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Close this message to accept cookies or find out how to manage your cookie settings. Great thanks, in advance! Help me, please. Descriptive Theatre Research, and 5. Applied Theatre Research. Through these five theses we have come to the t h i r d branch of our discipline, that of the Analytical Theatre Research.
It will be dealt with in the next part. Although it is nonsense to speak of 'the' Analytical theory of science, and although it has been stated that this direction of methodology is not the one outside of which there is no 'salvation' b u t who says so? Why this direction?
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I will t r y to give some reasons. In the f i r s t place because what Dietrich Steinbeck says that counts for the Humanities in general, does not count for our f i e l d. He states : "Experimentelle Denkmodelle, angeregt durch die Natur- wissenschaften, haben auch hier Eingang. What is not true is that the Humanities, in particular those concerned with forms of a r t , as Theatre Research for instance, derive models of thinking from the more or highly developed natural sciences, and if this is done, the derivation is not correctly carried out see e.
Linguistics or Poetics. Secondly, Theatre Research lacks a proper language of its own. Steinbeck pointed to this already , and unfortunately nothing has changed. The attempt Patrice Pavis made , however heroical, to compose a 'dictionnaire du thtre', will have to be con sidered a failure. It is not consistent, the terms are not defined systematically and within one and the same paradigm. It is just a compilation of more or less current notions derived from Formalism, Structuralism, Linguistics and Poetics as well as from Dialectic- Materialism and Phenomenology the theatre researcher or the scholar who is doing research on theatre applies to give his analyses the air of methodically founded ones.
Thirdly, Analytical Theatre Research will be a counterbalance to the prevailing non-analytical ones such as Theatre Hermeneutics, the phenomenological approach by Steinbeck for instance, and dialectic- materialistic ones see for instance Gttner Of course the Analytical theory of science can be criticised, and must be criticised. It seems to be ready for revision or rejection already as happens to any theory , especially the strictly neo-positivist branch see Popper's publications; Ayer ed. Three main points of criticism are: its requirement for formalisation, its striving after a universal language, and its model constructing.
But these activities are exactly the ones that can be traced in con temporary applications of structuralism and semiotism to Linguistics, Poetics, and Theatre Research. Apparently activities that are back dated. Indeed; however, ideally yes, in practice no. Our field still needs this quite strictly Analytical theory in order to get rid of the non-analytical tendencies. Apart from that, we will have to take into account the criticism regarding the application of the analytical view to Theatre Research. Andr Lefevere for example is quite clear in pointing to its flaws and fallibility. His criticism and rejection of this theory pp.
I will not abandon this consideration. I will not abandon the attempt at building an analytical foundation for our discipline. Not because I do not believe Lefevere and other critics. But because I am of the opinion that this theory of science is needed to desinfect Theatre Research and to free it from hermeneutic and other non-analytical d i r t. Only after this action the field can be developed the way Lefevere suggests, and I propose.
Only then the field may properly be called a scientific discipline. Only then one is able to construct a proper theatre theory. Only then other methodol ogies can be utilized for proper evolution of the field. However, things have not yet come to this stage. It is no use, there fore, to adopt the in every respect useful suggestions and proposi tions Lefevere makes I will come to this in the Hand book mentioned. In every manifestation of the philosophical tradition called 'analytical' the rejection of 'metaphysics' is manifest.
To mention some, Hobbes as well as Locke , the so called 'inventor' of modern semiotics attack metaphysicism within philosophy and science. One of the most trenchant fly-outs has been performed by David Hume His often and willingly cited statement that fits my point of view regarding traditional Theatre Research is the following from his Enquiries XII, i i i , :. When we run over libraries, persuaded of these principles, what havoc must we have? If we take in our hand any volume. Does it contain any abstract reasoning concerning quantity or number?
Does it contain any experimental reasoning concerning matter of fact and existence? Commit it then to the flames: for it can con tain nothing but sophistry and illusion. The criticism they had with respect to the state of affairs in philosophy of science has been applied by me some sixty years later in order to attack the state of affairs in Theatre Re search.
Down with the libraries of Theatre Research! Away with them! A l though, to commit books to the flames is not really my kind of c r i t icism. The Viennese positivists did not go so far as to say that all meta physical works deserved to be committed to the flames: they allowed, somewhat perfunctorily, that such writing might have poetic merit or even that it might express an exciting or interesting attitude to life. Their point was that even so it did not state anything that was either true or false and consequentely that it could contribute nothing to the increase of knowledge.
