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Now Washington correspondent International News Service. In Jan. Later sentenced to 3 days in jail for applauding suffrage prisoners in court. Later served 5 days in District Jail for participation in watchfire demonstration. MARY A. As young woman was teacher and leader in Southern library movement. Suffrage pioneer; prominent in Confederate organizations of South. In joined N. Arrested Nov. January, , arrested many times in watchfire demonstrations; sentenced to 24 hours in jail.

Oldest suffrage prisoner. English Quaker ancestor imprisoned for Quaker beliefs died in English prison; born of Quaker parentage and brought up in this small Quaker town. Received her A. Graduate of N. School of Philanthropy, and studied at Universities of London and Birmingham, specializing in economics and sociology. While in England took part in militant campaign under Mrs. Founded Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage; made chairman. When this became an independent organization reappointed chairman. When it merged with the N. Has served 6 prison terms for suffrage, 3 in England and 3 in United States.

In Oct. While in jail suffered the severest treatment inflicted upon any suffrage prisoner. In Aug. EDNA M. Arrested picketing July 14, Sentenced to 60 days in Occoquan, but pardoned by the President after 3 days. Arrested in Nov. Sentenced to 8 days in Boston Charles St. Jail following participation in welcome demonstration to the President, Feb. John Rogers, Jr. A pioneer worker for state suffrage before taking up national work. Before entering suffrage movement active in improving conditions in New York public schools.

Chairman Advisory Council of the N. In and as member of "Suffrage Special" and "Prison Special" toured the country speaking for suffrage. July 14, , sentenced to 60 days in Occoquan workhouse for picketing, but was pardoned by the President after 3 days. Joshua Rossette, well known social worker. Took part in N. Educated in this country. Taught school in Mass. State officer N. Sentenced to 5 days in District Jail for participation in Jan. Jail for participation in welcome demonstration to President in Feb.

In came to America on visit, but entered industrial fight, becoming, first, worker and then union organizer. Sentenced to 30 days in Occoquan for picketing September, Did settlement work at New York Henry St. Worked for state suffrage before joining N. Sentenced to 30 days in District Jail for picketing Nov.

Sentenced to 5 days in District Jail for participation in watchfire demonstration Jan. Picketed regularly during July 4, , served 3 days in District Jail for picketing; served 5 days Jan. Soon after release sentenced to 3 days for applauding suffrage prisoners in Court. Served 5 days in District Jail for participation in final watchfire demonstration of Feb.

Sentenced to 30 days in Occoquan workhouse for picketing November 10, Wife of V. Jail after participation in Boston demonstration to welcome President Feb. In charge of Boston headquarters of N. For taking part in Boston demonstration on the return of the President in Feb.

Secretary Col. Branch, N. Graduate Woman's Medical College of Pa. October 20, , arrested for picketing and sentenced to 7 months' impl1sonment. For participating in watchfire demonstration Jan. Mother of six children. Picketed Nov. Graduate of Oberlin College; social worker and teacher; organized and spoke for state suffrage campaigns in Ohio and Michigan; ,joined Congressional Union in Organized first Convention of women voters at Panama Pacific Exposition in ; managed election campaign in Cal.

Has acted successively as executive secretary, organizer, legislative chairman, political chairman, and executive committee member of N. Arrested N. July 4, , arrested for picketing and sentenced to 3 days in District Jail. She served 3 days in District Jail for applauding suffragists in court. Fellow student with Alice Paul. Gave up position as high school teacher when Congressional Union was founded to become organizer and speaker. With remarkable gifts as a speaker, has addressed large meetings in every part of the country.

As brilliant organizer has had charge of many important organization tasks of N. Campaigned in Nev. Became national organization chairman N. Organized the Washington picket line for several months. One of the first six women to serve prison sentence for suffrage in District Jail.

For picketing June, , served 3 days. Graduate of Univ. Abandoned school teaching to work for suffrage; became organizer and speaker for N. July 4, , arrested for picketing and served 3 days in District Jail. A Quaker and graduate of Swarthmore College; wife of a captain in the late war and mother of 3 children.

Arrested July 14, , for picketing and sentenced to 60 days in Occoquan workhouse. Sentenced to 30 days Occoquan workhouse for picketing Aug. Came to Washington for watchfire demonstration of Jan. Weaver, also worked in munitions factory; arrested with mother Jan. One of few qualified women geologists of country. Daughter of late Congressman Ebenezer Hill. At one time vice-president general of D. Prominent member of Congressional Union and N.

