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In Old French, corresponding words are jogleor and menestrel later modified into menestrier , with a suffix that aligns it advantageously with the names of other professions , in Middle High German spilman. The comparable jacks-of-all-trades histrio , mimus , and scurra lost much ground in the medieval period to the benefit of the jongleur and minstrel. Old French menestrel. For a critical analysis of the distinction, see Giuseppe Noto, Il giullare e il trovatore nelle liriche e nelle biografie provenzali , Scrittura e scrittori, vol.

Karl Reichl Berlin: De Gruyter, , —, at — Eventually they became associated with music. Declaratio , lines — He writes joglars , remendadors , segriers , and cazuros. For jongleurs, he writes joglars. John W. Thomas of Chobham. The toponymical element in his name is known alternately as Chabham, Cobham, and Cabham. On the influence of his treatise, see Helen F. Thomas of Chobham, Summa confessorum , ed. Broomfield, Analecta mediaevalia Namurcensia, vol.

But it is to be observed that there are three sorts of performers. For some distort and transfigure their bodies through indecent acrobatics or coarse gestures, or by laying bare their bodies indecently, or by putting on frightful costumes or masks, and all are worthy of damnation unless they abandon their trades. There are also other performers who work not at all but curiously meddle 2 Thessalonians , not having a fixed abode, but they gad about the courts of grandees and speak slander and vileness about those who are not present.

And such people are called vagabond men-about-town, inasmuch as they are useful for nothing but devouring and slandering. There is also a third type of performers who have musical instruments to delight people, but there are two types of them. For some frequent public drinking fests and lusty gatherings to sing lusty songs there, to stir men to lust, and such people are worthy of damnation just as the others are.

But there are also others who are called jongleurs who sing chansons de geste and lives of the saints and bring solace to men either in sickness or distress and do not engage in undue crudeness as do male and female acrobats and others who play in unseemly masks and cause themselves to seem as if they are apparitions through enchantments or in some other way. If however they do not engage in such conduct but sing to the accompaniment of their instruments chansons de geste and other useful topics to bring solace to men as has been said, such performers can well be tolerated, as Pope Alexander [III] said when a certain jongleur asked of him whether he could save his soul while in his profession.

The pontiff asked him if he knew how to earn his living in another manner. Upon receiving a negative reply from the jongleur, he allowed him to live from his trade, so long as he abstained from all lustiness and scandalousness. Dugauquier, 3 2a : , are examined by John W. Summa confessorum , 6. Quoted in Faral, Les jongleurs , 67n1. In his criticism, Thomas followed Peter the Chanter, who is conjectured to have been his teacher.

See Peter, Summa de sacramentis et animae consiliis , ed. Jean-Albert Dugauquier, 5 vols. Romance of Flamenca. Mario E. Porter, trans. Some dive through hoops. Verses 25— Debate poems. Canticles of Saint Mary. Daurel and Beton. Paul Meyer, ed. Kimmel, ed. Meyer, Daurel et Beton , 48; trans. The phrase stabilitas loci is untapped in the Rule , but stabilitas and the corresponding adjective stabilis appear repeatedly: Venarde, Rule of Saint Benedict , 18—19 chap.

The Latin terms are peregrinus and peregrinatio.

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See Gerhart B. On gyro- and vagus , see J. The Latin word is vagans. He led a vagabond life. Lines 10— The study of such expression is called kinesics. Since the Cistercians have been connected with ring dancing, it would be tempting to speculate that the sequence followed a circular pattern.

Abhandlungen, vol. Menu, The key evidence is Rabelais, Gargantua , 1. Cohen London: Penguin, , The definitions of the two Old French words are from Hindley et al. Teubner, , 31 mimus Christi. In Latin, imitatio Christi. Have no fear, fellow scholars: the quotation within the title is [sic]. Theodosius banned such pagan cults. In Olschki, , especially —37; J. Particularly penitentials, texts that listed sins and prescribed penances for them. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, — , C Davies, Liturgical Dance , 36— Selma Jeanne Cohen et al.