Metaphysical utterances were condemned not for being emotive, which could hardly be considered as objection able in itself, but for pretending to be cognitive, for masquerading as something that they were not. This is exactly the reason for my attacking of traditional Theatre Research, and of the 'imitative' branch as well: the pretending of being scientific, or the pretending of being not scientific while per forming utterances and activities loaded with the air of argumentation and reasoning. Ayer continues i b i d. Attacks on metaphysics occur fairly frequently in the history of philosophy.
I have quoted Hume and I might also have quoted Kant who maintained that the human understanding lost itself in contradic tions when it ventured beyond the bounds of possible experience. The originality of the logical positivists lay in their making the im possibility of metaphysics depend not upon the nature of what could be known but upon the nature of what could be said. Their charge against the metaphysician was that he breaks the rules which any utterance must satisfy if it is to be literally significant.
The same applies to Theatre Research. What has been done, and what is done s t i l l , is to claim to be able to know theatre and to make statements on the basis of this knowledge. Theatre researchers will not have to strive after f i x i n g the object 'theatre' any longer; they will have to examine, criticise, falsify the statements about this object, no more no less.
If this is taken to be t r u e , then the statements within Theatre Research as within any empirical human science will have to f u l f i l l a number of criteria. Theatre Research, its language that is, will have to be constructed of statements that are meaningful, i. I would like to render it here. In consequence of the appearance of the ghost, Hamlet Shakespeare's Hamlet, act I, scene 5 says:.
There's ne'er a villain dwelling in all Denmark But he's an arrant knave. Horatio replies: There needs no ghost, my l o r d , come from the grave To tell us t h i s. There needs no ghost because Hamlet's proposition is analytic and, of course, logically necessary. What makes it analytic is that its t r u t h can be known simply by knowing the meanings of its terms, and what makes it logically necessary is that to deny it would involve self- contradiction. What Horatio wants is the opposite, a synthetic proposi t i o n ; one which makes an assertion - the phrase is Hume's - about a 'matter of fact and real existence'.
Had Hamlet claimed, unpoetically and anachronistically, that all Danish villains are the products of maternal deprivation, then his proposition would have been not ana lytic but synthetic. It would also have been aposteriori, inasmuch as it could be known to be true - if it were true - only by reference to some actual empirical study of the home background of Danish villains. This example is indeed important, not only because the language of Theatre Research, if it exists at all, has not been constructed by these two types of statements but also because it touches upon one of the main aspects of analytical t h i n k i n g : the aspect of scientific lan guage.
The language we use in everyday life is highly ambiguous. As long as it is used in everyday life situations, no insuperable problems will arise: we manage all r i g h t. However, if this type of language is used in science, and it is used in Theatre Research, then problems will arise, and they have arisen in Theatre Research: we are hardly able to communicate properly with one another. Our field language, if it exists at all - it has already been stated, is highly ambiguous, and unfit for use. Besides the aspect of language, other aspects have been emphasized by analytics as well: atomicity of the universe, analysis of entities, clearness in analysis, use of logics, unchangeability of units, value-freedom, and t r u t h of statements see Jones , V I will treat each of these aspects here very roughly.
The aspect of language has been dealt with above. The analytic assumes that the universe exists of entities - be it material particles, observable data, or impressions of facts see for that matter Peirce too; see the forthcoming Handbook - entities that have an interrelationship that is only external in nature. These entities, when they are complex, will have to be analysed into smallest units. These units are inmediate, substantial, com prehensible, unambiguous und unchangeable. The analysis will of course have to be correctly performed. The analysis will lead to c l a r i t y.
The analytics strived after clari fying reality which by nature is complex and obscure. This can be done by the analysis into smallest units. Next, these units are confronted with the analist unmedately and directly without inter ference or inference of his affections such as religion, hope, fear, f u r y , and the like. The aspect of process regarding universe is kept out of considera tion: the smallest units are what they are, they do not change.
However, the changeability of the world, its developments, and the coming into existence of new forms of life in which the analytic scholar believes arises from the potentiality to combine the units see also Dinu Logics will have to serve as an instrument of analysis; anyway, it has been the medium of the twentieth-century analytic.
Philosophy and Science are two strictly cognitive oriented dis ciplines. Existential, let alone therapeutic activities will have to be controlled and kept outside the analysis. The concept of 'interpretation' Hermeneutics is rejected because of its psychologistic character. Also the concept of ' t r u t h ' is prob- lematised.
The analytic accepts or assumes the existence of an ob jective world, i. This w o r l d , however, is accessible, to wit by means of a clear and correct analysis. The task of the researcher is to replace false and incorrect statements about reality by logically true statements. The analytical researcher in general is not a socio-philosopher. This characterization reflects a point of view that one can read in many studies on Analytical Philosophy of science i t is in fact a false one; see the Handbook again.