One of first pickets arrested, July 4, ; served 3 days in District Jail. CORA A. Belongs to prominent pioneer families of Tenn. Court and convention reporter for ten years; appointed by Governor Secretary of Tenn. State Commission for the Blind. Identified with U. Has done much to organize suffrage sentiment in her state. Her grandmother, a Quaker, started suffrage work in Michigan. Daughter of one of leading patent attorneys of country. Imprisoned 3 days for picketing July 4, Harvey Wiley, food expert and ex-director of the pure food department of U.

Member of national advisory council of N. Has done lobbying, political work and picketing for N. Began work at age of 11 in Philadelphia; for many years worked in hosiery factory in Pittsburg; later employed in shop in Philadelphia. Recently has won success as an actress. Has brilliant gifts; spoke throughout West in suffrage campaign of N.

Founder and Pres.


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Limited Suffrage Society. Later sentenced to 10 days for participation in Lafayette Sq. Has worked and spoken for suffrage in many parts of the country. Member "Prison Special" Feb. Edmund C. Evans, both of whom served prison sentences. Winston, formerly Professor of economics at Univ. Of Norwegian parentage; her family closely related to Henrik Ibsen. For several months acted as editor of The Suffragist. Former assistant on The Suffragist and later organizer for N. Served 3 days in District Jail for picketing July 4, Youngest picket arrested, being 19 years old when she first served a prison term.

For picketing Nov. Mary R. Beard, N. Miss Crystal Eastman, N. Lawrence Lewis, Pa. Belmont, N. Gilson Gardner, D. Miss Elsie Hill, Conn. William Kent, Cal. Donald R. Hooker, Md. John Winters Brannan, N. Miss Anne Martin, Nevada Mrs. Harriot Stanton Blatch, N. Phoebe Hearst, Cal. Bartelme, Ill. Crocker, Ill. Abby Scott Baker, D. Miss Lucy Burns, N. Florence Bayard Hilles, Del. Hopkins, N. Miss Doris Stevens, N. Miss Maud Younger, Cal. Thomas N. Hepburn, Conn. Henry G. Leach, N. Miss Doris Stevens.

Richard Wainwright, D. Forms of government and measures relating to the welfare and organization of society have been, in all ages and countries, questions on which men have entertained divergent convictions, and asserted their sincerity by conflicting action, often at grave personal sacrifice and the loss of life. On the other hand, all people are agreed in condemning certain acts, stigmatized as crimes, which offend against the well-being of the individual or the community.

The latter, if permitted to prevail, would disintegrate and destroy the social life of mankind; the former, if successful, would simply reorganize it, on a different basis. The objects may, in one generation, be branded as crimes, whilst in the next those who fail to make them triumph and suffered as malefactors are exalted as patriot martyrs, and their principles incorporated amongst the foundation principles of the country's constitution. To confound in a common degradation those who violate the moral law by acts which all men condemn, and those who offend against the established order of society by acts of which many men approve, and for objects which may sometime be accepted as integral parts of established order, is manifestly wrong in principle.

It places a Government morally in the wrong in the eyes of masses of the population, a thing to be sedulously guarded against. From the Annals de la Chambre des Deputies, , v. Political crimes are acts contrary to the law committed against an existing government or form of government in the interest of another government or form of government.

We are, therefore, justified in calling them social crimes, as contrasted with the anti-social common crimes. Parmelee was a Representative of the U. Russia was probably the first country in modern history to recognize political prisoners as a class,[1] although the treatment of different groups and individuals varied widely. When sure of a verdict of guilty, either through damaging evidence or a packed jury, the offender was tried.

When it was impossible to commit him to trial because there were no proofs against him, "Administrative Exile" was resorted to. These judgments or Administrative orders to exile were pronounced in secret on political offenders; one member of the family of the defendant was admitted to the trial under the law of Those exiled by Administrative order were transported in cars, but stopped en route at the etapes, political prisoners along with common law convicts.

I have noticed that in anthropology whenever a very significant literature dealing with a subject or an area comes into existence, there's a switch. It's the way that people can get on with their own work without feeling that they're completely overwhelmed by what is already known. I've also seen myself as doing the same thing. I wonder whether, in that situation, it helps that you do have a much broader background than most anthropologists. It helps to have been part of two different intellectual areas, the U. Speaking of archaeology, do you think that it could have been satisfying for you?

