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His research topics including array mutual coupling, array beam forming, antenna metrology, microstrip antennas, millimetrewave compact antenna test ranges, millimetrewave integrated antennas, metamaterials and on-body communications. D degree in electronic engineering from Tsinghua University, China. His research interests include antenna design, antenna array analysis and design, and microwave circuits design. He received B. Sc Hons. Learn about new offers and get more deals by joining our newsletter. Sign up now. Follow us.

Published online Nov Vittorio M. Passaro, Academic Editor. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Oct 11; Accepted Nov This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Although antenna array-based Global Navigation Satellite System GNSS receivers can be used to mitigate both narrowband and wideband electronic interference sources, measurement distortions induced by array processing methods are not suitable for high precision applications.

Keywords: GNSS, array processing, measurement distortions, carrier phase positioning. Introduction Applications of antenna arrays for mitigating different types of Global Navigation Satellite System GNSS interference have been widely studied [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 ]. Methodology This section describes GNSS and interference signal simulations, the multi-antenna signal processing method, and the methodology to characterize the code and carrier phase measurement distortions used in the sequel.

Signal and System Model A rectangular planar array planar is used herein. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Multi-Antenna Signal Simulations and Processing The multi-antenna GNSS signal simulator developed in [ 25 ] was used to generate multi-antenna signals with different types of interference.

Figure 2. Figure 3. Measurement Distortions Analysis After interference suppression, the main goal is to characterize distortions in terms of mean and standard deviations in the code and carrier phase measurements from the beamforming process in the presence of interference. Carrier Phase Measurements Analysis Similar to pseudorange measurement bias estimation, the carrier phase measurement bias can also be estimated by performing single differencing between the reference antenna and beamformed carrier phase measurements. Simulation Results and Discussion The effect of different types of interference sources and array processing approaches are now studied through simulations.

Figure 4. Table 1 Interference sources considered in the simulations and their characteristics. Jammer-to-signal power is assumed to be 30 dB.

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Scenario 2 Chirp interference Chirp signal bandwidth is These values are basically chosen from commercially available in-car jammers. Jammer-to-signal power is 30 dB. Figure 5. Figure 6. Carrier tracking performance of PRN 6 with chirp interference. Figure 7. Table 2 Tracking performance of different PRNs in the presence of chirp interference. Measurement Domain Analysis This section analyzes pseudorange and carrier phase measurement errors after beamforming.

Antennas for Global Navigation Satellite Systems | Wiley Online Books

Figure 8. Position Domain Analysis For the position domain analysis, the code and carrier phase measurements were processed using the RTKLib open source software [ 30 ]. Figure 9. Effect of Interference AOA on Measurements The relative direction between jammer and satellite signals plays a critical role in anti-jam applications using antenna array processing. Figure Field data collection setup and sky plot of visible GPS satellites. Measurement Domain Analysis The measurements generated by the interference free reference antenna data acts as reference measurements in this case.

Table 9 Carrier phase based position errors with actual data. Conclusions The performance of a multi-antenna GNSS receiver under narrowband and wideband jamming conditions was investigated for high precision applications. Author Contributions The major contribution of the paper was by Niranjana Vagle. Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest. References 1. Gupta I. Broumandan A. Cuntz M. Amin M. Daneshmand S.

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External link. Please review our privacy policy. Scenario 1. CW interference. Scenario 2.

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Chirp interference. Chirp signal bandwidth is Scenario 3. Band limited white Gaussian noise.

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Analysis of Multi-Antenna GNSS Receiver Performance under Jamming Attacks

Antennas for Global Navigation Satellite Systems. Key Features: Covers the fundamentals and practical implementations of antennas for Global Navigation Satellite Systems GNSS Describes technological advancements for GPS, Glonass, Galileo and Compass Aims to address future issues such as multipath interference, in building operation, RF interference in mobile Includes a number of real case studies to illustrate practical implementation of GNSS This book will be an invaluable guide for antenna designers, system engineers, researchers for GNSS systems and postgraduate students antennas, satellite communication technology.

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