If, for example, you run a site like Bleacher Report and see a visitor browse your NFL page, you then can send the visitor ads related to your NFL page. You can even take it a step further and notice if the viewer visits a specific team page, and then retarget them with ads that contain stories about that team. Here are two bonus articles. Sacha Greif wrote an eBook on UI design. Greif did his due diligence on pricing and ultimately settled on:.
Greif submitted the book to Hacker News , and, at its peak, it achieved 2nd place and garnered 22, visits in one day. Why was this pricing such a success? One Hacker News commenter notes:. Suggesting only the car charger without any other purchase may decrease the chances of earning a sale.
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It comes with much more content. Should I keep the pricing close together or separate them? The issue was that people did not want to register. I just want to buy something. The form had good intentions, but it was blocking a lot of sales. Removing the Register button and replacing it with a Continue button. The Continue button had this accompanying message:. Simply click Continue to proceed to checkout. To make your future purchases even faster, you can create an account during checkout.
People are rightfully skeptical of registering or giving email addresses out to businesses. Many consumers resentfully sign up and hate receiving newsletters. Many companies now let users proceed with a purchase without having to register. This is a step in the right direction and one that more companies should adopt.
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The one thing all of these case studies did was either improve user experience or make a product a better deal for customers. The user is the ultimate decider. About the Author: Zach Bulygo Twitter likes marketing, finance, and learning about different businesses.
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Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. I agree to receive an email that'll allow me to claim my prize and a series of emails that will teach me how to get more traffic. There was an error trying to send your message. Please try again later. The bigger customers got bigger discounts: Notice the text: Awesome clients have awesome discounts This is a great way to send smaller customers away to competitors.
The Big Takeaway: When in doubt, simplify. Removing Drop-down Menu Increases Revenue This is the replacement: And a comparison: The product page beat the drop-down menu by At the time of this writing, Body Ecology has restored their drop-down menu but included a link to their product overview page: The Big Takeaway: Providing more succinct details in the form of pictures and text is a step forward for user interface. Optimizing Traffic Source Previously, the company was not bidding on the best keywords. The Big Takeaway: Periodically, give your site a thorough audit and patch any weaknesses.
Where do people drop off in their visits on my website? Do people know how to use my website? How do they feel about it? Do I need to get some insight? Or are they vague? Do visitors feel safe ordering from my business? How can I build trust? The Big Takeaway: Taking design advantage of users on mobile devices improves their experience, which can increase revenue.
Before blindly sending trigger emails, the team at JetBlue first considered a few things and answered some questions: 1. How will this impact the brand? What are the email goals? What drop-off areas will trigger the emails? The team identified four drop-off points that will trigger an email: Flight selection — If a customer leaves a page after seeing available flights for a specified departure and arrival city Seat selection — If a customer chooses a flight but leaves the seat selection area Ancillary — If a customer leaves a page after seeing additional services like car rental and hotels Payment page — If a customer closes a page when JetBlue asks for payment JetBlue sends these emails to visitors who are subscribers of their mailing list.
What will the email design look like? The Big Takeaway: Relevant, personalized emails perform better in all areas than generic emails. Here are a few more tips for personalizing emails and optimizing open rates, CTR, and ultimately conversion: -Use first name in subject line. Step 2: Map the buying cycle For each product you want to promote, answer these two questions: How long does it take the customer to sign up after their first visit or to make a purchase?
How many times does the customer visit your site before purchasing? Then figure out the steps the customer goes through before they make a purchase. For example: They visit your homepage without bouncing staying for 25 seconds They sign up for the trial They continue with the purchase Step 3: Segment your audience After getting the steps, then you can segment the audience. Water efficiency is being improved on a global scale by increased demand management , improved infrastructure, improved water productivity of agriculture, minimising the water intensity embodied water of goods and services, addressing shortages in the non-industrialized world, concentrating food production in areas of high productivity, and planning for climate change, such as through flexible system design.
A promising direction towards sustainable development is to design systems that are flexible and reversible. The American Public Health Association APHA defines a "sustainable food system"   as "one that provides healthy food to meet current food needs while maintaining healthy ecosystems that can also provide food for generations to come with minimal negative impact to the environment. A sustainable food system also encourages local production and distribution infrastructures and makes nutritious food available, accessible, and affordable to all.
