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Download PDF Railways and Waterways: Through The White Mountains (Images of America)

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Bennett is assistant director and curator of collections at the Bethel Historical Society. He has written and lectured on the history of the White Mountains for 25 years and his family has lived in the area for six generations. Many of the rare and unusual images in this new book come from his private collection, which he has assembled over the past 30 years.

Please wait while your product is added to the cart. Still another component of that identity is a craggy adherence to tradition, long powerfully symbolized by the rock profile in Franconia Notch known as the Old Man of the Mountain; the rock outcropping collapsed in The combination of frugality, decentralization, traditionalism, industrialization, ethnicity , and geographic diversity makes New Hampshire very attractive to many Americans.

Area 9, square miles 24, square km.

Photographic processes

Population 1,,; est. The basic physical features of New Hampshire are the result of the most recent glacial age approximately 70, to 10, years ago , during which the Wisconsin ice sheet moved like a huge bulldozer across New England from the northwest to the southeast. Loose sand, silt, clay, and gravel were deposited as masses of glacial till that, near the town of Greenland, are feet metres in depth. The mountain notches of New Hampshire—Crawford, Dixville, Franconia, and Pinkham—are the result of the glacial action, as are the potholes and cirque s deep, steep-walled basins on mountains found in the state.

The great glacier left many deltas and hillocks of stratified deposits. The many lakes that dot the New Hampshire countryside are also the results of glacial action; the largest of these is Lake Winnipesaukee in the east-central part of the state. There are about 1, classified elevations, including several peaks in the White Mountains , rising above 5, feet 1, metres in elevation. The best-known is Mount Washington , at 6, feet 1, metres the third highest peak in the country east of the Mississippi River.

The mean elevation of the state is about 1, feet metres above sea level. New Hampshire has five main drainage basins. The largest is that of the Merrimack River , in the central part of the state. Second in size is the Connecticut River drainage basin , along the western border. The remaining waters flow into the Saco, Piscataqua, and Androscoggin rivers, known collectively as the coastal rivers, as well as into several smaller streams. There are some rich deposits of deep soil along these rivers, but in general the soils within the state are rocky, thin, and difficult to farm.

Annual precipitation is approximately 42 inches 1, mm and is rather evenly distributed over the four seasons. Average snowfall is about 50 inches 1, mm along the coast and inches 2, mm in the northern and western parts of the state. The greatest climatic extremes occur on the summit of Mount Washington , the site of a noted weather observatory. On April 12, , the observatory there recorded a world-record wind speed of miles km per hour.

More than four-fifths of New Hampshire is under forest cover. The majority of the trees found in the eastern United States are indigenous to the state. The most valuable single species of tree has always been the white pine. The wooded areas support a flourishing range of wildlife. White-tailed deer are numerous everywhere, and moose, once exceedingly scarce because of habitat loss, have returned to all regions of the state.

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There are annual deer- and moose-hunting seasons. Beavers, once almost exterminated, benefited from a restocking program begun in the s and have rebounded to their previous numbers. Black bears are relatively common, while smaller mammals such as rabbits, squirrels, raccoons, foxes, and mink are plentiful.

There is an abundance of birdlife, including species of grouse, woodcocks, pheasant, and ducks. State rearing stations keep the interior lakes and rivers well stocked for fishing. There has been much concern about the effects of pollution and acid rain on aquatic life, and strenuous efforts, both public and private, have been under way to prevent further contamination of lakes, streams, and coastal waters. The heavily forested White Mountains area in the north is popular with outdoors enthusiasts and tourists in summer and winter alike.

The lakes region around Lake Winnipesaukee is a favoured locality for summer camps and resorts and for aquatic sports. The seacoast region, which includes Portsmouth , Dover , Exeter , and Hampton, has many maritime activities. The south-central, or Merrimack, region surrounds Manchester and Nashua and is the most heavily industrialized section of the state.

The Dartmouth—Sunapee Lake region in the west-central portion of New Hampshire is dotted with educational institutions and summer homes.


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Each region is officially organized and finances its own promotional activities. In the colonial period the majority of the people were of English origin, but a significant influx of Scotch-Irish, who were largely Presbyterian in faith, began in They settled in the south-central and southwestern portions of New Hampshire and named their principal towns Derry , Londonderry, Antrim, and Dublin, for places they had left behind in Ireland. In the past New Hampshire had a system of town churches in which any officially recognized denomination could be designated at the annual town meeting to receive public tax support.

The system was discarded in by the Toleration Act passed by the legislature. Since then all churches have been privately supported, and any denomination may function freely.

Railway Disturbances on Wildlife: Types, Effects, and Mitigation Measures | SpringerLink

Between and , immigrants came to New Hampshire from all parts of Europe. The first Roman Catholic congregation was established in , the first Roman Catholic school in , and a statewide diocese in The first Jewish congregation was organized in and the first Greek Orthodox church in The New Hampshire Council of Churches, organized in , has developed broad ecumenical policies to include many faiths.