No, I could never have been an archaeologist. I only realized that much later, but I couldn't have been. I have a bad head for heights. I could never have stood on the edge of a ditch and look down. Oh, I think I might have found it satisfying. I don't know. I don't think I would have liked necessarily being part of a big dig. You spend so much time being concerned about the interaction, the various bits and pieces with your colleagues. Human beings always, in groups, have to spend quite a lot of time on the engineering of their relationships.

You have to spend a lot of time mending things, doing things so that relations don't get broken, paying attention to other people's likes. Incidentally, I think probably Betty Clark, who always went along on Desmond's digs, did a lot to defuse emotions. She wasn't just the cook and the caretaker and the accounts person and the person who drew the maps and drew the artifacts and deciphered Desmond's writing. I don't think he'd be interested. That's not archaeology. As Betty has said to me a number of times, "You think he's listening to you, but he isn't.

All he thinks about is archaeology. Interesting that the two disciplines are so different, but so fused in the history. Was that also the case in Britain? In Britain, by the time I got there, archaeology was not part of the training of anthropologists.


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Well, it was at Cambridge; they had archaeology. But at Manchester it was quite separate; there was no archaeology in the program where I taught. At Oxford by that time there was some archaeology, but that was taught quite separately from what was going on at the Institute for Social Anthropology.

There's been an attempt made to bring more archaeology and physical anthropology into British anthropology in, oh, I'd say, the last twenty years, but I don't know enough about it.

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I'm always glad that I've had the sort of undergraduate work that I had. It gives you a different perspective. But it's been primarily a debate since I retired, so I don't know that much about it. While I was there, there was always the question as to whether students doing a major in anthropology needed more than the one introductory course in other branches of anthropology than the one that they were specializing in.

And some of us argued that they needed at least one upper division course so that they'd get more than just the rudiments, get more of the way of thinking. Some of us also felt that any graduate student coming in ought to--if they didn't have an undergraduate major equivalent to the Berkeley one, that they ought to have to spend the first year getting that background before they did the graduate courses. Stanley Brandes, who was a student of George's--he came from Chicago, and I think his background was in history. He spent his first year getting the equivalent of an undergraduate major.

But that broke down, along with much else, when it became impossible--it became very difficult to maintain standards in the sixties and early seventies. And physical anthropology. I don't remember that anybody from linguistics--well, maybe Brent Berlin chaired the department for a year or so. But certainly there was no feeling that the chairmanship belonged to any branch.

I started this business about ritual because we're close to Christmas, a ritual time. I wish you would describe for me the whole Christmas scene when you were growing up. For instance, did you cut the tree? Yes, we went out to the farm that my grandfather had homesteaded to get the tree, and also for years my father, as a person who was managing the farm for his brothers and sisters, donated a tree to the town, so the town went out and cut a spruce tree which they brought back and set up in the center of town.

We went out and got one ourselves and brought it in and set it up and pulled out the ornaments and put them on. And the packages arrived. Of course, we did our Christmas shopping, usually buying books for one another, which we proposed to read ourselves. Then, on Christmas Eve, Mother always lit a candle in the window, being very careful to pull the curtains back. The candle in the window was to guide the Christ child to the Earth.

After that, we went off to the Christmas Eve performance at the Congregational church--sometimes we were expected to perform as part of our Sunday School classes. And after that, at midnight, we went to the service at the Episcopal church, and then we came home. When we were children, we opened our Christmas presents in the morning. Later on, we opened them at night, Christmas Eve.

After the riot of opening presents we went off to my father's sister, my Aunt Pauline's, for Christmas dinner, where there was a tree and more presents exchanged within the family. That would have included my Aunt Pauline and her husband--well, no, Uncle Grant died pretty early, but in earlier years Uncle Grant--and her daughter and one of her sons. Then my Aunt Tillie and her husband and their son. Then my Uncle Will's family would come in from the farm, probably in the afternoon, so there would be a big family gathering. My younger sister and my brother would fight with my cousin Donald.

She'd been saying it since she was four or five! Yes, until she died in the thirties, when I was thirteen or fourteen. We had--let's see, I think Aunt Tillie had Thanksgiving, and the whole family went, and we had New Year's, and the whole family came to our house. Does this have anything to do with your mother's decision to hang up her cleaning implements and read more? No, I don't think so. I suspect that probably we went to Aunt Pauline's because she and her husband and children had moved in to take care of my grandfather after her mother died, so probably the Christmas had been going on at my grandparents with all their children before Grandmother died.

