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Staff notation is for these purposes often too specific. Notation, in face of this, has moved in two directions: toward adaptation of staff notation and toward the devising of new notational systems. Music using microtonal intervals less than a semitone has tended to adapt by modifying the standard accidental signs—meaning one-third sharp, two-thirds sharp, and so on e.

So-called space time notation is a further adaptation that reasserts the graphic nature of staff notation. Indeterminate music requires constant experimentation with notation.

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A composer may offer directions for one element of the music—as rhythm or pitch contour—and leave the performer to improvise the remaining elements. Notations evolve with the musical styles they serve, and they reflect the underlying aesthetics of their own cultures. Ethnomusicologists have developed a range of supplementary symbols—e.

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They have also experimented with staves of fewer or more lines. Other transcribers have used graph paper to draw a curve of pitch against time. Many significant mechanical methods of transcription have been devised. These methods can reveal a level of interpretation by the performer that aural transcription into staff notation fails to bring out. Early examples survive from Ancient Egypt and Greece. Symbols in both categories may denote simple sounds or stand for groups of successive sounds. In the West they are read in lines from left to right, whereas in the East many are read from right to left or vertically, in columns.

A second fundamental distinction is that between representational notations, which depict the sound of the music—leaving the player to produce that sound as he or she wishes—and tablatures, which instruct a player as to the technical means of producing a sound. Phonetic symbols play an important role in both types of notation, while graphic signs contribute mainly to representational notations. In oral traditions of music, solmization the naming of each degree of a basic scale with a word or syllable is important. Though primarily for reciting or singing as a melody is being learned, these syllables can be used to write down the notes of a melodic line each appearing as a single ideogram in the Chinese examples and thus form a simple syllabic pitch notation.

Of the five Balinese syllables, only their vowels are used in written form— i , o , e , u , a —so that a letter notation results; this is still an abbreviated syllabic notation, not an alphabetical one.

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In the notation of early Ethiopian church music a single letter or a pair of letters short for a passage of text signified a group of notes, even a complete melodic phrase. The drum syllables of North Indian music are a solmization of timbre as na , ta , dhin and often also of rhythmic patterns as tirikita , dhagina and can be written down to make a notation. Alphabets are historically a phenomenon of the Middle East, Europe, and the Indian subcontinent. Their ordering of letters provides a convenient reference system for the notes of musical scales in ascending or descending order.

Alphabetical notations are among the most ancient musical scripts. Two Greek notations were of this type, the earlier using an archaic alphabet and the latter using the Classical Greek alphabet. Many comparable notations arose in the Middle Ages , and the modern note names, A to G, are an outgrowth of these. The clefs of staff notations are a formalized survival. The notation of pitches by numbers is rare. A modern Javanese system allots numbers 1—7 to the pitches of the seven-note pelog scale, and a similar five-note system exists in Bali.

Modern Japanese notation for the samisen a type of lute uses 1—7 for the diatonic scale , 7 being the lowest note; and modern China has a similar system for publishing popular songs.

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An Arabic notation of the 16th century used the first seven Persian numbers to signify pitches of a seven-note scale. Arabic alphabetical notation of the 13th and 14th centuries used Arabic figures, placed beneath the pitch letters, to indicate durations of individual notes. The character of neumes and of accentual signs has been described under Western staff notation. The Vedic chant of southern India uses a form of accentual notation: a dot beneath or above a syllable of text indicates a lower or upper reciting pitch.

Analogous systems, involving dots and dashes, formed a notation for ancient Jewish cantillation and early Syrian Christian chanting. Besides simple signs for vocal inflection, it also had more elaborate, compound signs, such as. The Western phrase mark and crescendo and decrescendo symbols are graphic signs of this type. The dividing line between compound ecphonetic signs and neumes is slender. A tablature notates music as a series of playing positions. Each single instruction in a tablature corresponds to one action by the performer.

The order of his or her actions is automatically prescribed, and more precise rhythmic indication can be given quite easily as the length of time between successive actions—rests are unnecessary. Thus, a tablature for a plucked instrument requires signs for: each string, each fret, and possibly also each right-hand plucking finger, direction of stroke, and ancillary techniques such as harmonics, vibrato , and left-hand plucking. To indicate these, the tablature may use letters, numbers, and graphic signs. Italian lute tablatures use numbers in place of letters.