Apart from t h i s , these nine aspects form more or less the program of every analytic. From this tradition the members of the Vienna Circle have been operating. From it I will make an attempt to construct an Analytical Science of Theatre. I will not be totally faithful to this program. But that does not alter the fact that the analytical point of view is necessary in the stage our field is i n. On the basis of the preference for the Analytical Theory of Science I have, in particular the variety of it called Logical Positivism, it is possible to set up a program for the development of an Analytical Theatre Research.
As a starting point I will take the division of the field into the five subfields mentioned; resp. The nine aspects of the analytical practice can be connected with these subfields. As a matter of fact the explicitation, the explanation and the ordering procedure are part of the subfield of the Fundamentals of Theatre Research. The question of the analysis aspects 3, 4, and 5 belong to the subfield of the Theoretical Theatre Research. Aspect 6 , which deals with the instrument of analysis, the view of science as a strictly cognitive event aspect 7 , and the rejection of 'interpretation' aspect 8 , can be considered parts of the subfield of the Descriptive Theatre Re search.
Finally, the aspect concerning the value of science in relation to society, or the ethics of science aspect 9 belongs above all to the subfield of the Applied Theatre Research. As, a whole, the determination of the content of each subfield is a matter of Fundamentals in itself. I will now determine these contents, be it in a rough way. This is based upon aspects of a General Philosophy of Science Analytic in nature; see e. Stegmller ; also Lakatos and Musgrave eds.
With the help of this philosophy of science Theatre Research can be developed into a scientific research see, again, Tindemans Ic can be complemented or, rather, supplemented, by a number of basic disciplines such as Logic, Set theory, Mathematics, Argumenta tion theory, and the like. These basic disciplines provide ways to formalize the theories that have been constructed, as well as to test the ways they are built up see for instance Allwood et al. Research is a discipline in which aspects from these fields can play an important part because of the mere fact that its object is by nature a psycho- sociological, t e x t u a l , fictional and art phenomenon see Ekman and Scherer eds.
Theory of Theatre Research is necessarily based upon the Funda mentals: within this sub-field the data provided by these Funda mentals will be applied to Theatre Research proper. From this we can formulate a methodology of Theatre Research see Steinbeck ; Tindemans ; Van Kesteren b, , v o l. I; underlying paper. By means of aspects of this methodology, problems which arise from constructing a History of Theatre Research as well as a Didactics of Theatre Research can be tackled. Furthermore, ways may be found to make explicit by what methods theatre as an empirical phenomenon will have to be approached and how they will have to be used, methods 'caused', so to speak, by the view one has of theatre: a social phenomenon, a text taken in its wide sense , a game, an aesthetic artefact, a piece of mimesis, fiction or a r t or literature, and so o n.
The basic disciplines mentioned above play a part in directives for setting up theories of theatre, formulating hypotheses, testing of statements and arguments, providing a lexicon, defining its terms and notions and formalizing the theories, etc. Theoretical Theatre Research Or Theory of Theatre can only be undertaken when the Fundamentals and the Theory of Theatre Re search are explicitly or implicitly formulated.
Within the subfield, theatre proper is studied in its two aspects: theatre as a product or as a sign; and theatre as a process of i n formation. Theatre as a product or sign will have to be studied on the five semiotic dimensions of the theory: hyletics: the study of theatre in its aspects of form; syntactics: the study of theatre in its aspects of s t r u c t u r e ; sigmatics the term is Klaus's, : the study of theatre in its aspects of representation or content; semantics; the study of theatre in its aspects of interpretation or meaning; and pragmatics: the study of theatre in its aspects of function for and effect upon its users.
This part of the subfield can be schematized as follows:. This part of the theory will have to be complemented with and com pleted by the dimensions of information, communication and interac t i o n : by theatre taken as a process, r e s p. Descriptive Theatre Research or Theatre Description is that part of the program in which concrete theatre phenomena are described or analyzed see the bibliographies by De Marinis e Magli ; Van Kes- teren b, and the provided for within the present reader.
De scription will have to be based upon the Theatre Theory. Part of it is a History, as well as a Methodology of Theatre Description by means of which problems regarding description operations and description methods, and application of these operations and methods can be tackled. Related to these problems is the use of auxiliary disciplines and their methods in order to enable the theatre researcher to ana lyze and describe the phenomenon at hand although problems re garding application of 'fremdkrperlichen' methods will have to be faced. Some auxiliary disciplines prove to be more f i t for application than others.