All the women in the town were expected to make cookies or coffee cake or something, and then they took it around to all their friends, and their friends brought cookies and coffee cake around to them. I don't remember that we ever made fruit cake or anything like that, but cookies you had to do if you were going to be a respectable woman in that town. No, I couldn't cook. My mother made cookies. My mother liked making cookies, on the whole. And I don't think my mother really cared whether I did or not.

It wasn't something she felt a girl had to be trained to do. I now try to avoid anything on Christmas except going out and watching for whales and having a picnic on the beach. It's a lovely way of disposing of all that. My preference is to avoid Thanksgivings and July Fourths and all that. I think more and more, as I became an anthropologist, I had less liking for ritual, partly because I had to do so much of it and be so involved with it when I'm doing field work.

Then I had to go to church, and to dances and things like that, and funerals. I think every now and then they do, yes. Indeed, I've heard Gwembe people saying it quite explicitly after their resettlement, that one of the great things was that they got out of all the old rituals that had controlled the agricultural year, because they'd hated having to wait for the ritual leader to initiate activities before they, themselves, could carry them out if they happened to feel that it was a good time to do it.

Or invent a marriage ritual. I've been to a number of weddings where they've invented it. In the sixties and seventies, it's very interesting, in places like the Cheese Board to see these signs about how to invent rituals. People were trying to start afresh, and figure out all sorts of new things which they thought would be more congenial to them than the old ones. No, after she married she taught music, piano, until I think after Katherine was born, yes.

But after I was born, she did not. My older--let's see, Katherine was born in I was born ' My younger sister Barbara was born in And Henry, the only boy, was born in She said that she had not been particularly anxious for the vote. On the other hand, she certainly thought that women ought to be able to do things. I remember what was an important moment for her. She was cleaning out a cupboard and putting down fresh paper, and she thought, "What does it matter to anybody that I have clean paper on this shelf?

This was associated with the Federated Women's Clubs. Later on she joined the Eastern Star, and she was a P. A philanthropic, educational organization, the P. Sisterhood was founded on the campus of Iowa Wesleyan College, Mt. Pleasant, Iowa, in No, I don't. But I have a picture in my mind of her sitting there on the floor, cleaning out the cupboard.

This happened when we were very small. They met on one afternoon, I think, each month, and they met in different women's homes. That afternoon was sacred to the women. It was just expected that they had that time. The P. Again, everybody understood that they would go to P. They have their own college, Cottey College in Missouri. They also have an international fellowship fund, and the local chapters have their own small fellowship funds.

She loved Dickens. Oh, I'm not sure that she re-read the essays on America, and the Child's History of England , but all the novels. And she liked George Eliot, and she liked Thackeray. But she also read a lot of modern novels. I don't think she was that interested in, oh, the Russians. There were a number of--let's see, I think I can remember. Crime and Punishment and Brothers Karamazov were in the shelves at home. She did have a membership in the book club, Book-of-the-Month Club. She also subscribed to women's magazines.

We had the National Geographic. Well, given that amount of reading, I would say that she must have been very well organized. She was also on the library book committee. The Twentieth Century Club early on had decided the town needed a library, and at first they talked the town into providing them with the room. At first they donated books and magazines and took turns servicing it, but they then talked the town into providing a salary for a librarian. The members of the Twentieth Century Club continued to be appointed to the book committee, and my mother could read fast. We all could.

When they ordered books for the library, the rule was that if you decided within the month that the books weren't suitable for your library, you could return them and get something else. My mother brought most of the new books home, and we all read them and decided whether or not they were suitable. Sometimes we thought probably only we and perhaps the minister might read them, but there were a number of books--I'm not sure that my mother allowed us to read these because she thought they were not quite good for the morals. Yes, though I can remember only four books that she told me not to read.

No, I remember three of them. There was a fourth. One was Jane Eyre. And that was because when she was young, she was told not to read it, so she stayed home from prayer meeting and went up to the attic and read Jane Eyre , and when she got to the scene where the madwoman cuts the wedding veil, she got so terrified that she closed it and she didn't dare open it for years. She thought it was "too exciting for young girls.