Dionysus was equivalent to the Roman Bacchus. The followers of Dionysus included bacchantes and maenads. France, Separate but Equal , — Bretel, Le Jongleur de Notre-Dame , 37—38, 41, , emphasizes the body as a means of redemption, and as a cause of exaltation and exultation. Sobczyk, Les jongleurs de Dieu , —28, rejects this emphasis. On flagellants, see Backman, Religious Dances , — The story resembles time as it operated in the Middle Ages, as an intersection of the iterative and the one-time, the diurnal round and the special, the immovable and the movable feast.

Giselle, or The Wilis. The Wilis are themselves drawn from Slavic tradition. The Wilis. In Slavic and especially South Slavic mythology that is attested already in medieval sources, the vily are beautiful nymphlike spirits who have the power of flight. Associated with the mountains and waters, they overlap with the female water spirits known as rusalki , who amused themselves on land sometimes and who tickled to death or drowned their victims.

They are known more fully as the Shaking Quakers. Augustin, ; Robert P. Ahmet T. Hecker, Dancing Mania of the Middle Ages , 2. Kemp, Narratives of Gothic Stained Glass , Abbaye de Cluny, 2 au 9 juillet , ed. Leclerq et al. This is not a childlike game, not from the stage, to elicit lust with shameful, womanly contortions and to represent vile activities. Kapsner , ed. Plante Collegeville, MN: St.

Earliest use at least according to the citations in the Oxford English Dictionary. The Latin word ludus that is employed here could encompass an immense ambit. Paul, Caesarius, Dialogus miraculorum , ed. Joseph Strange, 2 vols. Cologne: J. Heberle, , 1: distinctio 6, capitulum 8 ; for an English translation of which, see The Dialogue on Miracles , trans. Von Essen Scott and C. Swinton Bland, 2 vols. London: G. Sicut illorum [illius] verba vel opera in eius [libri eorum] ore vel manibus, qui ioculator non est, saepe displicent, et poena digna [digni] sunt apud homines; quae tamen ab eis dicta vel facta, placent: ita est de simplicibus.

Ut sic dicam, ioculatores Dei sunt sanctorumque angelorum simplices. If I may put it in such a way, the simple-minded are the jongleurs of God and the holy angels. John R. Sommerfeldt, Studies in Medieval Cistercian History, vol. Ioculatores domini is not documented before its use in Legenda Perusina of — On the expression, see Raoul S. The degree to which the phrase has become associated with Francis may be gauged from its use in titles.

Francis of Assisi. Brother Juniper. Fra Ginepro, in Italian.


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Berceo uses the terms trovador and joglar. Jeannie K. Bartha et al. Blessed John Buoni. David Hugh Farmer and Paul Burns, 12 vols. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, — , — For the relevant texts and Italian translations, see Vita di Giovanni Bono , ed. Paul the Apostle, in 1 Corinthians Compare , 23, Alexander Y. Symeon of Emesa. Symeon flourished sometime between the middle and end of the sixth century. Emesa is the modern-day Homs, in Syria. He is known from a brief account in the sixth-century Evagrius Scholasticus and a detailed one in the seventh-century Leontios of Neapolis.

Lausiac History. The Lausiac History was named after Lausus or Lausos , who commissioned it. This eunuch became the imperial chamberlain at the court of Emperor Theodosius II r. Poulakou-Rebelakou et al. This article offers in condensed form comprehensive information on different traditions of holy fools.

Saint Francis of Assisi. Regis J. Armstrong et al. He wanted me to be a new fool in the world. He would go on being a fool; he would become more and more of a fool; he would be the court fool of the King of Paradise. Halkin, F. Bierlaire, and R. Hoven [] , —, at Sergei Hackel, Studies Supplement to Sobornost , vol. Paolo Odorico and Panagiotis A. Agapitos, Dossiers byzantins, vol.

Modern-day Wadi al-Natrun, then a monastic center, in the desert of the northwestern Nile Delta. Mark the Fool. The story, entitled De Marco salo On […] Mark , is no. Britt Dahlman, Studia Byzantina Upsaliensia, vol. Another example. The story, entitled De virgine quae ebrietatem simulabat , is no.