Further, it is humane and just, protecting farmers and other workers, consumers, and communities. The industrial agriculture cause environmental impacts of agribusiness , health problem associated with obesity in the rich world and hunger in the poor world. This have generated a strong movement towards healthy, sustainable eating as a major component of overall ethical consumerism.
The environmental effects of different dietary patterns depend on many factors, including the proportion of animal and plant foods consumed and the method of food production. It recommends the Mediterranean diet which is associated with health and longevity and is low in meat , rich in fruits and vegetables , low in added sugar and limited salt, and low in saturated fatty acids; the traditional source of fat in the Mediterranean is olive oil , rich in monounsaturated fat. The healthy rice-based Japanese diet is also high in carbohydrates and low in fat.
Both diets are low in meat and saturated fats and high in legumes and other vegetables; they are associated with a low incidence of ailments and low environmental impact. At the global level the environmental impact of agribusiness is being addressed through sustainable agriculture and organic farming.
At the local level there are various movements working towards local food production, more productive use of urban wastelands and domestic gardens including permaculture , urban horticulture , local food , slow food , sustainable gardening , and organic gardening. Sustainable seafood is seafood from either fished or farmed sources that can maintain or increase production in the future without jeopardizing the ecosystems from which it was acquired.
The sustainable seafood movement has gained momentum as more people become aware about both overfishing and environmentally destructive fishing methods. As global population and affluence has increased, so has the use of various materials increased in volume, diversity and distance transported.
Included here are raw materials, minerals, synthetic chemicals including hazardous substances , manufactured products, food, living organisms and waste. Developed countries' citizens consume an average of 16 tons of those four key resources per capita, ranging up to 40 or more tons per person in some developed countries with resource consumption levels far beyond what is likely sustainable.
Sustainable use of materials has targeted the idea of dematerialization , converting the linear path of materials extraction, use, disposal in landfill to a circular material flow that reuses materials as much as possible, much like the cycling and reuse of waste in nature. Synthetic chemical production has escalated following the stimulus it received during the second World War.
Chemical production includes everything from herbicides, pesticides and fertilizers to domestic chemicals and hazardous substances. Although most synthetic chemicals are harmless there needs to be rigorous testing of new chemicals, in all countries, for adverse environmental and health effects. International legislation has been established to deal with the global distribution and management of dangerous goods.
The classification of the toxic carcinogenic agents is handle by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Every economic activity produces material that can be classified as waste. To reduce waste, industry, business and government are now mimicking nature by turning the waste produced by industrial metabolism into resource. Dematerialization is being encouraged through the ideas of industrial ecology , ecodesign  and ecolabelling. In addition to the well-established "reduce, reuse and recycle", shoppers are using their purchasing power for ethical consumerism.
The European Union is expected to table by the end of an ambitious Circular Economy package which is expected to include concrete legislative proposals on waste management, ecodesign and limits on land fills. In a new report "Plastic and Climate" was published. According to the report plastic will contribute greenhouse gases in the equivalent of million tons of carbon dioxide CO2 to the atmosphere in In current trend, annual emissions will grow to 1. On one account, sustainability "concerns the specification of a set of actions to be taken by present persons that will not diminish the prospects of future persons to enjoy levels of consumption, wealth, utility, or welfare comparable to those enjoyed by present persons".
The developed world population is only increasing slightly but consumption levels are unsustainable. The challenge for sustainability is to curb and manage Western consumption while raising the standard of living of the developing world without increasing its resource use and environmental impact. This must be done by using strategies and technology that break the link between, on the one hand, economic growth and on the other, environmental damage and resource depletion. A recent UNEP report proposes a green economy defined as one that "improves human well-being and social equity, while significantly reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities": it "does not favor one political perspective over another but works to minimize excessive depletion of natural capital ".
The report makes three key findings: "that greening not only generates increases in wealth, in particular a gain in ecological commons or natural capital, but also over a period of six years produces a higher rate of GDP growth"; that there is "an inextricable link between poverty eradication and better maintenance and conservation of the ecological commons, arising from the benefit flows from natural capital that are received directly by the poor"; "in the transition to a green economy, new jobs are created, which in time exceed the losses in "brown economy" jobs.
