Earle IN writing the life of an American alienist who began his observations on his insane countrymen nearly sixty-five years ago, and traversed Europe, inspecting asylums, in , one is reminded of the saying of that aged Roman who was brought to trial before the third generation of his countrymen, It is hard to plead my cause when all the witnesses of my life are dead.
That my friend Dr. Earle did so in a marked degree, and was at his death in in advance of his survivors in some points, as during his life he had been before his associates in nearly ail, is one of his chief daims to remembrance by those who knew not his firm, gentle, and beneficent personality. But, in order to understand how this was so, the reader needs to know something of the history of insanity and its treatment in America up to the present time. Sydney Smith used to speak of certain events as occurring "before the invention of common sense" and the traditional, often the scientific, treatment of madness and melancholy in centuries past fell within that absurd period.
There was a doctor of medicine living at Milan who undertook to cure the insane, if they were brought to him before a certain stage in their malady and his treatment was after this sort. He had a court-yard near his house, and in it a pool of filthy water, in which. Some of them were in up to their knees, some up to the middle, others deeper still, according to the degree of their madness and he gave them water treatment in this way until they appeared to be sane. Now one man was brought to him among others, whom he set in the water up to his thighs.
After a fortnight he began to grow sane, and begged the doctor to take him out of the puddJe. This he did, and so relieved him of the torment, but with the understanding that he should not go outside the court-yard. When this condition was complied with for a few days, he allowed the patient to go all about the house, only he must not go through the gate. His fellow-sufferers, not a few, remained in the water but he took pains to obey the doctor, and so recovered, remembering nothing of what he had seen before he was.
Stupid as this treatment was, it was reason itself when compared with the exorcism of demons long practised by the reverend clergy, and with the mystic curative quality of the relics of St. Dymphna at Gheel, in Belgium, first observed in the eighth century. The New England Puritans, in the days of Salem witchcraft, still believed in demoniac possession, and had few remedies but the "dark house" of Malvolio, and prayers by the parson, for the frequent insanity of ministers and their wives.
Rush's profuse bleeding, and the aid of cold water, chains, and the whip, all which seem to have been in use in the first American asylum for the insane, opened at Philadelphia, under Dr. Franklin's eye, in It was there that Dr. Benjamin Rush, an acute and observant physician, had his long experience with the insane, which bore fruit in his. Von Bodelachwingh, while admitting that medico-scientific psychiatry had done good service in the recognition, treatment, and cure of the insane, still censured it a: at bottom materialistic and temporal.
Such things, for the most part, only damage body and soul. Few have made more valuable observations in America on the manifestations of insanity, yet his notion of treatment was but little in advance of the Milanese doctor's. In mania Dr. Rush recommended the strait-waistcoat or the "tranquillizing chair," privation of food, pouring cold water into the coat-sleeves, and, lastly, the shower-bath for fifteen or twenty minutes.
This was moral treatment, supplemental to bleeding. He adds, If all these modes of punishment fail of their intended efPects, it will be proper to resort to the fear of death. By the proper application of these mild and terrifying modes of punishment, chains will seldom and the whip never be required to govern mad people. This was the height of the medical profession in , after the "humane revolution" of which Rush spoke had occurred under Pinel in France and the Quakers of York in England.
They now taste of the blessings of air and light and motion in pleasant and shaded walks in summer, and in spacious entries warmed by stoves in winter. But his great specific was blood-letting, which he carried to high figures of weight and frequency of withdrawing what he regarded as a noxious fluid. His example, and the virility and vivacity of his truly benevolent mind, made his doctrine pernicious for half a century. Tuke called him "the American Fothergill," resembling that English Quaker, he thought, in the independence of his practice, in acuteness of observation, in enthusiastic love of the art of healing, and in popularity as a physician in a great city.
To Dr. Rush, who died in , succeeded physicians of less mark, but who improved the treatment of insanity in some particulars,- Dr. Todd of the Hartford Retreat in , and Dr. Woodward, a trustee of the Hartford Retreat, but in superintendent of the State Hospital at Worcester, estab-. It was from Dr. Woodward that Dr.
Earle drew his first inspiration as professional alienist, and he continued to regard him as greatly instrumental in the instruction of physicians and the guidance of the public respecting insanity and its treatment. He retired before my time, and 1 had no opportunity to compare him with later alienists. The same is true of Dr. Brigham, who succeeded Dr. But 1 believe the superiority of both was less due to special attainments than to a native vigor of mind, a power of will, and an impressive personality. They looked forward, and not backward. They bettered the practices which they found in use, and they undertook popular instruction but they made few discoveries, and left little written evidence of their great usefulness.
Brigham, indeed, left more of that than Dr. The younger contemporaries and successors of these pioneers were mostly known to me personally, with the exception of Dr. Bell, whom 1 believe to have been gifted with the New Hampshire traits of courage, energy, and good will to mankind, along with a little more culture than often fell to his rural contemporaries. Rockwell, soon after visited Dr. Ray in Providence and Dr. Butler at Hartford, knew rather intimately Dr. Gray of Utica, often saw Dr. Kirkbride and Dr. Chapin, was intimate with Dr. Jarvis, Dr. Choate, Dr. Tyler, Dr. Clement Walker, Dr.
Chandler, and Dr. Bancroft, to mention no others. Few of these men had what would now be thought a sufficient medical and philosophical training for one of the most difficult and perplexing branches of the medical and psychological art. The German psychiatrists, as Dr. Earle discovered in But most of them were sensible, practical men, who had learned much as assistant physicians or superintendents of asylums and hospi-. A few were good organizers, and still fewer were good writers. Ray was exceptional in this last point. His mind was clear, and his style enviable.