Besides the starting point for analysis plays an im portant part: will the phenomenon at issue be studies diachronically historically , comparatistically, synchronically typologically , or theoretically. Evidently, by describing aspects of theatre we start from the as sumption that theatre is a sign by means of which people inform one another, etc.
Interaction Research to the study of theatre, we follow a tendency within the field of Folklore Research and Linguistics. Richard Bau- man says :. In a recent collection of conceptual and theoretical essays in folklore, assembled to indicate a range of new perspectives in the f i e l d , it was emphasized in the Introduction that the contributions shared a common concern with performance as an organizing principle Bauman The term performance was employed there, as it was by several of the contributors to the collection, because it conveyed a dual sense of artistic action - the doing of folklore - and artistic event - the per formance situation, involving performer, art form, audience, and setting - both of which are central to the developing performance approach to folklore.
This usage accorded well with the conventional meaning of the term 'performance', and served to point up the funda mental reorientation from folklore as materials to folklore as com munication [ i. This tendency is certainly not new within our field. In Ivo Osolsob introduced the definition of dramatic art as 'communication through communication about communication' dramatick dflo jako komunikace komunikac o komunikac , but hardly no one tried to develop this proposition in a proper way and applied it seriously to theatre see Van Kesteren a; also , v o l.
Applied Theatre Research or Theatre Application is the last part of the program. It consists of a History, as well as a Methodology of Theatre Application. Research will have to be done about the way in which our field in its t u r n can be used as an auxiliary discipline to other fields, as well as to socio-cultural institutions, persons or groups, or phenomena which are non-scientific in nature. And if so, how it can be used as a tool for tackling problems that have didactic, critical pedagogical, sociological, psychological, theatrical, etc.
The steps mentioned are to be considered necessary steps in order to construct a kind of Theatre Research that can be called 'Wissen schaft'; necessary steps, not sufficient steps. A lot needs to be done yet. However, it is quite evident that our field needs reorientation re garding aims and scope, the more if we take into account the history of the field up till now and the results of the research done as it is reflected in its literature.
As far as I can see, we cannot continue the way we have been going. We cannot simply pick out a r b i t r a r i l y phenomena to analyse, and describe it the way we have done before: intuitively, however brilliant. We need Fundamentals, we need Methodology desperately in order to make our field a dignified, worthwhile and valuable member of the family of Empirical sciences in general and Text sciences in particular. I plea for cooperation, for gathering of forces, for composing to gether a program in which every theatre scholar has a place in which he or she functions optimally, and who is capable of testing intersub- jectively any method used, any analysis performed, any theory con structed by rejection or by confirmation.
Allwood, Jens et a l. Ayer, A. Ayer e d. Bauman, Richard 'Introduction', i n A. Paredes and R. Bauman e d s. Beerling, R. Bochehski, I. Crombie, A. De Groot, A. Ekman, Paul and Klaus Scherer eds. Goodman, Nelson b Safety, s t r e n g t h , simplicity', in P. Nidditch e d. Hauff, Jrgen et al.
Helbo, Andr e d. Helbo, Andr et al. Heimer, O. Rescher 'Exact versus inexact sciences', i n L. Krimerman e d. Hess-Lttich, Ernest e d. Hobbes, Thomas 'Leviathan', i n Sir W. Molesworth e d. Holmes, James S. ALW Jansen, Steen 'Esquisse d'une theorie de la forme dramatique', Langages 12, pp.
Jones, W. Knudsen, Hans Theaterwissenschaft. Werden und Wertung einer Universitatsdis- ziplin. Koch, Walter A. Kuhn, Thomas S. Lakatos and A. Musgrave e d s. Kummer, Werner Grundlagen der Texttheorie Reinbek b.
Hamburg: Rowohlt. Holmes et a l. Lieb, H. Marcus, Solomon 'Editorial Note', i n S. Marcus e d. Barnes e d. Nidditch, P. Niessen, Carl Handbuch der Theaterwissenschaft. Hamburg: Ro- wohlt. Osolsob, Ivo 'Dramatick dlo jako komunikace komunikac o komunikaci', Otzky divadla a filmu 1 , pp. Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 23, 1 , pp. Popper, Karl R. Rudner, Richard S. Ruffini, Franco a 'Semiotica del teatro: ricognizione degli s t u d i ' , Biblioteca teatrale 9, pp. Ruffini, Franco b 'Semiotica del teatro: la stabilizzazione del senso. Serpieri, Alessandro et al. Schmid, Herta 'Entwicklungsschritte zu einer modernen Dramentheore im russi- schen Formalismus und um tschechischen Strukturalismus', i n A.