The same tale has been subsumed in Bibliotheca Hagiographica Graeca , no. Two of these are included in Holy Men of Mount Athos , ed. Richard P. As its name predisposes us to believe, this great church was associated with the Virgin. It was located in the northwestern section of Constantinople, in the suburb known as Blachernae. The key Russian term is iurodivyi.

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Ewa M. Gautier de Coinci wrote a miracle. Gautier de Coinci, Les miracles de Notre Dame , ed. Gottfried Keller composed a poem. The original episode was recorded in the sixteenth-century family chronicle known as the Zimmern Chronicle — The Fool of Count von Zimmern. The cup is known as a ciborium. For the source, see Zimmerische Chronik , ed. Karl August Barack, 4 vols. The Holy Jester Francis. The Italian for jongleur is giullare , for jonglery is giullarata. Gail Ashton and Daniel T. Brewer, , 68— The framework he assumes derives from Antonio Gramsci and Mikhail Bakhtin, among others, and it posits subaltern masses of lower classes, which are oppressed by hegemonic elites.

Truth is stranger than fiction. Mark Twain, Following the Equator , chap. The City of God. De civitate Dei. On Superstition. De superstitione. The parallel to De civitate Dei 6. In the retelling of the Old French by the latter, the jongleur dies at the end of performing and supplicating.

A similar impulse may explain another historical anecdote. In , a mime play is interrupted when the alarm is sounded of an approaching enemy. The crowd first rushes to arms and later returns to the performance, where the spectators find that in their absence the mime has continued dancing to the accompaniment of a flute player. See Sextus Pompeius Festus, De verborum significatione , ed. Lindsay, in Glossaria latina , 5 vols. The odds are good that if we wished to track down instances from other traditions, they could be found readily.

Brill, , — Dancers are the athletes of God. This saying is often identified, without any source, as a quotation from Albert Einstein. His feast day is May His life story was written by his fellow Franciscan and superior, Father Juan Ximenez. The abbreviated Latin translation of the original Spanish vita by Father Ximenez can be found in Acta Sanctorum May 4, : 48—; the episode to follow is at p. Oswald Staniforth London: R. This aspect is symbolized by the ostensory and the chalice.

King of the Graveyard. On the conventional iconography, see Maria Chiara Celletti, in Bibliotheca sanctorum , — The episode is recounted in Ximenez, Chronica. In the province of Bulacan, on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. Our Lady of Salambao. Our Lady of Salambao is an image of the Virgin now in the church of San Paschal that was reportedly found by two brothers inside their fishing net salambao in Herbert J. Thurston and Donald Attwater, 4 vols. Westminster, MD: Christian Classics, , 2: Saint John Bosco.

In Italian, Giovanni Melchiorre Bosco. Daniel Lyons, with notes and commentary by Eugenio Ceria et al. An Italian biography by Eugenio Pilla is entitled Il piccolo giocoliere , 4th ed. The lay brothers are known as coadjutors. Ruth St. The intensities of my spiritual life had found a focus of action in exactly the same way that another earnest young person would enter the church. What Is She? The dancer was introduced. The introduction came after an organ prelude and Gospel readings. She is the being of creative love. Madonnas were the passion of her last years.

Shelton, Divine Dancer , One Sunday in February 25, Manhattan church. The church was Central Presbyterian, which had been constructed in Gothic revival style between and at the corner of 64th Street and Park Avenue, on the Upper East Side. Rachel K. On the puritanical reaction to the dance, see Shelton, Divine Dancer , Eventually she danced in the corps de ballet, and ultimately she became the first dancer. The pose in question was an arabesque, in which the dancer balances on one leg with the other unbent at the knee and extended back.

Her narrative of the time is replete with pronouncements of devotion to both God and dance. Hans Neumann, 2 vols. Frank Tobin, Classics of Western Spirituality, vol. I will dance for you, Lord. Order of the Visitation. It was founded in God was the lord of the dance. Dance is also a school of tolerance, since its language is universal and can be understood by everyone, whatever their creed or origins.