None of these alienists, however, had comprehended the statistical, economic, or even the sanatory relations of the public care of the insane. It was still a new matter. Experience was wanting. Enumeration, even practical definition of the insane, was lacking; and, while their number was much underrated, the likelihood of their recovery was extremely overestimated. The asylums were few and small, received but a portion of the insane, and had no means of determining the exact physical condition of the patients they treated.
The microscope had hardly begun to do its work in revolutionizing medicine. The localization of function in the brain was in its rudiments, and was obscured by the charlatanry of phrenology. The classification of insanity by its external manifestations was very little advanced, and had'to be the study of each alienist in his own narrow field of observation. They experimented with medical and moral treatment and, like Dr. Rush, they formed singular notions of what treatment was applicable to the mass of the insane.
Still, knowledge advanced under their isolated experiences. They communicated facts to each other and to the public. Naturally desirous of commending their beneficent mission to the great public, they propagated the hypothesis that all the insane were easily curable, if only intrusted early to their care. This was a pardonable illusion at first. It passed with time into a delusion which they wished the community to share with experts who began to have their doubts and to color their facts.
How long it continued to be honestly held by superintendents who made careful observations would be hard to say; but such men should have the benefit of every doubt, since their purpose was good. Meantime visible insanity increased amazingly; and the impulse given to the public for its better treatment, by the mis-. Woodward, Miss Dix, and others, led to the building of many new asylums, which must be medically officered. By this time, though the real nature of insanity had been but little studied, young physicians perceived that the specialty gave an opening for them in a profession where it was not easy to get a bread-winning position for general practice at the outset of their career.
This led to ambition and intrigue for places in the new hospitals and asylums. Personal favor and political interest. The pressure for admission to asylums increased with the growth of population and wealth, and the manifest increase of insanity and the sound principles of the elder alienists, favoring small asylums and greater personal care, were soon set aside, at first on the ground of economy or expediency, and then because great asylums involved larger powers and wider patronage in the hands of politicians, medical or administrative.
Still, the fiction of easy curability was kept up, and used as an argument for extracting appropriations from legislative bodies, which were then expended in costly structures, from which the insane derived less advantage than did the officials who inhabited such palace-hospitals. Such was the state of things, concisely interpreted, when the first Boards of State Charities were created, with a general power of inspecting hospitals and asylums, from to In every instance, probably, the heads of those establishments opposed the visitation and resented the criticism of the earlier Boards of this class.
Instead of welcoming a new ally which these boards soon became, in the advancement of the true knowledge of insanity and an im-. But from that day to this the question of insanity bas gradually acquired a fuller and wiser discussion in America,. A superficial and often pompous display of knowledge bas given way to an earnest search for truth and the difficulties of the situation greatly increased as they are by the trebling of our population, the muddy tides of immigration, and a fuller discovery of the statistical facts are now faced with a better scientific and practical preparation than was possible a generation ago.
It was the peculiar merit of Dr. Earle-in some respects a good fortune rather than a merit-that he began his special career with a far more thorough outfit of experience than most of his contemporaries, and never neglected the means of keeping himself in line with the thought and experience of countries that preceded ours in the improved care of their insane. He was what Lloyd called Sir Anthony Brown, "the best compound in the world,- a learned, an honest, and a travelled man a good nature, a large soul, and a settled mind. This placed him above our American weakness of boasting ourselves the foremost in all things, as we are, no doubt, in some things.
It broadened his knowledge, and still more his receptivity, so that he no longer took for granted the confident statements of the narrow-minded, while he left a margin for facts and theories that were new to him. His honesty of mind and the habit of his religious sect, long accustomed to look on the fashion of this world not only as transient, but as wrong, kept him from swimming smoothly with the current, as so many of his professional brethren did.
His arithmetical turn made him distrust statistics which would not prove the result they were added up to show; and his innate frugality caused him to look at the wasting of public money on palatial poor-. Ail this, which kept him back from advancement in the art he so well understood, was his best equipment for the final success that he achieved. His name vill stand bigher as time passes, because his work was done, not for present fame and emolument, but for the future good of a large and unhappily increasing class of mankind.
A part of it also, his refutation of the fallacy of easy curability, will be remembered as one of the best contributions thus far made to the science of insanity by the hundreds of American alienists who have dealt with the subject. To the new physiological investigation of insanity as a corporeal disease, which promises better results than it bas yet furnished, Dr. Earle was perhaps a little unjust. He had seen so many loud proclamations on this subject with so little real accomplishment, that his practical good sense, joining with the conservatism of added years, made him less hopeful than he would have been before But it will probably always remain true that his moral methods in dealing with insanity are for the greatest good of all.
The accumulation of thousands of the chronic insane in huge asylums so foreign to all the principles of Dr. Earle and his colleagues of thirty years ago led him to modify his opinions in some respects. In his address at the Chicago Conference of Charities in , he admitted that chronic asylums are a necessity, but pleaded for their better organization so as "to preserve the advantages of the small institution with the alleged economy of support in the large one. Howe for placing the insane in family homes, as was then done in Belgium and Scotland only. While anticipating little reduction in the over-population of asylums from this movement, Dr.
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Earle with his native candor said We per-. Success sometimes awaits the efforts of that enthusiasm which is inspired by faith, even when the doubters least expect it. Earle's doubts gave way and he joined in recommending that the hospitals, as well as the central State authority, should place the insane in Massachusetts families.
He went beyond existing opinion in see page in suggesting this family care for convalescing patients,-a measure he had found working well on a small scale in the Duchy of Nassau in Thus from , when he may be said to have first seriously considered the American problems of insanity, until ,—more than half a century-Dr. Earle was foremost in favoring improvements in its treatment; and, where he doubted, he gave the future the benefit of the doubt.