Van Kesteren und H. Schnelle, Helmut Sprachphilosophie und Linguistik Reinbek b. Todorov, Tzvetan Introduction a la littrature fantastique Paris: Seuil. Van der Kun, J. Van Dijk, Teun A. Antwerp Van Kesteren, Aloysius c 'Theorie van de theatergeschiedschrijvng; een aanzet', i n Handelingen van het VAL-congres, Naar een nieuwe literatuurge schiedschrijving: methoden en problemen mimeo , p p.
Vossler, Karl Die romanische Welt. Wunderlich, Dieter Grundlagen der Lihguistik Reinbek b. Our older belief that only by increasing the rigour of drama research one may cut a secured way through the shivering sands of this large t e r r i t o r y we are called to explore, gave us the courage to take the risk of signing the most arid chapter of this reader.
Being the results of a thorough reflection on the most elementary, but not the most non-relevant aspect of the dramatic strategy - the complete inventory of the character configurations occuring in a play - the undertaken analysis is different from our previous studies by the total ignorance of the syntactic implications. Reduced to its most simple imaginable expression, the problem may now look very commonplace.
What kind of information about the content of a dramatic work can we get from a simple collection of character sets if we do not even know the order in which those sets are succeeding one another? This notion emerges from considering the drama as a collection of confrontations of characters. It is well known that dramatists have always considered the set of characters to be found every moment on the stage an essential criterion for defining the frontier between the units that compose the dramatic t e x t. After ancient practice, the author, at the beginning of any new scene, enumerates the characters present and any change in the composition of that set of characters marks the start of another scene.
In this way one associates to the row of scenes a row of configurations of characters. A semi-marked configuration which is not marked is an ef fectively semi-marked configuration. Any non-at least semi-marked subset of P is called a parasite configuration. In the study of the strategy of characters, Barron Brainerd and Victoria Neufeldt defined a mapping f of the at least semi- marked configurations set into itself:. In other words, the mapping f is a Moore closure, but defined only on a subset of 2P i.
By definition, a set of characters M dominates the configuration C if it represents a subset of the maximal dominant of C. Let us note this relation by: M C. Given two distinct characters x and y , if l , we shall say, without risk of confusion, that the character x dominates the char acter y. However, we must not forget that the scenic domination represents a relation between the sets and , and by no means between the elements x and y. It is easy to show that the domination is a transitive relation. Theorem 2. Proof: The necessity of the above-stated condition results from the very d e f i n i t i o n of t h e c l o s u r e.
Let C1 and C 2 be two disjoint configurations. It remains to prove that our condition is sufficient as well. The comedy Le legs of Marivaux will help us to illustrate step by step each proposition or other kind of theoretical consideration. At the end of our article the reader will find a synopsis of the play, where the subject matter of each scene is preceded by the mention of the set configuration of participants. Table 1 points out for each configuration C the closure f C and the maximal dominant D C.
One can see that besides the fifteen marked configurations there are seven more effectively semi-marked con figurations that are closed:. No less then pairs of configurations are contracting mutual dom ination relations. According to the r i g h t or left position they are occupying towards the symbol , the 64 at least semi-marked con figurations are grouping together in four classes:.
Obviously, the configurations of the f i r s t class are the most important ones. They condition the occurrence of other configurations without being in their t u r n conditioned by the appearance of some steady set of characters. The number of configurations they are dominating becomes in this case a criterion for classifying the characters.
The resulting hierarchy is:. The countess 19 2. The marquis 18 3. Hortense 15 The knight Lisette 12 6. Lepine 0. Four configurations containing each two characters belong also to the f i r s t class. Arranged according to the number of the configurations they are dominating, these are:. Six more pairs of characters belong to the second above defined class.
Simultaneously dominating and dominated, they are occupying a weaker position in the dramatic plot than the f i r s t four couples. The difference between the number of configurations they are dominating and the ones which are dominating them allows ordering this subclass too:. As for the pairs of characters belonging to the t h i r d class neither dominating nor dominated , there are for the moment no criteria to order them. Therefore we shall consider the places of the couples classification as non-discernable: Finally, the dramatic importance of the configurations of the fourth kind is inversely proportional to the number of configurations that are dominating them.
We have, thus obtained an almost complete ordering of the pairs of characters with the exception of the configurations of the third class. In a similar way the analysis of the status of richer configura tions may be carried out. Among the sets containing three elements there is only one that belongs to the f i r s t class. The presence of three women in this crucial configuration points clearly to the circle the strings of the plot are pulled i n.
An uncommon situation appears when one excludes the five initial scenes of the above analized comedy. In that case the network of scenic dominations takes the form pointed out by table 2. The most striking feature revealed by table 2 is that all the effective ly semi-marked configurations are dominated we will come to this later.