She had her suspicion that perhaps he was not a good influence on young girls. That was a nineteenth-century novel, too. Then there was a twentieth-century one by Phyllis Bottome, and she thought those people were useless; they didn't live properly, and we better not read that. But everything else, I think, we were allowed to read. It was in the house, but I don't think she loved that as much as she did Dickens. And the Brontes. You said you were fast readers. Is that something that's learned, do you think, or is that genetic? It may be genetic. It certainly has something to do with the eye movement.

I know that if--for instance, I read detectives, which means that I go through them very fast, because I'm not reading for style or anything, usually, or even for content. I don't expect to remember. No, I read the last chapter early on and then see whether or not the author got the right person.

Sometimes he didn't--he or she didn't. But if I have to slow down for something that I'm reading for professional reasons, my eyes get tired, and somebody once explained to me that was because my muscles were used to the other kind of movement, I was working against my habitual muscles. That's interesting. Speed reading, I think, is a process of reading straight down, as if you don't go back and forth. No, I don't speed read. I'm more likely to do that now, having decided I really only want to catch a few words to see whether or not I want to read it.

Incidentally, because I read fast, I found that usually, if I were reviewing the book, I had to read it three times: once to get the general sense, and then secondly to make sure that I understood the full argument, and the third time to see what I wanted to say about it. And in the first time, is that when you also decide, I like it or I don't like it?

Yes, is it interesting, or does it have something to say that I'm concerned with. They thought they were going to get a Carnegie Library, but unfortunately Carnegie stopped giving money to libraries just when they would have been in line to receive support. So they didn't. No, they had rooms above the fire station for years, and then finally they were given space when they built the new high school. That was a mistake in a way, because it tended to be treated then as a school library.

If you came during school hours you weren't supposed to be there, and the town people felt somewhat alienated. But in recent years they have gotten their own separate library. My father--he was in university during the Spanish-American War when his professor persuaded them to stay until they finished, and of course the war ended before they finished. By the time we got into World War I, he was married and he had two small children and a third on the way, and he was forty-four. Incidentally, my mother was forty when I was born, and my father was forty-three, so we were born to much older parents.

The flu epidemic was there. We didn't get it. Although my younger sister, at the age of three months, came down with some terrible illness. I've forgotten what it was, but it seemed that she might well die of it. The doctor who took care of her spent a lot of time with her, but he was also worn out with the flu epidemic, and he died I think of heart failure shortly afterwards.

So we felt that somehow or other the flu epidemic had an impact on us. You have an amazing memory. I wonder if such an amazing memory is tied in with the speed reading. What do you think? About your memory? My mother certainly had a good memory. I think my father did. My father wasn't as interested in reading as my mother. He liked poetry. But my mother had thought, when she became engaged to him, that he liked reading better than he did.

In his family, of course, if Grandmother Colson caught her daughters reading, she'd always say to them, "Don't you have something useful to do? Reading was--out. My mother didn't sew. She had a sewing machine. She didn't sew. She crocheted. She didn't embroider much. She left that behind her. She didn't knit. She said trying to knit stockings in World War I was going beyond her. She didn't really like cooking, except she liked baking cookies. Her mother had been a very good cook, and sewed, made all the girls' clothing. But even as a girl, Mother had been impatient; when she was called by her mother for a fitting, she always used to say, "Just why don't you make it Mother Hubbard style?

Mother talked more about her family than my father did. When I asked him about the family in Sweden, for instance, or Germany, he said that his parents hadn't talked about it and he really didn't know. And when I asked my cousins later about it, they didn't know. And perhaps even some interest in genealogy, which is not bad for an anthropologist.

Well, yes, and that's what I was thinking, very definitely. How about the house, the neighborhood? When we moved to Wadena, my parents rented a house from a man who had joined the army for World War I, and when he came back, they had to get out of it. It had been a farm house. They also had a lot. We were always going to build there, but we didn't have the money for it. So we lived in this house. We moved in in , before my brother was born. He was born in the house. My mother lived there until , when we took her to the Masonic home in Minneapolis. So we were there for a long time.

It was a smallish house. Remember, there were four children and two adults. Sometimes there was live-in help, somebody who was always called "a hired girl," not a maid, in that place. And after my grandfather died, my grandmother and mother's younger sister came and spent the winter with us. And we all fitted in somehow. My father sometimes spoke a few words of German, but no. When I went to high school, there was Latin. Incidentally, my mother had been a Latin teacher and taught Latin when she was a schoolteacher. She had taught Latin and history and English.