Autumn in New Hampshire's White Mountains: Chasing Conway Scenic Railroad's Notch Train

They were attracted mainly to such industrial cities as Manchester, Nashua, Laconia , and Berlin. In the first U. Since then each decennial count has recorded a growth, except for that of , when there was an extensive post-Civil War exodus to the Midwest.

The urban population is concentrated to a large extent in the southern and southeastern regions, and the larger urban centres, with the exception of Berlin , are all located south of the White Mountains. The historic shoemaking, woodworking, apparel, and textile industries have declined in productivity and employment, while electrical equipment and high-technology industries have grown rapidly.

The Portsmouth Naval Shipyard actually located across the harbour from Portsmouth at Kittery, Maine is one of the largest employers in the seacoast region. Agricultural acreage decreased by two-thirds in the 20th century. More than half of the timber harvested is used for sawlogs, and nearly two-fifths goes for pulpwood to supply paper and newsprint industries. The state ranks low in commercial fishing yields but has marketable catches of lobsters and deep-sea fish.

There are many rock quarries, chiefly of granite , throughout New Hampshire, but only the granite quarries in Concord are still in operation.


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Sand and gravel are the major minerals produced in terms of both tonnage and value. Other native minerals that have commercial value include garnet, zircon, beryl , and bog iron. Hydroelectric power was once the predominant energy source in New England, but it has been surpassed by nuclear power—much of it produced at the plant in Seabrook—and petroleum-derived power. There are still a number of electricity-generating dams in operation on New Hampshire rivers, including the Connecticut, Androscoggin, and Merrimack; the energy they generate meets a small but significant percentage of the needs of the state and the region.

The manufacture of machinery and electrical and electronic goods, along with precision-instrument and computer-related products, has largely supplanted the textile and garment industry , much of which either closed or moved to the South after Paper and wood products are the next largest industries. The only large industrial centre north of the White Mountains is Berlin, which has paper and pulp mills. Supplemented by the endeavours of individual cities and towns and by various private organizations, the authority has been successful in modernizing the industrial and business life of the state.

Next to manufacturing, tourism contributes the greatest proportion to the state economy. An organized effort began in the early 20th century to publicize New Hampshire as a tourist area, and this effort has steadily expanded. With the increase in popularity of winter sports following World War II and the lure of a fall foliage season, New Hampshire became as attractive to visitors in the cold months as it had been in the summer. Among other service activities that also have grown significantly are insurance and banking, medical and health care establishments, miscellaneous business services, and wholesale and retail trade.

Amtrak provides passenger service along the Connecticut River—mostly on the Vermont side—and via its Boston - Portland Maine route, which crosses through the New Hampshire seacoast region. Freight service operates on a limited scale in several parts of the state. There are also a few scenic railroads offering rides to tourists. Outstanding among these is the Cog Railway , a 6-mile km line running to the summit of Mount Washington that has been in operation since The interstate highway system runs to most parts of the state and is complemented by state turnpikes toll roads and a well-developed network of state highways.

New Hampshire has two commercial airports: the rapidly developing Manchester Airport and Portsmouth International Airport, part of the Pease International Tradeport complex developed on the site of the former Pease Air Force Base which closed in New Hampshire also has a number of smaller airports that offer commuter and private services, as well as numerous local airports. The constitution of New Hampshire, the second oldest among the 50 states, was adopted in Every 10 years the residents may vote on the question of holding a convention to consider modifications of the constitution.

Proposals that pass these conventions must be approved by two-thirds of the voters at a popular referendum. The governor is elected for a two-year term and is assisted by a five-member executive council, a surviving institution from the colonial era. When Does the Revolution End? The Age of Atlantic Revolutions The Economic Crisis of the s Constitution Through Compromise The Antifederalists' Victory in Defeat Native American Resilience and Violence in the West The Life and Times of John Adams Jeffersonian America: A Second Revolution? Gabriel's Rebellion: Another View of Virginia in Claiming Victory from Defeat Early National Arts and Cultural Independence Jacksonian Democracy and Modern America Jackson vs.

Irish and German Immigration Transcendentalism, An American Philosophy The Southern Argument for Slavery Gold in California The Compromise of Preston Brooks and Charles Sumner The South Secedes Strengths and Weaknesses: North vs. The Road to Appomattox The Assassination of the President Rebuilding the Old Order The New Tycoons: John D.

New Hampshire

The New Tycoons: J. Politics of the Gilded Age Labor vs. Eugene V. Debs and American Socialism Artistic and Literary Trends The Print Revolution The Wounded Knee Massacre The Election of Booker T. DuBois