On the other hand it must be noted that the subfamily of marked configurations belonging to this fragment of the play has an unusual property: each product intersection of marked configura tions is a marked configuration as well. We call this property stability with regard to the intersection. The following theorems offer a mathematical justification to that empirical remark. With sensibly different formulations and proofs they are repeating two theorems of Solomon Marcus which generalized some of our former results Dinu Theorem 3. If t h e c a r d i n a l n u m b e r of a n y m a r k e d configuration is g r e a t e r than n, then at least t w o effectively semi- marked configurations composed of at t h e most n elements are scenic equivalent.
Finally, we o b t a i n a c h a i n of effectively semi-marked configurations. C1 C2 C3. This assertion runs counter to the initial assumption of the theorem. The filters in the sense of general topology are mathematical struc tures that also own the property of stability with regard to inter section. Besides the general features pointed out by the theorems 3. Komaanteekeningen over St-Andries.
Napoleon van uit Brugge bekeken. Al- lossery. Volkszeg over dorp en stee. De Langh. Plaatsnamen te Knokke. Bijdragen tot de Geschiedenis. Hes oudste zegel en de vroegste geschiedenis der begijnen van Antwerpen. Overeenkomst tusschen Arensberg en Leeuwarden De Riddere. Documenten tot de geschiedenis der kempische heide. Brief van J. Werbrouck aan de Frankenberg. Van Goys. Riviernamen in de Kempen. Het leenboek van Ranst van Willem van Liere. Antwerpsche schoutetrekeningen uit de jaren van hertog Antoon.
Mechelsche Bijdragen. II, 2. Mechelen in den Frankentijd vervolg. Van den Wyn- gaert. Van den Wijngaert. XI, 2. Jean-Baptiste Sibenaler.
Bulletin de l'Institut historique belge de Rome. Fran so let. Notes sur l'humaniste italien Cor- nelio Vitelli. De Clercq. Cinq lettres de C. Eigenschoon en De Brabander. De tienden van de abdij Ninove te Melx. Jan van. Juffrouw 't Kint. Het hof te. De folklore van het rundvee. Logement van troepen te St-Amands-aan-de-Schelde in De Ridder.
Historiek der straten en openbare plaatsen van Tienen. De topographische ontledingen van G. Des Marez in zijn werk over de Frankische kolonisatie. Van der Linden. Bijdrage tot de geschiedenis der schepen- of hoofdbank van Ukkel. Van den Weghe. Het oudste domaniaal rentenboek van Halle.
Historiek vervolg. De Weerdt. Payottenlandsche jongens onder Napoleon. De poorthoeven der abdij van Vorst. Grimbergen en Opdorp. Uit oude papieren. Nog over den oorsprong van den plaatsnaam Leuven. Brabant- sche woorden. Van der Hameyde. Spreekwoorden van Daniel van Oesbroeck. Del vaux. Les enseignes de la Bonne Femme. Les frises de brique. Les lieux d'aisance. Les pwarteus au satch.
Les enseignes de cabaret. De Brabantsche Folklore. Le comte Mercure van Helmont. Croyances et superstitions dans le monde du cirque. Van Boxmeer. Au Blanc Tchfau. Onomastique : Baudelaire. Les arts populaires et les loisirs des travailleurs. Le mouvement folklorique. Bij 't eeuwfeest van 't klein Seminarie van Hoogstraeten La fin d'Antoine de Mean.
La famille Rassenfosse. La maison d'Humbercourt. Fali se. Les voyages judicial res au temps jadis. Sur une ba-.
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La paroisse de Hermalle sous Argen- teau. Hoe ver staan we met onze kennis over de wording en ontwikkeling van het graafschap Loon slot 1. De Heksenvervolging in Alken. De heerlijkheid Printhagen. Lim- burgsche oorkonden.
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De heerlijkheid Werm. Van Duck. Lommelsche plaatsnamen. Limburgsche oorkonden. Lommelsche plaatsnamen vervolg. Mededeelingen van den Kunst- en oudheidkundigen kring van Herentals en omstreken. Servaas Daams. De Puydt. Over Daamske. Over ontginningen in de Kempen. De Keuren van Herentals. Oudheid en Kunst. Het kasteel van Turnhout onder het keizerrijk. De Brandgravenvelden in de Kempen. Documenta Campiniae historica. Oostvlaamsche Zanten. De Tinnenpotgiete- rij te Gent. Bijgeloof in Zeeuws- Vlaanderen. Oost-Vlaamsche bcdevaartvaantjes.