However, there is a period of job losses in transition, which requires investment in re-skilling and re-educating the workforce". Several key areas have been targeted for economic analysis and reform: the environmental effects of unconstrained economic growth; the consequences of nature being treated as an economic externality ; and the possibility of an economics that takes greater account of the social and environmental consequences of market behavior.
Historically there has been a close correlation between economic growth and environmental degradation : as communities grow, so the environment declines. This trend is clearly demonstrated on graphs of human population numbers, economic growth, and environmental indicators. There is concern that, unless resource use is checked, modern global civilization will follow the path of ancient civilizations that collapsed through overexploitation of their resource base. In economic and environmental fields, the term decoupling is becoming increasingly used in the context of economic production and environmental quality.
When used in this way, it refers to the ability of an economy to grow without incurring corresponding increases in environmental pressure. Ecological economics includes the study of societal metabolism, the throughput of resources that enter and exit the economic system in relation to environmental quality. Exactly how, if, or to what extent this can be achieved is a subject of much debate. In the International Resource Panel , hosted by the United Nations Environment Programme UNEP , warned that by the human race could be devouring billion tons of minerals, ores, fossil fuels and biomass per year—three times its current rate of consumption—unless nations can make serious attempts at decoupling.
By comparison, the average person in India today consumes four tons per year. Sustainability studies analyse ways to reduce resource intensity the amount of resource e. There are conflicting views whether improvements in technological efficiency and innovation will enable a complete decoupling of economic growth from environmental degradation.
On the one hand, it has been claimed repeatedly by efficiency experts that resource use intensity i. For example, there are certain minimum unavoidable material requirements for growing food, and there are limits to making automobiles, houses, furniture, and other products lighter and thinner without the risk of losing their necessary functions. Consequently, long-term sustainability requires the transition to a steady state economy in which total GDP remains more or less constant, as has been advocated for decades by Herman Daly and others in the ecological economics community.
A different proposed solution to partially decouple economic growth from environmental degradation is the restore approach. Participants in such efforts are encouraged to voluntarily donate towards nature conservation a small fraction of the financial savings they experience through a more frugal use of resources. These financial savings would normally lead to rebound effects, but a theoretical analysis suggests that donating even a small fraction of the experienced savings can potentially more than eliminate rebound effects.
The economic importance of nature is indicated by the use of the expression ecosystem services to highlight the market relevance of an increasingly scarce natural world that can no longer be regarded as both unlimited and free. However, this only applies when the product or service falls within the market system. One approach to this dilemma has been the attempt to "internalize" these "externalities" by using market strategies like ecotaxes and incentives, tradeable permits for carbon, and the encouragement of payment for ecosystem services.
Community currencies associated with Local Exchange Trading Systems LETS , a gift economy and Time Banking have also been promoted as a way of supporting local economies and the environment. Treating the environment as an externality may generate short-term profit at the expense of sustainability. For example, industrial waste can be treated as an "economic resource in the wrong place".
The benefits of waste reduction include savings from disposal costs, fewer environmental penalties, and reduced liability insurance. This may lead to increased market share due to an improved public image. The idea of sustainability as a business opportunity has led to the formation of organizations such as the Sustainability Consortium of the Society for Organizational Learning , the Sustainable Business Institute, and the World Council for Sustainable Development.
One school of thought, often labeled ecosocialism or ecological Marxism, asserts that the capitalist economic system is fundamentally incompatible with the ecological and social requirements of sustainability. By this logic, market-based solutions to ecological crises ecological economics , environmental economics , green economy are rejected as technical tweaks that do not confront capitalism's structural failures. Sustainability issues are generally expressed in scientific and environmental terms, as well as in ethical terms of stewardship , but implementing change is a social challenge that entails, among other things, international and national law , urban planning and transport, local and individual lifestyles and ethical consumerism.
Social disruptions like war , crime and corruption divert resources from areas of greatest human need, damage the capacity of societies to plan for the future, and generally threaten human well-being and the environment. For achieve sustainability, global peace will probably be needed, because economic growth is one of the main factors that determines the military capability.