A recent book by her is a meditation upon the Gospels entitled Dance with Jesus. I dance for God. Her convictions regarding dance are summarized simply but nicely in a French weekly for children, Fripounet 52, December 28, —January 4, , 28— Nick Weber. I Dance with God. Worker-Sisters of the Holy House of Nazareth. If it is not true, it is well conceived. He who labors as he prays. Vox clamantis in deserto.

These words are drawn from the Vulgate Latin translation of the Gospel of Mark —3 and of the Gospel of John —23 in reference to John the Baptist, which in turn quotes Isaiah Clothing and horses were frequent tokens of largesse from wealthy patrons. Poets mention them often as coveted perquisites. The attackers included clerics such as Gerald of Wales and Walter Map. The founder was Abbot Robert of the Benedictine abbey of Molesmes in Burgundy, who was persuaded to undertake this innovation by two fellow monks, Alberic and Stephen Harding.

The Latin place name Cistercium is related to the noun cistellum. Kinder, Cistercian Europe , 81— There were obvious exceptions: we will encounter more than once a monk named Helinand of Froidmont. Bernard loved the valleys. Gilchrist Lavigne, Cistercian Studies Series, vol. Annping Chin New York: Penguin, , book 6. Exordium parvum , 3, in Chrysogonus Waddell, ed.

Basil Pennington, Cistercian Studies Series, vol. Two strands of scholarship have credited the long twelfth century with an unprecedented appreciation of individuality. One has emphasized the quality as it appears in literature, the other as it comes to the fore in religious sensibilities.

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The poem about the tumbler straddles both categories: in this literary work, he creates a paradoxically solo community within a monastery. It bears recalling that his individuality has nothing to do with personality in a modern sense, of which he puts on display none. The term abbot. The word has reached us by way of first Greek and then Latin. Jesus and Paul. The three instances are in Mark , Romans , and Galatians The Latin terms are monachus conversus and monachus laicus or illitteratus , respectively.

See Constance H. Ad conversionem. Lectio divina. Dimier, Stones Laid before the Lord , Exordium magnum Cisterciense, sive, Narratio de initio Cisterciensis Ordinis , ed. Huper and douleia , respectively. Jahrhundert , ed. Claudia Opitz et al. Thomas Buffer San Francisco: Ignatius, , — Cistercian writers. Ambrosius Schneider et al. Cologne, Germany: Wienand, , — Divine Comedy. Paradiso , To Bernard, Dante also assigns the culminating prayer to the Virgin in the final canto of the same concluding canticle, Paradiso Bernard, among others.

Humility, chastity, and silence. For an anthology of texts relating to Mary in English translation, see E. Rozanne Elder, ed. Peter Abelard. Letter 10, in Letters of Peter Abelard, beyond the Personal , trans. Jan M. Ziolkowski Washington, D. Meredith Parsons Lillich, Cistercian Studies, vol. Hail, Holy Queen. Albi nimirum monachi dicuntur, non modo quod albedine vestium fulgeant, sed quod candoris virginei ministri spirituales existant. Saint Alberic. Feast day, January Acta sanctorum. Marian Doctor. Latin Doctor Marianus or Doctor Marialis.

Ottilien, Germany: EOS, — , 1: —50, at Reinhardt, , — The angel Gabriel was sent. Luke , in Latin, Missus est angelus Gabriel. On the Praises of the Virgin Mother. Latin De laudibus virginis matris. Hilda C. Westminster, MD: Christian Classics, , 1: — Hail, Star of the Sea. Latin Ave, maris stella.

It is actually the work of the eighth-century Ambrosius Autpertus. Mother of the Word, do not spurn my words; but hear and hearken to me favorably. Greetings, Bernard. Salve, Bernarde. Mary in this guise can be designated in Latinate terminology as the Madonna or Virgo Lactans , in Greek as panagia galaktotrophousa. This is not the place to examine the broadest implications of the motif, which has strong relevance to female spirituality. In this connection, the milk could be tied to the blood of Christ in the Eucharist as well as to the motif of the gore that comes forth when his side is lanced during the crucifixion.