Heilige Margaretha. Neigem bij Ninove. Folklore uit het Audenaard- sche. Een onbekende Keizer Karel-legende Het brughuizeken te Drongen. Nota bij de Keizer-Karel legende. De Zuiderkempen. Het aloude St-Se- bastiaansgild te Retic. Een frankische put te Neer- hout. De St-Niklaasparochie onder Vorst-Kempen. Een nieuw orgel te Westerloo. De St- Niklaas parochie vervolg. Een heksenproces te Oostham. Werken en bronnen voor de geschiedenis der Zuiderkempen. Ut supra fin. Acta Archaeologica. Archaeological dating in the history of North Jutland's vegetation.
Stylistic features of Coptic figure sculpture. A new Scandinavian form of helmet of the Vendel- time. Bemerkungen zur Entstehung des Akan- thusornamentes. On the origin of the lapp ribbon ornament. The twelfth century bronzes. A Persian splint armour. Charakter und Einteilung der Sudansprachen. Some aspects of the Otu system of the Isa subtribes of the Edo people of southern Nigeria.
Nupe state and community. The divine Umundri King. Von der Gottesvorstellung der Bawkiri. Witchcraft and anti- witchcraft in Nupe society. A modern movement of witch-finders. La sorcellerie au Soudan occidental. Witchcraft and British colonial law. Witchcraft and colonial legislation. Ethical and political aspects of African Witchcraft. Les Alpes. Notre-Dame de la Gorge. Les romans de Stendhal. Ut supra. Ut supra suite. La mort de Bayard. Les dolmens de Savoie. Histoire du. La Savoie pays de Saints.
Explorateurs mauriennais. Niederrheinische Urkunden und Briefe des Annales de Bretagne. Annales du Midi. Les postes en Languedoc fin. La Commune Robespierriste. L'arrestation de Pache et la nomination de Payan. Sur la mort de Barnave. Le Directoire d'Albert Mathiez. Euloge Schneider en Alsace. Chabaud A. La contribution patriotique de Hue de Miromesnil. La crise actuelle de la civilisation au Japon. Die Antike. Heraklits Auffassung des Menschen. Die Athena Elgin. Das erste pythische Gedicht Pindars.
Zum Saturnglauben der Renaissance. Nietzsches Klage der Ariadne. Das Rom der Caesaren. Homerische Szenen. Hektor und Andromache. Die kretisch- mykenische Kunst. Form und Entwicklung. Hermann Usener-Ubrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorf. Ein Briefwechsel. Zur Baugeschichte der St. Justus- kirche in Flums suite. Das Zweifigurenschema des Konrad Witz. Die restaurierten Malereien in der reformierten Kirche zu Uanz. Schaff hauser Goldschmiede des Jahrhunderts II.
Grabungen der Gesellschaft Pro Vindonissa im Jahre Eine verzierte Schildbrickelplatte aus Vindonissa. Zur Goldschmiede-Merkzeichen-Forschung. Strigelfiguren in der Schweiz und in Schwaben. Nederlandsch Archief voor Kerkgeschiedenis. Een Geuzerie te Breedevoort in De instelling van een kerkeraad te Lunteren in De Poolsche gereformeerde kerk te Wilna. Tamling, predikant bij de Ned. Gemeente in St. Aanvullingen en verbeteringen op de naamlijst van predikanten in Zuid- Holland. Zum Avicenna- text des Cod. Vadianus Alexander von Roes und das deutsche Selbstbe- wusstsein des Die Wirtschaftsethik des Hugo von Trimberg.
Die grosse Ravensburger Handelsgesellschaft und die Pflege der kirchlichen Kunst. Deutsche Geschichte. Zwei unbekannte Eheentscheidungen Luthers. Die Mulden-Elegie des Caspar Brusch Zu Ferdinand von Funcks Erinnerungen. Archives Suisses des Traditions Populaires. La fabrication du pain en Anniviers. Archivio Storico Italiano. L'avo di Niccolo Machiavelli cronista fiorentino. Un prezioso consenso al programma antitedesco di G. L'Inqui- sizione, l'eresia e vigilanza in materia di stampa. Delia Casa contro l'eresia luterana. Le indagini congetturali sulla popolazione di Firenze fino al Trecento.
Il in Germania : idee e prob lemi. Arcnivum Franciscanum Historicum. La chapelle de la Passion des Cordeliers de Troyes. Clarae Benedictionis textus Neerlandici. De Provincia Bohe-. Francisco Licheto, Ministro generali, visitata atque de huius obitu. I codici autogra- fi di S. Archivum Romanicum. Schemi lirici nell'arte del Boccacio. Due rimatori faentini del secolo XIII. Etimologias Espanolas. Haggerty Krappe's spanischen Etymologien. La cattedrale di Modena e il suo rilievo arturiano. Giusto Paladino. Studies on the Seven Sages of Rome. The latest in Trobadour studies.