Without peace and international cooperation country that will limit its economic growth achieve lower military capability, then a country that will not do it. The result may be a conquest of the first country by the second. Economic growth will continue what can pose problems to sustainability. A major hurdle to achieve sustainability is the alleviation of poverty. It has been widely acknowledged that poverty is one source of environmental degradation. It is therefore futile to attempt to deal with environmental problems without a broader perspective that encompasses the factors underlying world poverty and international inequality.
According to the UN Population Fund, high fertility and poverty have been strongly correlated, and the world's poorest countries also have the highest fertility and population growth rates. For example, teaching water treatment to the poor by boiling their water with charcoal , would not generally be considered a sustainable strategy, whereas using PET solar water disinfection would be. Also, sustainable best practices can involve the recycling of materials, such as the use of recycled plastics for lumber where deforestation has devastated a country's timber base.
Another example of sustainable practices in poverty alleviation is the use of exported recycled materials from developed to developing countries, such as Bridges to Prosperity 's use of wire rope from shipping container gantry cranes to act as the structural wire rope for footbridges that cross rivers in poor rural areas in Asia and Africa. According to Murray Bookchin , the idea that humans must dominate nature is common in hierarchical societies.
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Bookchin contends that capitalism and market relationships, if unchecked, have the capacity to reduce the planet to a mere resource to be exploited. Nature is thus treated as a commodity : "The plundering of the human spirit by the market place is paralleled by the plundering of the earth by capital. Whereas most authors proceed as if our ecological problems implementing recommendations which stem from physical, biological, economic etc.
A pure capitalist approach has also been criticized in Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change to mitigation the effects of global warming in this excerpt:. In regard to the United States of America, The Government and the Economy has had a long lasting impact on the environment, but in a problematic way. Policy issues regarding the environment has shown that the country regards the protection of the environment as a "second hand issue".
One causation from this is a certain dilemma called "collective action problem" or collective action dilemmas. For the government, one cost might be the loss of public confidence and trust, while a firm might lose market share and profitability . Deep ecology is a movement founded by Arne Naess that establishes principles for the well-being of all life on Earth and the richness and diversity of life forms. The movement advocates, among other things, a substantial decrease in human population and consumption along with the reduction of human interference with the nonhuman world.
To achieve this, deep ecologists advocate policies for basic economic, technological, and ideological structures that will improve the quality of life rather than the standard of living. Those who subscribe to these principles are obliged to make the necessary change happen. Reduce dependence upon fossil fuels, underground metals, and minerals 2. Reduce dependence upon synthetic chemicals and other unnatural substances 3. Reduce encroachment upon nature. One approach to sustainable living , exemplified by small-scale urban transition towns and rural ecovillages , seeks to create self-reliant communities based on principles of simple living , which maximize self-sufficiency particularly in food production.
These principles, on a broader scale, underpin the concept of a bioregional economy. Other approaches, loosely based around New Urbanism , are successfully reducing environmental impacts by altering the built environment to create and preserve sustainable cities which support sustainable transport and zero emission housing. Residents in compact urban neighborhoods drive fewer miles, and have significantly lower environmental impacts across a range of measures, compared with those living in sprawling suburbs.
With more diversification between people, this increases people's happiness and leads to a better standard of living. The concept of circular flow land use management has also been introduced in Europe to promote sustainable land use patterns that strive for compact cities and a reduction of greenfield land take by urban sprawl. Large scale social movements can influence both community choices and the built environment. Eco-municipalities may be one such movement.
The eco-municipality movement is participatory, involving community members in a bottom-up approach. In Sweden, more than 70 cities and towns—25 per cent of all municipalities in the country—have adopted a common set of "Sustainability Principles" and implemented these systematically throughout their municipal operations. There are now twelve eco-municipalities in the United States and the American Planning Association has adopted sustainability objectives based on the same principles.
There is a wealth of advice available to individuals wishing to reduce their personal and social impact on the environment through small, inexpensive and easily achievable steps. Application of social sustainability requires stakeholders to look at human and labor rights, prevention of human trafficking, and other human rights risks. The international community has identified many industries whose practices have been known to violate social sustainability, and many of these industries have organizations in place that aid in verifying the social sustainability of products and services.