Earle earliest and latest, Dr. Howe with the quickest insight, and Miss Dix with the most rapid success, appear to me to have done most to advance the cause in America. As Dr. Earle's monumental work on The Curability of Insanity is still in print, and may be had of the publishers of this Memoir, there seemed to be no occasion to quote largely from it. For a similar reason the Earle Genealogy," being readily accessible, little has been said of the members of Dr. Earle's family, except incidentally, in connection with his letters and the events of his long life.
From the interesting communication of the Rev. Holmes, and for many years a townsman of the Leicester Earles, some additional information can be had in the Appendix. It has been thought best to reprint there some of Dr. Earle's publications of a time long past, and a few of his later papers. So copious was the correspondence left by him in the hands of his executors that only a small part of it could be used in this volume. Our effort has Samuel Gr! It may be said, however, that his relations with his family, and the mutual interchange of good offices between its members, were such as might be expected from the cordial and practical character of the Earles of Leicester, the Chases of Worcester, and the Buffums of Rhode Island.
The pecuniary independence which the elder Pliny Earle secured, until reverses overtook him, was achieved by the diligence and good sense of his son and namesake and his possessions were used by Dr. Earle to encourage excellence in others, and to promote public interests. Portions of his last Will, at the end of the Appendix, will prove his liberality to the public his care for those who needed aid was no less liberal. The portraits in this volume are from a daguerreotype taken about The steel ehgraving prepared for the "Earle Genealogy and used in a portion of this edition is perhaps of or thereabout.
Without being so speaking a likeness as the later photograph, it bas some merits not seen in the other two. The early daguerreotype bas suffered in expression from fading. It may be added that an error of one month crept into the pages that mention Dr. Earle's first voyage to Europe, which began April 25, , and not Marclt 25, as printed. In Dr. His mother was Patience Buffum, of Smithfield, R. The first of Dr. Earle's paternal ancestors in America was Ralph Earle, who came from near Exeter, in England, and may have been in Rhode Island as early as His name appears among the signers of a political compact made at Portsmouth, R.
No successful effort has yet been made to connect this Ralph Earle Erle with the distinguished English family of Erles in Somerset and Devon, to which belonged Sir Walter Erle of Charborough, of the generation immediately preceding Ralph Earle. He was a member of Parliament in the first years of Charles I. A dozen knights, of whom Sir Walter was one, and seventy-eight other Englishmen of all ranks, were thus imprisoned. They were all released in February, and in the next March twenty-seven Her name was perhaps Savage.
It is every way probable that the Earles of Rhode Island were distant cousins of these English Erles,-not only for the reasons given by Dr. Earle in his genealogical volume, Ralph Earle and his Descendants" Worcester, , but also because these New England Earles, like the English knight, were stanch defenders of liberty and free speech, which Rhode Island was colonized to maintain. Ten years later , and about the time Ralph's name appears in Rhode Island, Hampden, Cromwell, and other Puritan leaders, were entertaining a purpose of emigrating to New England and Ralph Earle and his wife, like some of the Massachusetts and Connecticut colonists, may have been sent out in advance.
Be this as it may, their son Ralph, about , removed to Dartmouth; in the Plymouth Colony, but near Rhode Island, and acquired a large estate in what is now New Bedford and the Elizabeth Islands. William, another son, also lived in Dartmouth, where his son Ralph was born; but about this third Ralph removed to Leicester, where he also acquired much land, and where he declared himself a Quaker.
The first Pliny Earle was his greatgrandson. From farming Pliny turned to trade and manufactures, and established a mill in Leicester, where he made cards for the early cotton-mills from a model of his own, for which he got a patent early in this century. This gave him a competence which enabled him to educate his nine children well. Our Pliny was the youngest but one of these, and was almost sixteen years younger than his eldest brother, John.
Leicester, when Ralph Earle followed his Indian guide, Moses, from Grafton to its breezy hill-tops, included the present towns of Leicester and Paxton, and adjoined Rutland. Within its limits was the Indian hill, Asnebumskit, fourteen hundred feet high and a portion of Ralph Earle's five hundred and fifty. His homestead and main farm lay on what is now called Earle Ridge, and on both sides of Mulberry Street, extending towards Strawberry Hill, where the churches and academy are, far enough to include the quiet, wooded slope where the Quaker meeting-house stood for more than one hundred years, and where the Friends' buryingground is the meeting-place of the society having been transferred to Worcester about the middle of the nineteenth century.
The immediate occasion of professing himself a Quaker in Leicester was to avoid the parish tax, then levied on all who were not obviously exempt. Quakers had become practically exempt by the decision of the English Privy Council in , upon the petition of Joseph Anthony, John Sisson of Tiverton , and John Akin and Philip Tabor of Dartmouth , who were Quakers, and had been imprisoned a year for failing to lay and collect the ministerial tax in their two townships.
This decision set them free, and in substance said that Quakers need not pay such taxes. Ralph Earle, formerly of Dartmouth, his sons Robert and William, and four other men,- among them Nathaniel Potter,-eight years after asked by petition to be released from paying any part of the tax for the seport of the minister or ministers established by the laws of this province of Massachusetts Bay," alleging that they were Quakers, conscientiously scrupulous about such payment, and claiming "the Privileges granted to the people of that name.
Seven years later Benjamin Earle, the youngest of Ralph's eleven children, and to whom he had given that part of the farm where the graves now are, joined with Nathaniel Potter in conveying a lot for the Quaker meeting-house in trust to Samuel Thayer, of Mendon, who before the year ended reconveyed it to Earle, Potter, Thomas Smith, and John Wells, on condition that it should be held in common, and should go by shares to their heirs and assigns forever.