Darete e l'Istorietta trojana. Rio Lunato. Om Gislasaga Surssonar. Friesen O. Till Codex Wormia- nus av Snorre-Eddan. La formazione dell'etica epicurea attraverso la polemica con il primo Aristo- tele e la scuola platonico-aristotelica. Un poeta cretese del secolo XV : Stefano Sachlickis. Ad Iamblichi vitam Pythagorae. Die deutschen Worte der germanischen gesetze. Etymologische und wortgeschichtliche bemerkungen zu deutschen pflanzennamen.
Zur frage des heldenliedes bei. Frings T. Hoch-und tiefstufige doubletten in Zusammensetzungen. La Bibliofilia. Neapolitana II. Nuovi con- tributi alla storia della tipografia napoletana nel secolo XVI. Manoscritti arabi delle biblioteche governative di Firenze non ancora catalogati. Bijdragen voor Vaderlandsche Geschiedenis en Oudheidkunde.
Iets naders over de oudste graven van Wassenberg-Gelre. Holland en het conflikt tusschen Philips de Goede en zijn zoon van Voorboden van oproer in de Zuidelijke Nederlanden in de jaren vervolg. Nederlandsche historische literatuur. Bollettino della R. Societa Geografica Italiana.
INDEX OF REVIEWS AND BRIEFER NOTICES | Bulletin of Hispanic Studies
VI, XII, , Per la storia di un Ponte. Sul presunto ritrovamento della tomba del missionario Angelo Vinco. Un peu de nouveau sur Montaigne. Bibliographie de Gustave Flaubert. Les manuscrits des Alaximes de La Rochefoucauld. Les Manding et leur langue. Une note sur les Wolof, leur parler et les langages secrets. Note sur les parlers touaregs du Soudan. Calvin et l'Union des Eglises.
Le Calvinisme et les Pays-Bas. Le Calvinisme et l'art. Quelques stations de surface des environs de Mantes-Gassicourt Seine-et-Oise. Essai sur les Pierres-figures. Nouvelle contribution. Cachette de fondeur larnaudien de Blainville-sur-Orne Calvados. Tombelles et enceintes du Menez-Hom.
La grotte de Cabrespine. Le camp de Cornouin Vienne. The Nineteenth Century. The Dominions and the Privy Council 1.
Belgium in June. Italy and Africa. The German naval renaissance. The future of Palestine. England and Amerika. The distribution of English Genius Overseas. The working of the House of Commons. Some juridical aspects of Sovereignty. Our colonial complacency. Roosevelt challenges the constitution. The drama of Ethiopia. The British mind and war. The ethics of William Wollaston. The balance of parties. Japan moves forward. Kashmir : Past, present and future. The political outcome of English education in India. Rythmes quantitatifs dans le livre de la Sagesse. Notice sur la vie et les travaux de M.
Pierre de la Gorce La psychologie des peuples : La psychologie du peuple polonais. La psychologie des peuples : La psychologie du peuple suisse. Antonio Sa- landra La Critica. Voci varie in poesia. Luigi Gualdo. Roberto Sacchetti. Note critiche alla storia del Risorgimento contin.
Mazzini e Cavour. Aneddoti di storia civile e letteraria. Dal mio carteggio letterario. Lettere di Francesco Gaeta. Pie- tro P. Du droit de S. Joseph au culte de protodulie. Lucarelli de Pesaro, O. Pietro P. De la potence au palais de l'empereur : Marchand ambulant et missionnaire. In memoriam. Henri Hauvette. Carlo Gozzi spettatore. Nouveaux points de vue sur Ugo Foscolo.
Indogermanische Forschungen. Zur Vertretung der indog. Einige Beobachtungen an den indog. Noch einmal der Bereichsakkusativ. Studien zur voridg. Blumenthal A. Dialekte von Twerecz Tvere ius. Zur Vorgeschichte der slavischen Aspekte. Romanische Forschungen. Spanische Sprachbetrachtung und Geschichtsschreibung am Ende des The Fortnightly. South Africa's Silver Jubilee. The new American Demagogues. Reunion in Vienna. Branting, Father of Swedish Prosperity. Japan and Western Example. Ebb and Flow. A monthly commentary. A great American experiment. Interlude in Spain.
Memoirs of the Gamesters. Nazis without a policy. The League and Abyssinia. The innocents abroad. The history of Parliament. English literature. England and Italy. Chinese art. The price of peace.