Manual Imperialism: A Study (Cosimo Classics History)

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About this Item: Seller Inventory Kaveri More information about this seller Contact this seller 6. Published by Lulu. About this Item: Lulu. Language: English. Brand new Book. Hobson's critical treatise on the practice of imperialism - whereby countries acquire territories for economic gain - is a classic in its field. This edition includes all of the author's original charts and illustrations. Published at the opening of the 20th century, while colonial imperialism still held decisive sway as a political and social practice, Hobson's treatise caused shockwaves in economics for its condemnation of a procedure long considered irreproachable.

While Hobson acknowledges that imperialism is often supported by a sense of nationalistic pride and achievement - as with the British Empire's colonial imperialism - he identifies capitalist oligarchy as the true motivation behind imperialistic ventures. Owners of productive capital, such as factories, generate a large surplus which they desire to reinvest in further factories; this prompts imperialist expansion into foreign lands.

Seller Inventory AAV More information about this seller Contact this seller 7. About this Item: Condition: New. Seller Inventory n. More information about this seller Contact this seller 8. About this Item: Condition: As New. Unread copy in perfect condition. More information about this seller Contact this seller 9. The search for productive growth is prompted by the plateau or stagnation of profit in what Hobson terms the 'Mother Country'. By necessity, the flagging system of the market economy is spread to other nations, where it acts to prop up the social and cultural orthodoxy. Hobson posits that were income instead distributed more equally among a population, then the occupation of other nations in search of profit would be unnecessary as a greater number of citizens are able to produce and prosper in and of themselves.

In addition to economic arguments against imperialism, Hobson also identifies the moral failings of the practice. He notes the oppressive and often violent behavior that the imperialist country imposes upon the occupied population, and the rise of feelings of racial superiority through the nationalist ideas that accompany imperialist expansion. Hobson's treatise would profoundly influence politicians in the UK seeking to reform the capitalist system, with the Liberal Party of the time particularly receptive to his critiques.

Notably, Hobson's book also influenced socialist and communist thinkers such as Vladimir Lenin, who adopted many of the criticisms in the book ahead of gaining power in Russia after the First World War. Seller Inventory APC More information about this seller Contact this seller Published by Pranava Books About this Item: Pranava Books, Condition: NEW. Reprinted from edition. NO changes have been made to the original text.

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About J. John Atkinson Hobson commonly known as John A. Hobson or J. Hobson; 6 July — 1 April , was an English economist, social scientist and critic of imperialism, widely popular as a lecturer and writer. He was the brother of the mathematician Ernest William Hobson. When Hobson relocated to London in , England was in the midst of a major economic depression. While classical economics was at a loss to explain the vicious business cycles, London had many societies that proposed alternatives.

He befriended several of the prominent Fabians who would found the London School of Economics, some of whom he had known at Oxford. However, none of these groups proved persuasive enough for Hobson; rather it was his collaboration with a friend, the famous businessman and mountain climber Albert F. Mummery, that would produce Hobson's contribution to economics: the theory of underconsumption. First described by Mummery and Hobson in the book Physiology of Industry, underconsumption was a scathing criticism of Say's law and classical economics' emphasis on thrift.

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The forwardness of the book's conclusions discredited Hobson among the professional economics community. Ultimately he was excluded from the academic community. They developed Hobson's famous critique of the classical theory of rent and his proposed generalization anticipated the Neoclassical "marginal productivity" theory of distribution. Soon after this period Hobson was recruited by the editor of the newspaper The Manchester Guardian to be their South African correspondent.

During his coverage of the Second Boer War, Hobson began to form the idea that imperialism was the direct result of the expanding forces of modern capitalism. He believed the mine owners, with Cecil Rhodes, who wanted control of the Transvaal, in the vanguard, were manipulating the British into fighting the Boers so that they could maximize their profits from mining.

His return to England was marked by his strong condemnation of the conflict. His publications during the next few years demonstrated an exploration of the associations between imperialism and international conflict. In what is arguably his magnum opus, Imperialism , he espoused the opinion that imperial expansion is driven by a search for new markets and investment opportunities overseas. Hobson wrote for several other journals before writing his next major work, The Industrial System In this tract he argued that maldistribution of income resulted, through oversaving and underconsumption, in unemployment and that the remedy was in eradicating the "surplus" by the redistribution of income by taxation and the nationalization of monopolies.

