The first two weeks were left to conditioning training and the rest 10 weeks were experimental weeks. This research was containing 8 groups of which 6 control with moderate intensity, 6 khat with moderate intensity, 6 khat plus Vitamin B complex with moderate intensity, 6 vitamin B complex supplement with moderate intensity, 6 control with high intensity, 6 khat with high intensity, 6 khat plus Vitamin B complex with high intensity, 6 vitamin B complex with high intensity.
Both groups were participated in the 12 week fitness training program. The khat and khat plus vitamin B complex group were selected from khat users and they were chewed 30g fresh khat leaves from the shoot per individual per day from the same source for 3 days per week 1 hour before training. The controlled group was selected from non users randomly. For vitamin B complex and khat plus vitamin B complex group Therefore, 48 healthy, volunteer and physically active with age years of old male human subjects were randomly selected and filled physical activity readiness questionnaire to assess their health status and were recruited as a subject.
For the subjects not honestly answered the questions closely follow up and control was applied by the researcher. Subjects, who were not healthy were excluded but have been advised to exercise according to the instruction of physician under medical supervision to minimize unnecessary exercise effect. Since subjects were volunteers they could be refrain for the situations as long as they were not ready or not feel comfort at any time they want.
Inclusion Exclusion Criteria Volunteer, Healthy, Male subjects with age years of old were selected. This is due to the reason that fitness of sports men above 25 years becomes decline and fitness of youngsters with age below 18 years is on the process of growing so to control such factors which may disturb the result and causes physical fitness difference. For this reason they were not included whereas subjects years of age thought to be at their optimum fitness level.
In addition physically active participants of karate sport were recruited as a subject for this study. Subjects who could not fulfill the above requirement were excluded from being a subject to this research. Written consent was also delivered to the participants and then they were informed about the objectives of the study. Participation of subjects in this study was purely a voluntary activity and their right not to participate was respected.
Issues of confidentiality and anonymity were also maintained. Methods of Data Collection Primary source of data: permission for the study was granted by Haramaya University Institutional research ethics review committee. Primary data was gathered from the subjects by four phases with one month gap. This data was collected from the subjects in the area where comfortable place and fitness test instrument was accessible through structured program. To get data from the subjects, tests were taken at the beginning of the training, at the end of each two months and final data was collected at the end of the experiment.
Data was collected at the same time of the day and by the same data collector to control biological and between subject www. Gashaw Tesema variations Reily and brooks, with the following physical fitness tests and procedure. Cardio respiratory endurance tests Three minute step test Equipment: stopwatch, The metronome have been set 96 times per minute Left leg up, right leg up, left leg down, and then right leg down, It was the sequence of stepping on the bench one step with one beat of the metronome have been done for exactly three minutes.
After exactly five seconds pulse was taken for 15 seconds. Systolic blood pressure Equipment: Digital sphygmomanometer, table and chair. Number of test trials: three times. Instruction: The systolic and diastolic blood pressure test was conducted as follows.
The Sixth: Catha
The subject was directed to sit on the chair and roll his sleeve. The tourniquet of sphygmomanometer was tied on the middle part of the upper arm and inflated by air. The result was read from indicator of sphygmomanometer and recorded in millimeter mercury.
Scoring: The average result was recorded in mmHg.
Muscular endurance tests Push up Equipment: Comfortable floor and flat gym mat, stopwatch. Number of test trials: three trials. Instruction: The push up test has been conducted as follows. Hands were placed slightly wider than shoulder width apart, with fingers pointing forward. The subject started from the up position elbows extended , the subject must keep the back straight at all times and lower the body to the floor until the chest touches the mat on the floor then has been return to the up position.
This was one repetition. Number of test trials: one trial. Instruction: The curl up test has been conducted as follows. The subject was starting by lying on the back, knees bent, heels flat on the floor, with the fingers placed and held behind the head. Pulling on the head with the hands have been avoided. The buttocks have been remained on the floor with no thrusting of the hips. The feet have been hold down firmly by a partner. The subject then has been performed as many correct sit ups as possible in one minute.