The event was celebrated annually on January Actes des Rencontres de Dijon, 7—8 juin , ed. The imperative monstra te esse matrum show yourself to be a mother quotes verbatim a verse in Ave maris stella , the aforementioned hymn to Mary that is from the ninth century or earlier. For the text and translation, see Peter G. Saint Bernard alone.

The most important early record of the story, in which the woman is Pero and her father Cimon, appears in Valerius Maximus, Factorum ac dictorum memorabilium. Barnay, Le ciel sur la terre , Mary in the manifestation of nursing mother is often styled in Latin as mater lactans. Vercell: Opera quae supersunt , ed. Martin Jenni, Cistercian Fathers Series, vol. Caroline Walker Bynum, Jesus as Mother , — Our Lady of Mercy. Alternatively, Our Lady of Pity. Fontemoing, Bissera V. The first telling of it as an exemplum is in Dialogus miraculorum 7. Johannes Maior, ed. Une touaille blance. The corresponding term in Latin was mappa.

It was an ancient lexical import from Punic, a language that went extinct in late antiquity. Tovaglia and tovagliolo. Mary had an up-close-and-personal connection. Barnay, Le ciel sur la terre , —5. The French phrase is couvre chef or cuerchief. Stewart Gordon New York: Palgrave, , 59— Norman H. Baynes, Byzantine Studies and Other Essays , ed.

Humphreys and A. Similar to a dickey, it covered the lower neck and upper chest, when worn over a bodice that would otherwise have left those areas exposed. Chartres, France: R. Selleret, — , 1: —8. For instance, it is pictured in the background of a famous painting on wood behind an altar: see Margaret B. No one can serve two masters. Matthew , Luke Latin fratres laici. Line On the specific nature of the facial hair, see France, Separate but Equal , 76— In Latin, fratres barbati.

On their illiteracy, see France, Separate but Equal , 57— Usus conversorum , ed. Bretel, Les ermites et les moines , 32— Bretel, Les ermites et les moines , 54— Del tumbeor Nostre Dame , lines 54, 65, For an illustration of a lay brother kneeling before Mary in an early thirteenth-century manuscript, see France, Cistercians in Medieval Art , , fig. The representation of the death ritual in the medieval poem matches approximately what is documented for Benedictine monks: see Frederic S. Exordium magnum Cisterciense , ed. One anecdote. Griesser, —57 4. Our Father. Pater noster. Credo in Deum I believe in God , etc.

Psalm Usus conversorum , chap. See line Hail, Mary. Ave Maria. Recorded in Luke Lines 57— Caesarius of Heisterbach recounts this celebrated anecdote twice. Dialogue on Miracles. Dialogus miraculorum. The text known previously as Liber visionum et miraculorum Book of visions and miracles was assembled at Clairvaux between and see Olivier Legendre, ed. Its title has now been emended: see idem, ed. There are eighty-three chapters in all. Strange, 2: 1—80; idem, Dialogue on Miracles , trans. Scott and Bland, 1: — Caesarius, Dialogus miraculorum , Distinctio 7, Capitula 12—13, ed.

Strange, 2: 15, trans. The first to point out this phenomenon and to cite examples was Faral, Les jongleurs , n2. Lives of the Fathers. Vitae Patrum , in PL , Silvestre rejects the foundation for the legend, while paying attention in passing to the credence given it in the Middle Ages and later. The Monk of Montaudon. On him and his poems, see Michael J.

Routledge, ed. As prize for his poetry, the monk is awarded a sparrow hawk. Rather, the name corresponds to the Latin Marius, a male saint. Folquet of Marseille. On his conversion, see Nicole M. Berlioz, Guiot de Provins. Despite his conventional name, Guiot may have been from the relatively small region then known as France, which occupied only a north-central portion of what is now the country by the same name.

Bible Guiot. Helinand of Froidmont. Jenny Lind Porter, ed. This possibility rests on a disputed interpretation of the final two lines: see Jean Renart, Le Roman de la Rose, ou, de Guillaume de Dole , ed.