My father had taught mathematics and science. So we never had a course in school that somebody couldn't help us with it. He loved math. I think he loved math, and he loved Greek and Latin more than science. He tried, with his three daughters, to make us into mathematicians, and it didn't work. My poor brother had no chance whatsoever. By the time he was four years old, he could do the multiplication tables up to 16 times 16, and he became a mathematician and taught math finally at Ohio State.

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Let's see, we had two years of Latin by the time I got into high school. My older sister was able to take German, but then the Depression hit, and they cut out the German, so I only had a chance at Latin. No modern language in the school then. I don't think I did very well at it. What is wonderful to me is that after all these years of doing nothing with it, she could pick it up and read it just like that.

I found Cicero a bad-tempered ranter, and I thought that Aeneas was a cad! Mother also then got a first-year Spanish course, and she and I tried to read Spanish together. Katherine got German because she was ahead of me, and Barbara somehow or other struggled through Latin. She didn't like it at all. She didn't do as well in school as the rest of us did. Don't think so.


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Oh, yes, my father did try and teach me a little Greek but, again, didn't get very far with that. Katherine went to Macalester College, and she I think majored in social work. As a matter of fact, when she was a senior she was being a teaching assistant, and then after she graduated she couldn't get a job--that was the Depression time--and so she went back to Macalester; they gave her a fellowship.

She was teaching some, and she did an M. Then after a few years, she married.

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She wasn't employed then until after her children were in college. Then she got a job. They had moved to Minneapolis, from the small town where they had lived, and she got a job with the state employment agency. She hated school, right through. She was sent to Cottey College for a year.

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Didn't like that because there weren't any men around. Then she went to the University of Minnesota for a year. Didn't like that and didn't do well there. Then took a business course and started to work in a store, in the big Dayton's store in Minneapolis. Eventually he took over that plant and became the president. His younger daughter is now president of it. He's dead. He died three years ago, I think. So Barbara never worked again, but she did a lot of things like working as a Gray Lady and so on, and she was very active in her church. University of Minnesota at that time--a man paid twenty-five dollars a quarter.

Women paid twenty dollars because we didn't have as good physical education facilities. But included in that twenty dollar fee, we got--let's see, we had tickets for some activities, for instance concerts and so on, or a play, and the daily newspaper, and of course the university health service.

By the way, you might like to know that I skipped the sixth grade, and my parents--when the school wanted to skip my younger brother, my parents wouldn't allow that because they said they'd seen that it was bad for a child to get out of their cohort. I quite liked the idea, but I was put in with an older crowd, of course. At that point, seventh and eighth grade had quite a number of people who had been held back, so I was young amongst older people, and I never really got on good terms with them.

Well, it meant that I came through faster. I came through, and I didn't go to university for a year. I stayed home. I think they thought I was too young. Besides, we were broke during the Depression. She got fellowship funding, too. Anyway, Katherine managed to stay in Macalester. But she got fellowship help, and she worked. She worked on the switchboard, and she did everything.

I should think that if you skipped a grade and you found yourself not in a congenial crowd, that that would have been reason--more reason, even--to be buried in your books. Yes, but we were all buried in our books anyway. The joke was if you came over to play with the Colson children, you were handed a book and said, "Here. There was a newspaper, one of the Minneapolis papers. And my father got several things, like, oh, Fur and Feathers or Fur and something. And my mother got--oh, goodness, there were all sorts of things around.

Let's see, Mother had Harper's , which she gave to the library, and she borrowed The Atlantic from the library. She didn't try, no, though she gave papers regularly, reviewed books and gave other kinds of papers, both for the P. National Geographic. Tell me your impressions of it. It had lovely stuff on the Pueblos and all that, archaeology, and Mayan and so on, which I think is probably what made me want to become an archaeologist.

Oh, no. That was all there, but that wasn't what caught my eye. It was the archaeology, the stuff on Greece and on Maya and on the Southwest. Were you able to follow up on that interest in the library? If you were reading, for instance, about the Indians? There wasn't that much. And I don't know that I was that interested in the Indians.

I was interested in archaeology at that point. I started out thinking I'd like to be an astronomer until I figured out quickly that that required a lot of math. And then I got interested in being a naturalist. No, no, no, when I was in grade school and so on. My mother was very interested in--oh, in nature. We used to go birding together, and she encouraged me to keep a wildflower book. No, she wouldn't have said she was a musician, certainly not by the time I was born. Before that, she used to go down to Minneapolis on the train for the opera. There was one week when the Met came to Minneapolis, and she always went down for the opera season.