His advocacy for the formation of a world political body to prevent wars can be found clearly in his piece Towards International Government However, he was staunchly opposed to the League of Nations. In Hobson joined the Independent Labour Party. This was soon followed by writings f Books by J. Trivia About Imperialism: A Study. No trivia or quizzes yet.

Through the decade, it would grow closer to Germany and Italy, forming together the Axis alliance. In Japan took Manchuria from China. International reactions condemned this move, but Japan's already strong skepticism against Allied nations meant that it nevertheless carried on. By now, relations with the Allied powers were at the bottom, and an international boycott against Japan to deprive it of natural resources was enforced.

Using its superior technological advances in naval aviation and its modern doctrines of amphibious and naval warfare , Japan achieved one of the fastest maritime expansions in history, by the end of the Pacific War , Japan had conquered much of East Asia and the Pacific, including the east of China , Hong Kong , Thailand , Vietnam , Cambodia , Myanmar , Malaysia , Singapore , the Philippines , Indonesia , part of New Guinea and many islands of the Pacific Ocean.

Just as Japan's late industrialization success and victory against the Russian Empire was seen as an example among underdeveloped Asia-Pacific nations, the Japanese took advantage of this and promoted among its conquered the goal to jointly create an anti-European " Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere ".

This plan helped the Japanese gain support from native populations during its conquests. However, the United States were benefited by the long-term, war of attrition and over time the massive output of their industrial muscle, together with improvements in their military doctrines, turned the war in their favor. Japan's defeat in meant that its imperial gains, along with the proposed Pan-Asian sphere, were lost altogether, [83] [84] [85] but this anti-European experience was one of the leading antecedents in the Decolonization movements in East Asia and the Pacific in the second half of the 20th century.

The Ottoman Empire was an imperial state that lasted from to In , Mehmed the Conqueror besieged the capital of the Byzantine Empire , resulting in the Fall of Constantinople after 1, years of Roman rule. Thereafter, making it the capital of the empire. During the 16th and 17th centuries, in particular at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent , the Ottoman Empire was a powerful multinational, multilingual empire, which invaded and colonized much of Southeast Europe , Western Asia , the Caucasus , North Africa , and the Horn of Africa.

Its repeated invasions, and brutal treatment of Slavs led to the Great Migrations of the Serbs to escape persecution. At the beginning of the 17th century the empire contained 32 provinces and numerous vassal states.

Imperialism a Study by Hobson J a

Some of these were later absorbed into the empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries. With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin , the Ottoman Empire was at the center of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries.

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Following a long period of military setbacks against European powers, the Ottoman Empire gradually declined in its ability to remain sovereign against competing powers in the late 19th century. The empire allied with Germany in the early 20th century, with the imperial ambition of recovering its lost territories, but it dissolved in the aftermath of its defeat in the First World War. The residue was the new state of Turkey in the Ottoman Anatolian heartland, as well as the creation of modern Balkan and Middle Eastern states, thus ending Turkish colonial ambitions.

By the 18th century, the Russian Empire extended its control to the Pacific, forming a common border with the Qing Empire. This took place in a large number of military invasions of the lands east, west, and south of it. The war resulted in eastern Poland being conquered by Imperial Russia as a colony until The southern campaigns involved a series of Russo-Persian Wars , which began with the Persian Expedition of , resulting in the acquisition of Georgia country as a protectorate.

This last conflict led to the ethnic cleansing of Circassians from their lands. The Russian conquest of Siberia over the Khanate of Sibir took place in the 16th and 17th centuries, and resulted in the slaughter of various indigenous tribes by Russians, including the Daur , the Koryaks , the Itelmens , Mansi people and the Chukchi.

The Russian colonization of Central and Eastern Europe and Siberia and treatment of the resident indigenous peoples has been compared to European colonization of the Americas, with similar negative impacts on the indigenous Siberians as upon the indigenous peoples of the Americas. The extermination of indigenous Siberian tribes was so complete that a relatively small population of only , are said to exist today.

