based on ethnicity. Myers, Samuel L. Corrie, eds. Racial and ethnic economic inequality: An international perspective. New York: Lang. This volume deals with ethnic, caste, and cultural discrimination in various national settings, including India, Russia, Australia, New Zealand, and Haiti, in addition to discussing affirmative action policies as a remedy to discrimination.

Telles, Edward, and Vilma Ortiz. Generations of exclusion: Mexican Americans, assimilation, and race. Drawing on longitudinal and intergenerational data from interviews of Mexican Americans from around the United States, this study tracks several dimensions of change, including education, socioeconomic status, assimilation, ethnic and racial identity, language, and various other outcomes and experiences.

Questions of anti-immigrant, ethnic, and religious discrimination are often intertwined, as explored in the European context by Strabac and Listhaug The topic of religious discrimination—particularly against Muslims—has regained significant scholarly attention in the wake of the events of and reactions to September 11, The European Union Monitoring Center is an extensive report on Islamophobia and discrimination against Muslim residents across European Union member states.

This document provides an extensive discussion of federal law surrounding religious discrimination and accommodation that also provides a helpful conceptual discussion of the phenomenon for social scientists. European Union Monitoring Center. Muslims in the European Union: Discrimination and Islamophobia. This extensive report covers a range of topics on attitudes toward, treatment of, and discrimination against Muslims in Europe, including specific information on the experiences of Muslims in housing, education, and employment.

Fekete, Liz. Anti-Muslim racism and the European security state. Marx, Karl. On the Jewish question. In Marx: Early political writings. In this early piece of writing, Marx argues that eradicating official state religious oppression by abolishing public state religion and relegating religious practice to merely private practice what he terms political emancipation will not secure substantive human emancipation.

Strabac, Zan, and Ola Listhaug. Anti-Muslim prejudice in Europe: A multilevel analysis of survey data from 30 countries. Social Science Research — The authors use data from the European Values Study — to examine prejudice against Muslim and other non-European immigrants in both eastern and western Europe. Discrimination on the basis of age is a phenomenon increasingly studied, as the baby boomer generation ages toward retirement and economic restructuring makes older workers ever more vulnerable. Age discrimination in the workplace can be motivated by negative stereotypes of older workers or economic incentives to minimize pension or health care costs, as supported by Kalleberg Age discrimination is forbidden by federal law, by the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of ADEA , unless an employer can show that age is a bona fide occupational qualification.

The US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, interpreting federal statute and case law, has defined age discrimination as exclusion of individuals over the age of forty from apprenticeship programs, job notices, advertisements, or benefits, and harassment or provision of disadvantageous terms and conditions of employment on the basis of age EEOC Regulations. Nelson is an edited volume of essays exploring the attitudinal underpinnings of age discrimination, termed ageism.

Sargeant presents a helpful discussion of the conceptual issues involved in defining age discrimination before examining age discrimination legislation in various countries, with a focus on the United Kingdom and Europe. Gee, et al. The authors find that self-reports of discrimination are highest during the ages that employers have indicated they disfavor: early twenties and fifty or older.

Roscigno, et al. R part Age Discrimination in Employment Act. These are the official guidelines the EEOC uses to enforce age discrimination claims. Although standards expressed here have to do with constructing legal rights under federal statute, they are helpful in conceptualizing age discrimination, and the legal definition often guides social science research on the phenomena. Gee, Gilbert C. Pavalko, and J. Scott Long. Age, cohort and perceived age discrimination: Using the life course to assess self-reported age discrimination.

The authors use longitudinal data to explore the relationship between expectations of employer age preferences and self-reported instances of discrimination. The authors use their findings to comment on the validity of self-reports for detecting age discrimination. Kalleberg, Arne.

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In: Zarembka P, editor. Frontiers in Econometrics. New York: Academic Press; Rationality for economists? Economic Choices. The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological review. McGraw-Hill Company; In: Coleman J, Fararo T, editors. Rational Choice Theory: Advocacy and Critique. London: Sage Publications; Scarcity: Why having too little means so much. New York: Times Books; Human Problem Solving. Normative social influence is underdetected. Social network concordance in food choice among spouses, friends, and siblings.

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The Economic Journal. Where, when, why, and for whom do residential contexts matter? Moving away from the dichotomous understanding of neighborhood effects. The Cost of Thinking. Journal of consumer Research. Regarding the general values, low educated were less open to change and more conservative than high educated, and had lower scores for self-transcendence and self-enhancement.

A low openness to change and low self-transcendence seemed to be associated with making less healthy food choices, especially for bread consumption. Our systematic review showed that the concept of cultural capital has not yet been empirically tested in relation to healthy and unhealthy food choices.

Several indicators of institutionalised e. During questionnaire development, indicators of institutionalised and objectivised cultural capital were translated to food choice relevant indicators. For incorporated cultural capital, we used existing questionnaires that measured the larger concepts that covered the variety of indicators as identified by the review i. Higher socioeconomic groups significantly retained more cultural capital of all three states than those from lower socioeconomic groups, and having more cultural capital was associated with healthier food choices.

The main strength of the present study is our comprehensive approach for the development of a set of measures for food choice relevant cultural capital. The literature review resulted in an inclusive overview of all cultural capital indicators and measures that have been applied in different fields of research, from the early conceptualisations to recent understandings of the concept of cultural capital. We were thereby more inclusive than a previous review of selected studies that applied cultural capital in educational research [ 28 ].