Jean Dufournet, Champion Classiques. Adam of Lexington. Joseph Stevenson London, , repr. William D. Evelyn B. On monastic silence, see Paul F. Lines 73— On silence, see Rule of Saint Benedict , chaps. Venarde, 42—43, —35, —45, —61, and — Latin signa loquendi. The silence of lay brothers is presented as virtuous by Caesarius of Heisterbach, Dialogus miraculorum , ed. Strange 2: 95, trans. Scott and Bland, 2: 18—19 Distinctio 8, Capitulum The urgency of controlling signing is apparent not only in Cistercian customaries and other such texts, but also in their exempla collections.

For instance, Caesarius of Heisterbach relates a tale of a monk who as punishment for overindulging in signs and speech suffered the horrors of hell, only to be revitalized so that he could admonish his brethren Caesarius of Heisterbach, Libri VIII Miraculorum 2. Hanstein, — , 3: — See Venarde, Rule of Saint Benedict , chap. First conveyed in English by the now obsolete word accidie. Doran Company, , 47— Megan Cassidy et al.

This article was revised and incorporated in Cassidy-Welch, Monastic Spaces , A third exemplum. Via negativa or via negationis. The French words used are cotele in line diminutive of the source of English coat , chemise in line from which English chemise. De nugis curialium. James, rev. Brooke and R. The most comprehensive treatment of the clothing worn by lay brothers is France, Separate but Equal , 84— Lay brothers wore a very basic outfit of a robe with capuce, belt, socks, and footwear.

Brothers who had special duties as smiths or herdsmen were authorized additional extra garments. Nothing is said about underclothing. John Willard R. Trask, Bollingen Series, vol. Sherry C. Lindquist Farnham, UK: Ashgate, , 85— and ix list of illustrations. A very useful overview of terminology and metaphors remains D. Robertson, Jr. Latin terms. Goswin of Bossut. Martha G. A key passage is Goswin of Bossut, Vita Arnulfi , book 1, chaps. Martinus Cawley, Medieval Women, vol. Denis Meehan, Scriptores Latini Hiberniae, vol.

Gospel of John. John —7. It joins together vera and icon. The contemporary was Ananias, also known as Hannan.

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The Latin is toella , cognate with French touaille. See Nicolotti, From the Mandylion , — Stefano Zuffi, trans. Rosanna M. Giammanco Frongia Los Angeles: J. Matthew M. Mesley and Louise E. Wilson, Medium Aevum Monographs, vol. David A. In Latin, the three classes are, respectively, laboratores , bellatores , and oratores. In the boundless literature on medieval Marianism, a very accessible treatment that has deservedly won the status of a classic is Warner, Alone of All Her Sex.

Among more recent general studies, another book that has been paid widespread attention is Rubin, Mother of God. See John D. James L. Paul, MN: North Central, , 1. For dual-language versions of medieval English miracles with facing modern English translations, see Adrienne Williams Boyarin, ed. For a late but important version in English, see Peter Whiteford, ed. For an overview of what survives in Middle English, see Thomas D. Albert E. Hartung, 11 vols. See R. The successors in the vernaculars came first in France and later in Spain, where substantial collections took shape.

The Assumption and the Purification. Swanson, Studies in Church History, vol. Most voluminous is Brian Cummings and James Simpson, eds. More recent is Ronald Hutton, ed. An old classic that well repays reading is Wallace K. The damage experienced by English cathedrals during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and the evolution in their constitution and financing as institutions are examined in two magisterial books by Stanford E.

Sonnet Catholics and Protestants. Ten Commandments. Exodus London: St. Waterton is particularly good on destroyed Madonnas. The Latin epithet used was dos Mariae. Powicke and C. Cheney, eds. The Compact Oxford English Dictionary , 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, , Madonna 2. Some of these lost Madonnas have been studied individually. Ronald C. The most recent general overview is Walsingham: Pilgrimage and History.

National Shrine, The fullest premodern account is in a ballad op. Named Richeldis of Faverches. Holy House. Hail Mary. In Latin, Ave Maria. Sixty-nine holy places throughout Europe claimed to possess such relics, with samples of this precious liquid or of stones impregnated with it. None of these sites was more famous than the English. On the stone galactite, see F. Song of Solomon.