A small meeting-. Earle bad his house. A few rods further south, on Mulberry Street, Robert, Jr. Earle's grandfather , built a small house in , afterwards owned by Dr. Earle himself, and now called Earle Ridge. The Quaker Meeting between there and the village, which had counted but eight male members in , grew to have more than one hundred, male and female; and in the school district, including the Earle, Potter, and Southwick Quaker farms, there were in z twenty-one grandchildren of Robert Earle, Jr. At present no child named Earle is a pupil there, and the broad acres of the Earles mostly pass under other names.
The country itself retains its picturesque features, except that the forests are gone, and are replaced by fruit-trees and well-tilled fields. Noble views are seen from the high hills, and both Earle Ridge and the village hill are nearly twelve hundred feet above the sea. The roads are steep or winding,sometimes both,-and in summer pleasant. Of his father Dr. Earle thus wrote in his later years. My ancestors were mostly either yeomen or artisans, and, with the exception of one or two, took no part that was prominent in public affairs. My father, from whom I took my Christian name, was a man of good intellectual powers, with a love for the science of mechanics, and much inventive faculty.
He received little literary education but his ciphering-book that once fashionable record of mathematical work , still in existence, is written in a fair, distinct hand, and would not be discreditable to a good pupil in a country school at the present day.
He had a special turn for mathematics, without the. With his habitua! Earle hardly rendered justice to the prominence of his father and uncles in the early period of cotton and woollen manufacture by machinery in New England, at the close of the last century. Judge Emory Washburn, the historian of Leicester, his native town, gives this account of the small beginnings of what became a large industry, in the hands of Pliny Earle, his brothers, children, and successors:.
Edmund Snow; and among those most early engaged was Mr. Pliny Earle, who possessed much of the mechanical ingenuity in addition to a great fund of general knowledge which bas characterized those of that name in the town. About the year Mr. Samuel Slater, the venerable originator of cottonfactories in the United States, having in vain endeavored to procure suitable cards for his machinery in the principal cities of the Union, applied to Mr.
Machine-cards had till then been made in the manner called plain. A part of the cards used on a machine is called filleting," and this part it was desirable to have what is termed "twiHed. Earle was obliged to prick the whole filleting with two needles inserted in a handle, in the manner of an awl. This process was extremely tedious but Mr. Earle at length completed it, and furnished to Mr. Slater the cards on which the first cotton was wrought that was spun by machinery in America. The difficulty with which he accomplished this engagement led to his invention of a machine with which to prick the leather for cards and about he accomplished the desired object.
Pliny Earle had engaged in this card-making before! By he had become so well known that the firm of Almy and Brown of Providence kinsmen and successors of Moses Brown, a founder of Brown University engaged him to cover the cylinders in their mill with card-teeth such as he had made for a mill in Worcester, before Mr.
Slater had applied to him for a similar. The mother, Patience Earle, was no less gifted and energetic than her spouse. Of her and the events of his childhood, Dr. Earle wrote in an unfinished autobiography. My mother, who was but five years old at the opening of the Revolution had even fewer facilities for education than my father; but, having a strong literary taste, she became very much of a reader, and carried the habit to the close of her life.
She did the same on retiring at night. When in bed, she always lay on her left side, and held the book or newspaper in her extended right hand. At the time of her decease the shoulder-blade of that side was not more than half as large as that of the right side, which had been free from pressure. My parents had nine children, and the first death in the family was that of my father, who died when his youngest child was nineteen years of age.
Of the nine, seven had learned the letters of the English alphabet before they were respectively twenty months old. This release of the school-teachers from the drudgery of teaching the alphabet was the work of the mother, to whom the children were indebted for that instruction. It has been said that no person can do three things at one and the same time but, if my mother did not accomplish that feat, it must be acknowledged that she came very near it.
My father was a subscriber to the old New York Herald, the leading newspaper of the metropolis at that time. Its heading was in plain Roman capitals, an inch or more in height. These letters were used for the instruction of her babies, in so much of the alphabet as. The large letters of the title-page of the Bible and other books enabled her to complete the alphabet.
With the same arrangements of babies and knitting-work, and generally with most of the family present, she read aloud from the Holy Scripture, particularly in the long winter evenings. A neighbor, a prominent minister of the Society of Friends, said of her, She was the most capable woman, taking her in every respect, that 1 ever knew and 1 have known a great many.
The district school was but about forty rods from my father's homestead, and I began to attend it when very young. I learned easily, and at the age of five years was reading in the highest class, our text-book being Scott's Lessons," the English publication which to a greater extent than any other supplied the schools of New England prior to the publication of any American work of the kind. I was very young, and this is the earliest of my memories but the circumstances are still as vividly in my mind's eye as if they had occurred much later.
One morning, after breakfast, Daniel Jenkins, the man who then had charge of the farm, took me up, and held me with his arms around my legs and face to face with himself, our heads being at very nearly the same height. I pushed his head from me, making him lean backwards, then leaned backwards to some distance, and said to him, Y I remember that I was greatly pleased to find 1 had discovered, in the group formed by him and myself, a resemblance to that letter of the alphabet. The literary taste of my mother was inherited to a very considerable extent by her children and, considering the time at which they lived, they became great readers.
My grandmother Earle, one of our nearest neighbors, one day remarked to my mother that with her children she had made it a matter of principle not to call away one of them from reading to set them at work.
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My mother's reply was, If 1 should never call upon one of my children while reading to do work, 1 should never get any work done by them. My father was a farmer and a manufacturer of cotton cards, the latter being what he chiefly relied upon for the support of his family. He was lenient with his children, and did not require us to work regularly, even when we were not at school. He often. Either by requisition or for my own amusement, 1 often assisted the farmers at their work. Subsequently 1 made myself familiar with the use of every fann tool used at that time. The knowledge thus acquired bas been of no inconsiderable use to me in superintending the large farm at the Northampton Hospital.