A limitation of the cultural capital questionnaire is that it is mostly food-specific; only the questions regarding family institutionalised cultural capital and the general values may also be applicable to other health-behaviours, like physical activity. However, the advantage of this approach is that the food-choice specific cultural capital variables are more likely to have causal associations with food choices than general cultural capital indicators like museum visits, and possession of art , which make them more useful as entry points for intervention development to promote healthy food choices.

Another limitation may be that the selected questionnaire items are especially applicable to Western cultures similar to the Dutch culture; for application in other cultures, some questionnaire items may need some modification e. A limitation of the empirical test is that food intake was based on self-reports, with social desirability bias as a potential problem. We combined the results of the literature review with existing questionnaires on the underlying concepts of the three states of cultural capital. Therefore, we selected the main underlying concepts of participation, skills knowledge, and values-which are also prominent in the original writings of Bourdieu [ 17 , 26 ] and others [ 20 , 28 ].

Measures for skills and knowledge that were selected from the food choice literature sometimes needed some adaption to the Dutch situation, as, for instance, the questions on food knowledge included particular British food items not well known in the Netherlands. Values are both individual characteristics and cultural patterns of social class [ 56 ] and have a major influence on lifestyle and consumption patterns [ 57 ].

We measured general values instead of food-choice related values since the food values would be too close to the taste of food, and therefore to the outcome of interest itself. However, the general values were rather distinctive in nature from the other food-choice specific incorporated cultural capital items so that these could not be summed in the overall food-choice related incorporated cultural capital sum score. In additional univariate analyses, we separately investigated the association of each specific variable that was used to compose the cultural capital variables with food choices, adjusted for sex, age and socioeconomic position see S3 Tables Cultural capital and food choices.

The possession of a juicer one of the items used as indicator of objectivised cultural capital had consistent significant associations with all three food choice outcomes. Skills for preparing vegetables and fish, reading nutrition information on food packages, and food knowledge which were all used as indicators of incorporated cultural capital also showed consistent positive associations with healthy food choices. The two food participation indicators were positively related with healthier meat choices, but less strongly with the other two food choice outcomes.

The review showed that own educational level was the most often used indicator of institutionalised cultural capital at the individual level. However, as own educational level was used as indicator of socioeconomic position in our study, and as we were looking for factors that can explain socioeconomic inequalities in food choices, we focused on the socialisation processes in which acquisition of cultural capital takes place, and operationalised family institutionalised cultural capital by educational level of the father, mother and partner of the respondent.

What the best way is to operationalise institutionalised cultural capital and socioeconomic position when both are needed from a conceptual point of view deserves attention in future studies. Only for the family institutionalised cultural capital items, a large number of respondents missed data on educational level of their partner In further analyses, we will apply multiple imputation on the separate cultural capital items, before combining them into mean scores or sum scores.

Empirical assessment of the cultural capital questionnaire suggested promising associations with socioeconomic position and several food choices, and will soon be explored further for other food choice outcomes. Also, future research may study cultural capital in relation to other health behaviours, such as physical activity. Questionnaire items regarding objectivised and incorporated cultural capital should then be adjusted accordingly.

An empirical application of the questionnaire demonstrated that higher educated people significantly possessed more cultural capital, and those with a high level of cultural capital more often made healthier food choices as opposed to those with low cultural capital.

Cultural capital may be a new, potentially powerful explanation for inequalities in food choices, which may lead to new entry points for the development of interventions to promote healthy food choices among low socioeconomic groups. Performed the experiments: TJ CK. Analyzed the data: TJ CK. Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Results The review yielded studies that fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Conclusions Cultural capital may be a promising determinant for socioeconomic inequalities in food choices.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. Introduction Poor dietary intake is a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality [ 1 , 2 ].

Cultural capital theory The cultural capital notion provides an explanation of social stratification mechanisms and was originally conceptualised by Bourdieu to explain class differences in academic achievement [ 26 — 28 ]. Methods Systematic review—methods We conducted a review of the literature in a broad range of databases, in order to get a complete overview of existing quantitative measures of cultural capital.

Questionnaire development—methods The review of existing measures of institutionalised, objectivised and incorporated cultural capital was used as main input for the development of the questionnaire to measure food choice relevant cultural capital. Empirical study—methods The developed questionnaire was included in a large-scale postal survey in , administered in a new wave of data collection for the longitudinal cohort study called GLOBE more information in [ 31 — 33 ].

Download: PPT. Fig 1. Table 1. Results of the systematic review: most prevalent indicators of cultural capital. Questionnaire development—results We developed a set of questionnaire items that capture cultural capital of the three different types in relation to food choices see Table 2. Table 2. Questionnaire items to measure cultural capital related to food choices. Empirical study—results Mean age of the sample was Table 3. Odds ratios for unhealthy food choices by socioeconomic position a adjusted for age and sex and by cultural capital adjusted for age, sex, and socioeconomic position , and prevalence rates of family institutionalised, objectivised and incorporated cultural capital by socioeconomic position a.

Discussion Our systematic review showed that the concept of cultural capital has not yet been empirically tested in relation to healthy and unhealthy food choices. Supporting Information. S1 Checklist. Prisma S1 Dataset. S1 Tables. Systematic review. S2 Tables. Factor analyses. S3 Tables.

References

Cultural capital and food choices. References 1. Martikainen P, Brunner E, Marmot M Socioeconomic differences in dietary patterns among middle-aged men and women. View Article Google Scholar 2. WHO Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases. Geneva: World Health Organization.


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