One thing she liked about the University of Minnesota was that she could go to the opera and to the other music things in Minneapolis. They said that was fine. Astronomy, that was fine. And when I said I was going to be an archaeologist, they said that was fine too. And when I said I was going to the University of Minnesota and not to Macalester, they looked at me and said, "That's your life," and that was okay.

Louella McMann. She was a very interesting woman. She had been an actress and had toured with a repertory company. When we had Shakespeare in high school, she would make us act out bits of it, and she produced the class plays and things like that. She was really interested in literature and especially the drama. That was an opportunity to speak in public. Do you think that was important for you? I was never much in the class plays.

I did take debate in high school. That was okay. And I worked on the high school newspaper. My older sister was the editor. She was much better at all this kind of thing. I was very self-conscious. I wouldn't have said I was modest. I would have said I was self-conscious and awkward. Before we go on, you asked about women. The librarian in the town library, Jean Stuart, she had come from Scotland as a small girl, with her father.

She had not had a college education, but she loved books and she was determined that children should love books. She was a friend of my mother's, too. So when we went to the library, she was always suggesting things that we might like to read, and she also started having schoolchildren come as a class to the library in order to introduce them to it and to gather them together and get started on reading this and that.

My first published article is something I wrote in third grade that she sent to a library journal. But she was the kind of person who always encouraged children to read and to think, and she would talk about women who had done remarkable things. That's quite wonderful.

But she didn't have the college education or whatever you would expect. Oh, things came out in town years later. I think my mother had heard it from other people who came with the Scottish group who settled outside of town and then moved into town. It sounds like it was a fine town, but it sounds like in every way it's a very small town. It was about 2, when I was growing up. It had a group of people in town who were interested in drama and did amateur plays and concerts. At the school, in the high school, a junior class play, a senior class play.

There was a high school newspaper. There was declam. This realism also informed aesthetic choices in exhibitions. Non-white included the Jewish and Eastern European cultures Haraway Haraway traces the way in which primates: monkeys, apes and chimpanzees, represent a privileged relation to nature and culture. In the chapter on the work of Robert Yerkes Yale on Human Engineering and the Laboratories of Primate Biology she examines his research in comparative primate psychobiology. Human engineering was a term and tool developed c.

The engineering included concern for stable family situations to encourage the maintenance of a constructive force. In Yerkes research chimpanzees became physiological models of humans. Through them Yerkes investigated instinct, personality, culture and human engineering. In the process he was reformulating the relationship between nature and culture Haraway In her final chapter Haraway narrates a link between primatology and science fiction. She tells the story of Lilith, an Octavia Butler character in the science-fiction Dawn. Lilith, a woman of colour, out of Africa, becomes the primal mother, the Eve to a polymorphous species.

The story unfolds in a post-nuclear, post-slavery world overtaken by an alien species. She concludes with a fiction, the beginning of a myth of Eve without Adam. She ends her narrative with that of a female scientist who becomes part of the experiment, part of the field study unable to escape Haraway Her work is so deeply intertextual and detailed that it confounds but does not prevent criticism.

Haraway looked at the way frameworks become acceptable on the basis of value systems or world views held by particular interest groups or power groups which in turn provide the criteria for the legitimization of truth claims. She describes how ideology informs science. Conflicting oppositional viewpoints are often defined as extreme and exclusive dichotomies: nomologism vs.

These debates are somewhat like a conversation that takes place over centuries. The character of the debates often takes on the form of rhetorical assertions coupled with evidence. However, the evidence is often grounded in oppositional stances. There is no need to theorize because they already know this to be true. SSK, relativists and postmodernists assert that the tools with which scientists work, their methodologies and the very environments in which they work, have to be constantly revisited and theorized.

This they know is true. Those who attempt to enter into the conversation, need to first gauge the level of credibility of the discourse on either side. A legalistic strategy of the weighing of evidence might be useful. However, the weight of evidence can be valid only if all the major arguments on both sides are reviewed, a monumental task. Haraway, Donna. My Summary: Haraway looked at the way frameworks become acceptable on the basis of value systems or world views held by particular interest groups or power groups which in turn provide the criteria for the legitimization of truth claims.