My father had for those days a great variety of fruit-trees, in which he took a great interest and he had no little knowledge of horticulture and fruit-raising. One or two of his experiments were curious. Among his pear-trees was one whose trunk was some five inches through, which had begun to bear fruit. It then began to decay about five feet from the ground, and so continued till at one point it reached the heart of the tree. My father then sawed the trunk half off at two points, above and below the decayed portion, from twelve to fifteen inches apart.
From another tree he cut a branch about as large as the decaying trunk, and carefully fitted a piece of this branch into the space from which he took out the decay, taking pains to match the bark of the branch to the bark of the tree, so that the flowing sap would pass through the inserted half-cylinder. He wrapped it at the mended part; and this inserted piece grew, and formed one-half of the trunk of the pear-tree, which, however, continued to decay. In two or three years the decayed part extended nearly through the trunk, but the inserted piece had become so strong as to support the tree.
He then sawed out the remaining and decayed half of the original trunk for a space corresponding to a new piece which he inserted. Again he wrapped it, and again the inserted piece grew. The tree flourished for many years, with no part of its original trunk where the decay had been and many a good pear, both of the St. Michael's and. Again, one spring father received some young pear-trees from New York. They were all planted but one, which lay in the garden three or four weeks, not "heeled in," but exposed to all sorts of weather. He then planted it, and it grew with as much vigor as if its planting had not been thus delayed.
For the business of manufacturing cards and carding-machines, father had a carpenter's shop, a blacksmith's shop, and a foot-lathe. This last was to me of great interest and I learned upon it the use of the chisel and gouge, while turning tops and fancy articles. In the carpenter's shop I became familiar with all its tools, and practised with them to some extent of usefulness. In the card factory I worked also, in such departments as were within my ability.
In making hand-cards, 1 punched and nailed the handles to the boards, and nailed the cards upon the boards, thus getting the dexterous and facile use of a small hammer. In both hand and machine cards, the teeth were cut from wire by "cutting-machines," which were somewhat complicated. Even as early as my seventh year 1 was employed, more or less, in operating such a machine, and soon learned to understand its construction, and how to correct some of the simplest forms of its disordered working. Whatever mechanical faculty nature gave me was here called into activity, and so developed that, whenever since I have seen a new machine of any sort, my first impulse has been to investigate all its movements.
Thus, when in a small steam-engine was placed in the card factory, for running the cutting-machine, 1 learned its use; and, when fifteen years old, in the whole warm season of , 1 had charge of both the steam-engine and the machine, and practically learned the principles of steam as a motive power. This was my chief occupation until 1 entered the Friends' School at Providence in the early autumn of My school education had not been neglected meantime, for 1 had just passed my tenth year in when I entered the Leicester Academy.
My mother took me in the chaise then generally used,- a covered, one-horse carnage. The preceptor of the English Department, which I entered, was Thomas Fisk, a genial, good-natured man, without much natural taste for his employment, and not specially fond of severe work, but who still performed his prescribed duties without censure. But the preceptor of the Classical Department was an excellent scholar,-. John Richardson,- a somewhat severe disciplinarian, with a countenance really more stern than his character, and silver-bowed spectacles, which, being near-sighted, he constantly wore, and which had the magical power of making every pupil in the school-room believe the master was looking right at him.
In the following winter term 1 was at the town school, in my native district, and made some progress in mathematics. In both schools 1 learned easily, and my lessons were always thoroughly committed but the knowledge acquired was much less than it should have been, had the Academy been as thoroughly organized and efficiently managed as same others 1 have known. No doubt Dr. Earle was here thinking of that excellent institution, still existing, the New England "Yearly-meeting Boarding-school," at Providence, R.
He became an assistant teacher there in , was promoted in , and in , at the age of twenty-five, became the principal, for a short time, of this important seminary. Late in he resigned his place, and entered the University of Pennsylvania as a medical student, at Philadelphia, in October of that year. He had been studying medicine for some years with Dr. Usher Parsons of Providence brother-in-law of Dr. Holmes , a distinguished surgeon and author, at the same time teaching his classes in the Friends' School. He completed his medical course in , and soon after went abroad. But ail through his youth his education was more practical than academic, from the lessons learned in his father's shops and on the great Leicester farm.
We are delightfully quartered here, the men in Sibley tents, well floored; the officers in good houses, left vacant by the Rebels. The climate is delightful. The men bathe three times weekly; fresh fish are abundant for the whole command, and nothing is wanting to make us as comfortable as soldiers can expect to be. I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, M. This is one of the Regiments that faced and stormed Fort Hudson, and is commanded by Col.
A petition had been forwarded by the regiment to President Lincoln, who promises that their grievances shall be carefully looked into and the truth in the matter elicited. He further promises that they shall have a good position as infantry, or else be retained as a cavalry organization. The 75th are now stationed on Arlington Heights, in Gen. Casey's Division, and consequently were not in the movement on Richmond.
The 75th Regiment. We regret to find that there is still a strong feeling of dissatisfaction prevailing in the 75th Veteran Volunteers. It appears that the regiment re-enlisted under the promise, made by Gen. Banks, that it should serve in the future as Cavalry, and this promise the War Department has been unwilling or unable to perform. We were confident at the time of the outbreak at Auburn, that that discreditable affair was not merely the result of a drunken row, but originated in a deeper feeling.