In the up position, the individual has been touch elbows to knees and then return until the shoulder blades touch the floor. Any resting have be done in the up position. Breathing has been as normal as possible. Neck has been remained in the neutral position. Pull on the head or neck have been avoided. Data Collection Tools Data was collected by data collectors using tape measure, Digital sphygmomanometer, Standardized gymnasium stepping bench, and stopwatch. Data Quality Control Data have been collected by two Diploma holders. To avoid errors training have been given for data collectors on how to use data collection instruments and measurements during data collection.
Full text of "Rosc Catha"
Well calibrated instruments and standardized tests have been used to keep quality of the data. In addition photograph and video recordings have been used to keep information. Finally the data have been coded and feed to software twice with different persons to avoid error in data feeding.
Gashaw Tesema SAS version 9. Differences between treatments were determined by using the least significant difference LSD technique. When we compare groups with their mean values; vitamin supplied group was increased from This shows that vitamin B complex could significantly increase sit up performances of trainees. This is similar with the reports of Woolf K.
This could be due to the ability of vitamin B complex ensuring optimum energy production, building and repair of muscle tissues. The controlled group was increased from The khat supplied group was increased from This shows that khat could impair sit up performance development of trainees. Treatment with high intensity group was increased from Even though they were not statistically significant there was significant difference between khat vitamin supplement and intensity interaction.
There were high interactions between khat vitamin supplementation and intensity for vitamin high intensity and control high intensity groups with Gashaw Tesema 1. The same result was reported that due to the components of like thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine panthothenic acid and biotin vitamin B complex is effective in energy production during exercise Keith, This shows that vitamin B complex could significantly increase push up performances of trainees and khat could affect push up performance development of trainees.
Vitamin supplied group was decreased from And the controlled group was also decreased from This could be due to lowering effects of exercise include neurohumoral, vascular, and structural adaptations, decreases in catecholamines and total peripheral resistance, improved insulin sensitivity, and alterations in vasodilators and vasoconstrictors Linda et al.
The khat supplied group was also increased from This shows that khat could significantly increase systolic BP of trainees. It is in agreement with the report that Khat has been the cause of acute myocardial infarction and high blood Pressure Workineh et al. Treatment with high intensity group was decreased from Interactions between khat vitamin supplementation and intensity for systolic blood pressure were highly significant. Vitamin high intensity group showed high improvement with Table 6. In this study the highest recorded mean value was vitamin supplied group.
It increased from This shows that vitamin B complex could significantly increase Vo2 max of trainees. It implies that khat could affect the capacity maximum oxygen capacity of trainees. This is similar with the research that have been done on Interaction of initial fitness and intensity of exercise on improvement in VO2max of athletes fitness, higher intensity exercise especially for individuals who are already fit produce greater Vo2max fitness Swain, Moderate intensity group was increased from Interactions between khat vitamin supplementation and intensity for three minute step test were highly significant for vitamin high intensity group with Major findings of this investigation were the effect of exercise intensity, chewing khat and vitamin B complex supplements on selected fitness components with three month moderate and high intensity training.
Muscular endurance and cardio respiratory endurance were seen with the appropriate fitness measurements. All measurements have been taken four times with every month. In all applied fitness measurements Vitamin B complex supplemented group scores the highest mean of all. The controlled group also got the next highest position next to vitamin B complex supplemented group. In the case of exercise intensity; high intensity exercise has got better mean than moderate intensity.
In addition vitamin with high intensity and control with high intensity interaction were highly significant. Conclusions Based on the major findings of the study, the following points are stated as a conclusion. Recommendations Based on the findings of this study, the following points are recommended on the relationship of intensity, khat, vitamin B complex supplementation and athletic performance. Gashaw Tesema References Aagaard P. Andersen, Effects of strength training on endurance capacity in top-level endurance athletes. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 20 2 : 39— Al-Motarreb A.
Al-Habori, and K.
Broadley, Khat chewing, cardiovascular diseases and other internal medical problems: The current situation and directions for future research. J of Ethno pharmacology. American College of Sports Medicine ACSM fitness book. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics p. Brenneisen R. Fisch, U. Koelbing, S. Kalix, Amphetamine-like effects in humans of the khat alkaloid cathinone. Br J Clin Pharmacol, — Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey. Chris C. The different ways to test cardiovascular endurance. Acssed on - Davis B. Jan, R. Denis, Physical education and the study of sport.
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