The Russian Empire exploited and suppressed Cossacks hosts during this period, before turning them into the special military estate Sosloviye in the late 18th century. Cossacks were then used in Imperial Russian campaigns against other tribes. Bolshevik leaders had effectively reestablished a polity with roughly the same extent as that empire by , however with an internationalist ideology: Lenin in particular asserted the right to limited self-determination for national minorities within the new territory.

Never formally revoked, it stopped being implemented after After World War II, the Soviet Union installed socialist regimes modeled on those it had installed in —20 in the old Russian Empire , in areas its forces occupied in Eastern Europe. Trotsky , and others, believed that the revolution could only succeed in Russia as part of a world revolution.

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Lenin wrote extensively on the matter and famously declared that Imperialism was the highest stage of capitalism. However, after Lenin's death, Joseph Stalin established ' socialism in one country ' for the Soviet Union, creating the model for subsequent inward looking Stalinist states and purging the early Internationalist elements.

The internationalist tendencies of the early revolution would be abandoned until they returned in the framework of a client state in competition with the Americans during the Cold War. In the after Stalin period in the late s, the new political leader Nikita Khrushchev put pressure on the Soviet-American relations starting a new wave of anti-imperialist propaganda.

In his speech on the UN conference in , he announced the continuation of the war on imperialism, stating that soon the people of different countries will come together and overthrow their imperialist leaders. Although the Soviet Union declared itself anti-imperialist , critics argue that it exhibited traits common to historic empires. Some also argued that the USSR practiced colonialism as did other imperial powers and was carrying on the old Russian tradition of expansion and control. Moreover, the ideas of imperialism were widely spread in action on the higher levels of government.

A former colony itself, the early United States expressed its opposition to Imperialism, at least in a form distinct from its own Manifest Destiny , through policies such as the Monroe Doctrine. They were often backed by military force, but were more often effected from behind the scenes. This is consistent with the general notion of hegemony and imperium of historical empires.

One year later, a war erupted in the Philippines causing business, labor and government leaders in the US to condemn America's occupation in the Philippines as they also denounced them for causing the deaths of many Filipinos. Roosevelt was opposed to European colonialism, especially in India. He pulled back when Britain's Winston Churchill demanded that victory in the war be the first priority. Roosevelt expected that the United Nations would take up the problem of decolonization. Some have described the internal strife between various people groups as a form of imperialism or colonialism.

This internal form is distinct from informal U. This internal form of empire has been referred to as "internal colonialism". The western world forgets during this process of converting the other that enlightenment and democracy are concepts that not all will agree upon".

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Spanish imperialism in the colonial era corresponds with the rise and decline of the Spanish Empire , conventionally recognized as emerging in with the conquest of the Canary Islands. Following the successes of exploratory maritime voyages conducted during the Age of Discovery , such as those undertaken by Christopher Columbus , Spain committed considerable financial and military resources towards developing a robust navy capable of conducting large-scale, transatlantic expeditionary operations in order to establish and solidify a firm imperial presence across portions of North America, South America, and the geographic regions comprising the Caribbean basin.

Concomitant with Spanish endorsement and sponsorship of transatlantic expeditionary voyages was the deployment of Conquistadors , which further expanded Spanish imperial boundaries through the acquisition and development of territories and colonies. In congruence with the colonialist activities of competing European imperial powers throughout the 15th — 19th centuries, the Spanish were equally engrossed in extending geopolitical power.

The Caribbean basin functioned as a key geographic focal point for advancing Spanish imperialism. Similar to the strategic prioritization Spain placed towards achieving victory in the conquests of the Aztec Empire and Inca Empire , Spain placed equal strategic emphasis on expanding the nation's imperial footprint within the Caribbean basin. Echoing the prevailing ideological perspectives regarding colonialism and imperialism embraced by Spain's European rivals during the colonial era, including the English, French, and the Dutch, the Spanish utilized colonialism as a means of expanding imperial geopolitical borders and securing the defense of maritime trade routes in the Caribbean basin.