Resources are also available for verifying the life-cycle of products and the producer or vendor level, such as Green Seal for cleaning products, NSF for carpet production, and even labeling of Organic food in the United States. The cultural dimension of sustainability is known as cultural sustainability.
Important in the advancement of this notion have been the United Nations , Unesco , and in particular their Agenda 21 and Agenda 21 for culture now also known as Culture 21 , a program for cultural governance developed in — and coordinated by United Cities and Local Governments UCLG , created in Sustainability is central to underpinning feelings of authenticity in tourism.
Feelings of authenticity at a tourist site are thus implicitly linked to sustainable tourism; as the maximisation of existential "felt" authenticity at sites of limited historical provenance increases the likelihood of return visits. Strategies for reaching sustainability can generally be divided into three categories. Most governments and international organizations that aim to achieve sustainability employ all three approaches, though they may disagree on which deserves priority. Many believe that the best path to sustainability is reducing consumption.
This theory is represented most clearly in the idea of a steady-state economy , meaning an economy without growth. Methods in this category include, among others, the phase-out of lightweight plastic bags , promoting biking , and increasing energy efficiency. For example, in a new report "Plastic and Climate" was published.
Others think that the most effective means of achieving sustainability is population control , for example by improving access to birth control and education. Still others hold that the most promising path to sustainability is new technology. This theory may be seen as a form of technological optimism. One popular tactic in this category is transitioning to renewable energy. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the journal, see Sustainability journal. See also: Sustainable development.
Main article: History of sustainability. Main article: Sustainability measurement. Main article: Human population planning. Further information: Carrying capacity. Further information: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. See also: Sustainable development goals. Main article: Sustainability and environmental management. See also: List of environmental issues.
Further information: Consumption economics. Main articles: Sustainable energy , Renewable energy , and Efficient energy use. Further information: Water resources. Further information: Food , Food security , and Category:Sustainable food system. Further information: Ecological economics , Environmental economics , and Green economy. Further information: Eco-economic decoupling. Further information: Ecosystem services. Further information: Eco-socialism and Marxism. Further information: Social sustainability. See also: Environmental policy.
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Further information: Peace , Social justice , Environmental justice , and Environmental ethics. Further information: Poverty. Sustainability principles 1. Reduce encroachment upon nature 4. Further information: Cultural sustainability. See also: Steady state economy , Population control , and Technological optimism. Sustainable development portal Environment portal Earth sciences portal Ecology portal Renewable energy portal Energy portal.
United Nations Agenda 21 Applied sustainability Appropriate technology Carfree city Circles of Sustainability Cradle-to-cradle design Ecopsychology Environmental issue Environmental racism Extinction Human overpopulation Introduced species Micro-sustainability Pledge two or fewer campaign for smaller families Resource efficiency Sociocultural evolution Sustainability and systemic change resistance Sustainable capitalism Sustainable city Sustainable design Sustainable development Sustainable Development Goals Sustainable forest management Sustainable living Sustainable sanitation Sustainability science Sustainability standards and certification Sustainability studies World Cities Summit.
Retrieved 2 May Urban Sustainability in Theory and Practice. London: Routledge. Environment, Development and Sustainability. Circular Ecology. Retrieved 17 July The Geographical Journal. Sustainable by Design. Retrieved 16 February World Ocean Review. Retrieved 20 June Environment and Society Portal. New York: Lexington Books. Resources, Conservation and Recycling. Building Research. Babovic Journal of Hydroinformatics. Journal of Consumer Behaviour. Applied Geography.
Online Etymology Dictionary. The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Retrieved on: United Nations General Assembly. Retrieved 1 March Green Economics. London: Earthscan , pp. Journal of Environmental Sustainability -Volume 1. Sustainable Agricultural Initiative. Sustainable Agriculture and Value networks. Lausanne, Switzerland: Latitude.
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Sustainable Development Submitted manuscript. Cobb Boston: Beacon Press. Capitalism as if the world mattered. London: Earthscan. Ecological Economics. Bibcode : ecec. Understanding Sustainable Development. All comments containing links will be moderated before publication. Anything that looks the least bit like spam will be removed.
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