We have received the following from one who professes to be a member of the regiment, but as he does not give his name, we should not know what credit to attach to it, were we not aware from other sources that there has been an unfortunate mistake with regard to this regiment. It has gained a very honorable reputation for its courage, and the fidelity with which it has performed its duties, a reputation which, we trust, it will maintain, even if the members feel that they have just cause for complaint.
EDITOR:—If there is any one who respects honor it is the soldier—he who has left his home and friends and all who are near and dear to him to fight for the glorious Union. And, Mr. Editor, in so doing that soldier expects the Government of the United States will see him justified in all his rights, and has he not a reason to expect this? I think so. But we, a regiment of men who have served the United States' Government honestly and faithfully for two years and a half, and have re-enlisted for three years more as Veterans, claim that we have not had these privileges shown us and feel it deeply.
We re-enlisted at New Orleans as Cavalry, went home on a furlough of thirty days, and, when that had expired, were ordered to report at these head quarters. Here the authorities at the War Department do not recognize [sic] us as Cavalry, inasmuch as we enlisted under a special order of Gen. The War Department has issued orders that no soldier shall be enlisted under false pretenses. I would like to know what they can make of this but false pretenses.
Had we known that we would have had to serve as infantry, there would not have been money enough in the State of New York to have persuaded us to re-enlist. Had they ordered us to New Orleans, we would have had that branch of the service for which we enlisted. I do not think that the Government of the United States can say but what we have always done our duty like men, when in the hour of danger, and will always continue to do so.
We were given the post of honor at the surrender of Port Hudson, by an order of Gen. Banks, for our services rendered there, and is this the way the government is going to reward us for our services? I hope not. There was a committee appointed to call upon Hon. William H. Seward, Secretary of State, inasmuch as the regiment was from his native State, and from his own city Auburn, thinking that perhaps he would use his influence in our behalf, but the reply was that he would do nothing for us, and, moreover, that the officers of the Regiment had said enough about the matter already to dismiss them from the service.
Now, Mr. Editor, I have no doubt, in my mind, that had we been a Regiment of the darker colored men, but he would have used his influence in our behalf. I honestly think he would. We, however, as soldiers from the county of Cayuga and city of Auburn, thank the Hon. Seward for what he has done for us. Will you be kind enough to publish this in your paper, and oblige an enlisted man of the 75th N.
Bibliography of the American Civil War
Wagner, of Jordan, a volunteer in the 75th N. Volunteers, was severely wounded in a charge on Port Hudson on the 14th of June, and in consequence his left leg was amputated just below the knee. He is to come home as soon as he can stand the journey. Arthur for Cairo, under orders to report at Washington, and as their nearest route to that city lies directly through Albany, you may expect to see them at home about the 8th of August—perhaps even before you receive this by the George Washington, which leaves here for New York to-morrow morning.
On the Arthur were also five Paymasters relieved from this district after terms of service varying from twelve to seventeen months. Four of them: Majors J. Three others leave here in the morning on the steamer for New York, to report at Washington, viz:—Majors H. These have all been relieved as their due after long and faithful service in the Department of the Gulf, their places, as far as necessary, having been supplied by officers who have not previously served here. I send you with this a list of all the officers and men belonging to New York regiments among the returned prisoners of war from Texas.
We have still some four to five thousand prisoners in the hands of the Texans and have a large number of theirs here, yet fears are expressed that we shall not be able to negotiate another exchange at present, because of complications caused by the persistent brutal course towards captured colored soldiers. All the Union elite of the city, both civil and military, were in a high state of excitement, caused by the marriage at Christ Church of Major H. After the marriage, Mrs. General BANKS gave a splendid reception to the bridal party and a large number of invited guests, whom she entertained with that ease and grace which so immediately make a stranger forget that he is one.
BANKS, of course, with accustomed urbanity, assisted in doing the honors of the house. Major Gen. He is now in his 84th year, and one of the wonders of New Orleans, where he has resided for nearly thirty years. Both are enjoying the best of health, while the Doctor is vigorously engaged in promoting the cause of the Union and the interests of the Methodist Church in an eminent degree.
Both are evidently very near his heart, and he labors for both assiduously. The health of the city is of the very best. The last weekly report to July 22 showing deaths, more than one-half of whom were children not over five years of age. Thanks to the blessing of God on quarantine and sanitary regulations vigorously enforced, there is not a healthier city in the Union than New Orleans, and there is not the least reason to apprehend a visit of the dreaded yellow fever this season. A list of the officers is given in the Tribune of last evening. Gray this morning telegraphed to New York to ascertain when the regiment may be expected to arrive in this city.
In cutting down a tree, it fell upon Private David Burns, of Capt. Hopping's Company, who was asleep in his tent at the time—breaking his thigh in two places, and otherwise injuring him. He is now at Brigade Hospital, receiving all the care and attention that can be bestowed upon him in the field, but will doubtless soon be removed to more comfortable quarters. His condition is looked upon by our Surgeons as very critical, but being young and vigorous, he may recover. Young Burns was a good soldier, and always did his duty well and faithfully. From the Gulf Department.
We publish an extract from a letter to his father by an old friend of ours, who is Lt. The 75th is a part of Gen. Weitzel's Division which also contains the th and th. This letter describes so admirably some scenes soldiers have to pass through, we copy from the Homer Republican. Describing his march from Opelousas to Alexandria, he says: I get so tired now-a-days, and find myself so busy, that I can hardly keep an account of my own wanderings. Two weeks ago today, we were lying at Opelousas, and Gen. Banks was just making up his mind to advance upon Alexandria. On monday the 3d, I ran down to Brashar and staid until Tuesday afternoon, when about four o'clock I got word that Weitzel had started for Alexandria on Monday noon.