While leveraging colonialism in the same geographic operating theater as its imperial rivals, Spain maintained distinct imperial objectives and instituted a unique form of colonialism in support of its imperial agenda. Spain placed significant strategic emphasis on the acquisition, extraction, and exportation of precious metals primarily gold and silver. A second objective was the evangelization of subjugated indigenous populations residing in mineral-rich and strategically favorable locations. Compulsory labor and slavery were widely institutionalized across Spanish-occupied territories and colonies, with an initial emphasis on directing labor towards mining activity and related methods of procuring semi-precious metals.

The emergence of the Encomienda system during the 16th—17th centuries in occupied colonies within the Caribbean basin reflects a gradual shift in imperial prioritization, increasingly focusing on large-scale production and exportation of agricultural commodities.


The scope and scale of Spanish participation in imperialism within the Caribbean basin remains a subject of scholarly debate among historians. A fundamental source of contention stems from the inadvertent conflation of theoretical conceptions of imperialism and colonialism. Furthermore, significant variation exists in the definition and interpretation of these terms as expounded by historians, anthropologists, philosophers, and political scientists.

Among historians, there is substantial support in favor of approaching imperialism as a conceptual theory emerging during the 18th—19th centuries, particularly within Britain, propagated by key exponents such as Joseph Chamberlain and Benjamin Disraeli. In accordance with this theoretical perspective, the activities of the Spanish in the Caribbean are not components of a preeminent, ideologically-driven form of imperialism.

Rather, these activities are more accurately classified as representing a form of colonialism. Further divergence among historians can be attributed to varying theoretical perspectives regarding imperialism that are proposed by emerging academic schools of thought.

Noteworthy examples include cultural imperialism , whereby proponents such as John Downing and Annabelle Sreberny-Modammadi define imperialism as " In spite of diverging perspectives and the absence of a unilateral scholarly consensus regarding imperialism among historians, within the context of Spanish expansion in the Caribbean basin during the colonial era, imperialism can be interpreted as an overarching ideological agenda that is perpetuated through the institution of colonialism.

In this context, colonialism functions as an instrument designed to achieve specific imperialist objectives. Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses. Home FAQ Contact. Imperialism Wikipedia open wikipedia design. Policy or ideology of extending a nation's rule over foreign nations. For other uses, see Imperialism disambiguation. Primary topics. Index of politics articles Politics by country Politics by subdivision Political economy Political history Political history of the world Political philosophy.

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See also: Cartographic propaganda. Main articles: International relations, — and International relations of the Great Powers — Great Britain. Main article: Chinese imperialism. Main article: French colonial empire. See also: Criticism of communist party rule and Soviet Empire. Main article: American imperialism. Globalization Hegemony Historiography of the British Empire Imperialism in Leninist theory Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism International relations of the Great Powers — International relations, — List of empires List of largest empires Oil imperialism theories Pluricontinentalism Postcolonialism Scientific imperialism Super-imperialism Suzerainty Ultra-imperialism Uneven and combined development Western European colonialism and colonization.

Gertrude Millin , Rhodes , London: , p. Retrieved 22 February Lewis, An Elementary Latin Dictionary, imperium inp- ". Retrieved 11 September Teorier om imperialism in Swedish. Culture and Imperialism. Vintage Publishers, Empire, colony, postcolony. Key Concepts in Political Geography. London: SAGE. Political Geography 2nd ed. Empire: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. Princeton University Press. Sage knowledge. Key Concepts in Human Geography. Modern Imperialism. Lexington, Massachusetts: D. Key Concepts in Political Geography : Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography : Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography : 7.

Key Thinkers on Space and Place , 2nd. Los Angeles, Calif:Sage Publications. Geographies of Postcolonialism. Los Angeles:London:Sage Publications. New York:Vintage. Los Angeles: London: Sage Publications. Los Angeles:London: Sage Publications. New York: Vintage. Sage Publications Ltd.

Roger Louis, Imperialism p. The great illusion: — Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers. New Series. Stearns Pearson Education, Inc. Hobson and Alfred Zimmern Reconsidered," History 89 pp. How Europe underdeveloped Africa. London: Bogle-L'Ouverture Publications. In Key concepts in political geography pp. London: SAGE: "[ Canada in the Making. Archived from the original on October 8, Retrieved February 3,