The tablature for the Japanese koto zither is simpler in that its 13 strings are not stopped. The pitch of each string is indicated at the beginning of a tablature, and thereafter the strings are represented by numbers combined with graphic signs for special technical effects. These are grouped close together in composite symbols. One composite symbol may contain an ideogram for the left-hand finger; a number for the stopping-point; another number for the string itself; an ideogram for the right-hand finger; and possibly an ideogram indicating loudness, legato, glissando, etc. No grid of lines was necessary.

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Written By: Ian D. See Article History. Read More on This Topic. Britannica Quiz.

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Fundamentals of Music Theory. In the system of written Western musical notation, five lines drawn horizontally across a sheet of music are known collectively as:.

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The tour was about to fail. They went on the tour but came back home as an absolutely different band, with clear goals and plans. Mantulin remained in the line-up permanently. The band made a bet on more complicated instrumental parts and structure of songs. During the summer the band performed at open-air festivals. JINJER first time in their career gathered several thousands of metal fans under the stage making them slam, mosh and headbang like the last time in their life. According to the regulations band for the contest were chosen by a jury — the most prominent Ukrainian promoters in the sphere of heavy music, but a winner was chosen by audience voting.

JINJER understood that they had no chances to win as the other contestants were local Kiev bands with at least 10 years experience with much bigger fan-support in the capital of Ukraine. However the band accepted the challenge and went to the capital just to play a good show.

On the way to Kiev something terrible happened. That could put a full stop not only in their career but also in the musicians' lives. Only by a lucky fortune nobody hurt seriously and the band's van got only a broken radiator and bumper. Having mustered up all their will, courage and strength, and money too, the band fixed the van at the closest service station and next day arrived exactly for the soundcheck.

In the summer of due to tragic events in native Donbass East of Ukraine, civil war between separatists supported by Russia and Ukrainian governmental forces the band had to move to Lviv breaking all stereotypes about disaffection between the west and the east in Ukraine. One month later JINJER went through a tragedy which shocked not only fans and musicians of Ukrainian metal scene, but also people were not connected with either with the band or heavy music in general.

Everyone was asleep when Eugene Mantulin went to smoke in the kitchen. He sat on the widow, napped and fell off the third floor down. Only because of the unity of musicians, fans, people who were not indifferent, they managed to collect a sum necessary for an urgent operation and thus save Mantulin's life and give hime a chance to walk and play the drums in the Future. The band had to cancel a large tour around Europe and Great Britain. After a while, getting off the stress the band decided to look for a substitution for the drums.

The task itself was incredibly difficult as Mantulin was definitely one of the best young drummers in Ukraine, there weren't many people who could play his lines, and there were even less who could accept a life style of a professional musician in heavy metal. The band knew the guy since they recorded at Beast Rec. Without any hesitations Dmitriy moved to Lviv, settled with the others at their country house and started to learn songs.

Same as Mantulin he managed to take over 11 songs in a month. Also on December 23rd Eugene Kostyuk, the bassist, became the first father in the band, he and his wife had a baby-son. Thus European magazines, e. Ukrainian editions summing up the year recognized JINJER as one of the brightest Ukrainian bands and Tatiana joined the top of 10 best young Ukrainian singers of all genres.

The band proved that true metalheads stay unite in all situations regardless borders, geopolitics and other bullshit. However, after getting back home JINJER received a lot of criticism from ultra-nationalistic movements, the band even was threatened several times, a few concerts later on were almost canceled due to attacks and threats by nazi and fashistic groups. Fortunately thanks to huge fan support and also support by the biggest Ukrainian festivals JINJER managed to avoid the real troubles and violence.

Anyway the band remains under the target of marginal right-wing elements, and a victim of the fox hunt in Ukraine. For this reason they had to postpone the Polish part of the tour to mid May. It has to be noted the tour had both positive and negative sides.

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Apart from awesome shows and full clubs everywhere, the band had a wonderful chance to check out such fascinating sights as Parthenon in Athens, Coliseum in Rome and many more. On the the other hand every band-member got ill at least once on the tour. Some had a fever of 40 degrees. Nevertheless they had to play shows almost everyday. After one month and 25 shows the band got back to Ukraine.

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  • The performance was caught on cameras and recorded live. Originally the band was about to release the DVD in the Autumn of , but due a number of technical problems appeared on the production line, it had to be postponed several times.