Luckily a steamer would go up the Bayou in a few minutes, and I packed my saddle bags with half dried clothing, put away my store clothes, dressed in campaigning suit, and rushed on board. The next morning at daylight found me at Barry's Landing nine miles below Opelousas, to find the troops nearly all gone, and Dwight and Weitzel's Brigades supposed to be nearly up to Alexandria. As there was some hopes that the enemy would make a stand at Alexandria, or near there, I must needs hurry. I had left my horse, saddle and bridle and one for my servant at the Landing on my way down, and by good luck found the rig which Danie my faithful man , had ridden; my own having disappeared entirely, we however got two carts, a single cart with one mule into which got the Rev.
Bacon and a negro driver, and a three mule cart, rigged up with one mule in the shafts and one on each side of him, into which Dr. Benedict and Lieut. Wrotnowskie of Gen. Weitzel's staff and two Lieutenants of one of our batteries besides myself were all stowed. Benedict drove and Daniel rode behind on the old gray horse.
We got off about nine o'clock and passed through Washington, eleven miles a little before noon. It was very hot and dusty, and the cart a most uncomfortable affair to ride in, but our mules were good and we pushed ahead. Bacon is a clergyman of Alexandria who left his home, wife and friends under prssure [sic] of public opinion in June , and has only heard from his wife once in the year, and then by a note clandestinely delivered.
He was bound to visit her at the head of our victorious column. He cherishes very bitter feelings, and at every place when the master of the house appeared to be at home, he would tell a negro to "present Dr. Bacon's compliments to his master and say to him, Hurra for Lincoln! Grover's division, and stopped at Gen. Bank's headquarters, changed mules, got a fresh horse for Daniel, and a good supper. Here we left Dr. Bacon, and about eight o'clock pushed on again, Weitzel being supposed to be about 20 miles ahead.
Between nine and ten o'clock we passed Gen. Emory's division and learned that Weitzel was still 20 miles ahead, near a place called Cheneyville. The moon came up, and we saw some of the most magnficent [sic] corn and cane fields I ever saw or imagined. The ground was nearly all planted with corn, though the country from Opelousas to Alexandria is a cotton region, and the storehouses and sheds were mostly filled with cotton, two to three crops being on hand.
Now, all are growing food for the Southern Confederacy. Cheneyville is 32 miles from Alexandria, and we had but little idea of going through, but at noon we had made the distance to within 14 miles, and without much distress. Two hours for dinner and we set off again, Dwight about three miles ahead, About three o'clock we came up with his rear guard.
Our men held out admirably, the bands all playing every hour or so to enlieven [sic] the steps, and make them forget their blistered feet as far as possible [sic]. Before I knew it my regiment had closed up in mass filling up the whole width of the road, and were calling me to get a fresh horse. The regiments before and behind caught it up and pushed the horses into a slow trot, shouting, joking, laughing, singing and cheering, and men who a few minutes before had declared that they must fall out were quite up to the head forgetting alikes fatigues and sores.
In this way, with a perfect rush, we made the whole six miles, and hardly a man fell out. We reached Alexandria before gen. Dwight had got his camp fires lighted, and were glad enough to drop down anywhere to sleep. Few waited for supper. Troops do not often march as we have done this last month. We have not marched less that at a rate of eighteen miles a day, and have generally made 20, 22, 23 and 25 miles, while this last march was all 32 miles.
Of course men wear out under it. On this last march, we had several cases of disability caused by hernia and varicorse [sic] veins. There is a great difference between walking such distances and marching in ranks, carrying muskets and cartridges and a pair of blankets. Discipline tells, in these marches as much as in action. Old troops can march raw ones to death. We saw great quantities of cotton.
Few planters have burned any cotton here, but they are raising corn this year. They have one or two crops in bales, and one crop unginned, seed cotton, as it is called. If we continue to hold Red River, and finally open the Mississippi, we shall have most of this immense store. The sugar plantations below Alexandria are the most magnificent places I ever saw. The planters houses and ground are extensive and showy, neatly kept, surrounded by villages of negro huts which have an air of comfort and thrift, and by handsome fields streatching [sic] away almost as far as eye can reach.
The fences, barns, tools and everything connected with the farming of a plantation of a thousand acres of cultivated land will be found as neat, and in as perfect repair, as the model farm in N. Banks has gone to Semmesport, the head of the Atchafulaya on the Red, which is to be our base of future operations against Port Hudson. The weather is getting very hot. Corn is some of it is in tassle, and looks fine everywhere. Enough seems to have been out in here in Louisiana to feed the armies of C.
Since my arrival I have been so constantly engaged as not to have been able to take notice of it prior to this. I wish it distinctly understood that the statement I made to Hon. Morgan, was true. The remains were well cared for before received by me in New Orleans by officers of the 75th, "and all that could be done for poor Will was done. I fulfilled a solemn promise given his father on the 30th Nov.
I know not what occurred on the battle-field, as I never claimed the honor of being there. I only know it was two days before I received the remains. It was through no neglect or fault of any officer of the 75th that they did not reach the city sooner. I regret that any newspaper controversy has occurred, and hope in future A.
Corning will at least keep truth on his side when he wishes to injure any one. Auburn, September 22, Two Companies of the 75th Captured at Sabine Pass. Times of Monday last. The gunboats, three in number, attacked the rebel batteries in order to effect a landing for the troops of the expedition, and were doing most effective execution, when by reason of insufficient channel they grounded and were completely riddled by the fire of the enemy.
Crocker of the Clifton, turned one of his heavy guns upon his own vessel before surrendering and blew her machinery into ruins. The sharpshooters and crews were all captured. Our loss in killed and wounded is thought to be but small. The prisoners must be paroled and soon exchanged, as the rebels cannot keep them long in that country.