That Saturday we spent the afternoon exploring the Sibbald Flat area. The camping tradition at Sibbald Lake which spans several cultures and at least 11, years continues today. It is with cruel irony that this area should be named after Howard E. Sibbald, an Indian agent turned Banff National Park game warden So there it is, visitors to this area come away with his name on their photos! This region is associated with some of the oldest archaeological evidence of paleo-Indian hunting dating from the Plano Period 10, — 8, BP as the glaciers retreated now revised to as far back as 13, years ago , the Assiniboine hunters of the s and the Siouan-speaking Nakoda-Stoney who probably arrived in Banff in historic times-almost certainly after , and perhaps not until the mids but they knew the place well by Surveyors and explorers of the late nineteenth century typically turned to Stoney guides, and as a result many landforms in Banff National Park are still known by their Stoney names.

Howard E. Surveyors and explorers of the late nineteenth century typically turned to Stoney guides, and as a result many landforms in Banff National Park are still known by their Stoney names [1] Binnema and Niemi For the Kutenai, see Raoul A. For the Blackfeet, see Spence, Dispossessing the Wilderness , chap. The ancestors of the Stoney were among the Assiniboine who broke from the Sioux sometime before Some of their descendants were in the forests and foothills of the Rocky Mountains by the late s, and in the area of present-day Banff Park by the mid s.

See Hugh A. Speechless Virtual synapses: an exploration of Web 2. But after suffering through the ravages of foreign diseases such as smallpox their numbers dwindled. Newcombe Victoria, B. Robinson, , p. Boyd, George M. Guilmet, David L. Since the arrival of settlers, entire villages of or more are emptied of their living inhabitants because of the disease.

Their artifacts remain. He became one of the first traditional artists to deal with many types of Northwest Coast sculptural styles. They put off eating them till no other food was available, and then began a terrible time of sickness and distress. A dreadful skin disease, loathsome to look upon, broke out upon all alike. None were spared. Men, women, and children sickened, took the disease and died in agony by hundreds, so that when the spring arrived and fresh food was procurable, there was scarcely a person left of all their numbers to get it. Camp after camp, village after village, was left desolate.

The remains of which, said the old man, in answer by my queries on this, are found today in the old camp sites or midden-heaps over which the forest has been growing for so many generations. Totem Poles of the Gitksan. Upper Skeena River, BC. My mother thought it was a good place to live since it was full of English people and she was a life-long, ardent anglophile. She is the best example of brainwashing that the Indian residential school system ever turned out. Sophie Gladstone supported her family by working as a dress-maker and designer in Victoria. Although the young Reid had some interest in carving,.

At the time he met his grandfather, Charles Gladstone, Reid was already working in radio and he soon moved to Toronto to take up a job with the CBC. Mungo learned his craft from his stepfather Charlie James. He restored totems and taught others the skill until he died in In the s his grandson Richard Hunt continued his work. At first he had wanted to be the best soap salesman chief salesman for Procter and Gamble but he soon became bored and. Working the 6 p. Reid also served an apprenticeship there.

Who were these informants? Totem Poles. National Museum of Canada. He set up his own jewelry shop, and began to work on totem pole replication and restoration projects. He began to study Haida. See art critic Roger Downe. Martin helped Reid to develop his skills as a carver. He next worked on a project sponsored by the University of British Columbia Department of Anthropology restoring a Haida house and. Totem Poles of the Gitksan Totem-Poles At 25 Duff became the first anthropologist to be fully employed by the provincial government of B.

Supreme Court. This work led others, such as Bill Reid, to believe that most of the finest carving on Haida Gwaii was accomplished by relatively few gifted artists. They were cut down with chain saws and hauled to Victoria by boat. In this CBC Radio clip, Reid takes a reprieve from his news-announcing duties and narrates a program about totem. In this clip, Reid praises the Haida. Bill Reid became a full-time artist at the age of Duff, Wilson; Kew Michael. An account of the expedition which salvaged sections of 11 poles.

Duff, Wilson. Review of the existence of totem poles at the time of European contact. Vancouver: Vancouver Art Gallery. Attorney-General of B. Whitemen Stole Indian Artifacts: People now demand own museums. Hilary Stewart transported the mask from Vancouver to the Victoria Art Gallery where it was reunited with the mask from Ottawa. It was a deeply moving moment as the two masks came together again for the first time in a hundred years or more.