We have good reason for believing that a second expedition of 25, men was immediately started off by Gen. Banks via the Teche country to take the Texas road at New Iberia. Our next accounts from that quarter will be looked for with great interest. JOHN B. A finer looking and more gentlemanly set of soldiers we have never seen. Avery had prepared for them a splendid dinner, of which they all partook with a hearty zest, and expressed themselves so well satisfied with such rations that they proposed to select Mr.
Avery as their future Quartermaster. After the dinner the whole company in a body visited the grave of their former comrade—Lieut. When they had gathered around the grave, Rev. Smith, whom the regiment had honored by the proffer of the Chaplaincy once, and an election to it again, offered some appropriate remarks. He complimented the 75th Regiment on the honorable distinction which they had won for themselves, and commended them on having been true to each other and true to their country, and for the respect which they had cherished for the memory of those who were dear to our homes and hearts who had fallen in the service.
He referred to the tribute of respect which was paid to Lieut. Avery by the long concourse of people which came together to join in the sad funeral rites, and the long funeral train which followed him to his burial, and the memories which still gather about his tomb. He assured them that the honor which they bestowed on him was amply reciprocated in the high esteem in which they were held by him. He spoke of the greeting which we had been glad to extend to them, of the respect of which they had shown themselves worthy since they had been again among us, of what we knew we might expect of them, and assured them that many a prayer would ascend from many hearts for God to bless them, to shield them in the day of strife, and to return them to us and to their homes, with days of peace, union and liberty.
LEFLER, in some fitting remarks, expressed the thanks of the friends of Edwin Covert, for the distinguished marks of respect which they had shown to him in his sickness, and erecting the monument as they did at no small expense, to mark the place of his burial. Avery then expressed his interest in those with whom his son had been associated.
The company again returned to the house, and for a time were entertained by Miss Avery and her sister, Mrs. Morgan, of Aurora, who sang and played several fine pieces of music, among which was the old familiar one, entitled "Brave Boys are they," which they sung at the request of several of the soldiers, and which never seemed so appropriate, except as we heard it sung by the same ladies on the eve of the departure of their lamented brother from the endearing scenes of home for the last time, to become a sacrifice upon the altar of his country.
The afternoon being far spent, the young gentleman thought it time for then to depart, and as each took his leave, requested of Mr. Avery that he should give them before they left for the seat of war, a photograph of his noble son, and promising in return that he should have each of theirs. Seneca Co. Sentinel, March 10, It has borne the brunt of many a well fought field, and shed its blood like water for the good of the country. It is now worn down by battle and disease to a mere handful of war-worn veterans —but about men remaining of the number who marched forth from this city.
The battle-flag of this regiment is inscribed with a greater number of contests than that of any of the brave organizations sent from among us, and their glory will live in history when the opposers of their great work are forgotten in the oblivion that always buries cowards and traitors. In most of the emergencies where skill and bravery were required, the 75th has been called upon for men to act as sharpshooters or to take the advance of storming parties and scouting expeditions, and their record is clear and upon the right side in every instance.
With thinned ranks, yet brave and undaunted hearts, they are still in the advance, as ready and willing for the fray as when they first took up arms in the cause of the Union and the Right. They passed through here Tuesday evening in the cars, en route to Elmira, and on their return to Auburn are to have a grand reception. The ranks of the Regiment have been thinned to about men. They have done good service in Florida and Louisiana, and reserve all the honor that can be shown them.
Exhortations were made that day for the ladies, and pledges and promises returned in behalf of the 75th that have been nobly redeemed at the terrible cost of some of the best and purest blood of Cayuga county. To the truth of this assertion, let the sad hearts that dwell in almost every other home upon the hill tops and in the valleys around us bear witness; let the widow's tears, the orphan's cry and the vacant chair attest, for the feet are stiffened forever, whose coming heard at times, woke pulses of love in household hearts that shall be gladdened no more on earth, and the deep roar of the breakers of the Gulf, as they dash the shell strewn shore of Santa Rosa, mingled with winds that murmur upon the banks of the Mississippi, or go sadly sighing through the lowlands of Louisana [sic], are the only requiem of the dead brave: " Bring back to us the flags With honor—not disgrace.
They have been "'brought back" to you ladies of Auburn, shivered, torn, riddled, bleeding, and their wounds, " Poor, poor dumb mouths," they speak to you and say, we have returned with honor. These wrecked colors that once rippled so proudly in the breeze before our eyes, have never even fallen to the ground; never came near it save once when the Regiment were making a charge on the works before Port Hudson, their banners borne in front, a traitor bullet sped through the heart of the gallant and dashing color sergeant, the same who received them from the ladies hands; they tottered, but as he was falling to his last long sleep, a brave corporal snatched from his death grasp the silken stars and stripes, and shouting defiance waved them at the enemy.
We have written thus for the purpose of asking those who would do justice to brave men--who would do justice to our sons and brothers, noble men who voluntarily left us without one shilling bounty—what shall be done with these scarred flags, that tell so bloody but so honorable a tale? They are not in a fit condition to again be carried to the field. Do we intend to send these men, tried, brave men, back to battle against rebellious traitors, with no emblems from the home hearth to urge them on to high, bold deeds?
What say you gentle ladies? Who will now bear a hand? Shall not a day be appointed on which you can receive the "old flags," and present to the Regiment deservedly earned new ones? What are the hours of work? They can run wild here! Or simply make friends with the other kids. A company car nolvadex uk muscle "Through the compliance program and strict new policiesrelating to pricing activities, Diamond Electric is committed tocompeting aggressively in a free and open ignition coils marketaround the world," the company said. Could I order a new chequebook, please?
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