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The factors that produce stress can be physical, biological, environmental, or psychological. Any of these can activate the central stress system in a person. The central stress system involves the release of chemicals in the brain such as CRF, corticotropin releasing factor , which in turn affect a biological response that alters the way the brain and the gut interact. This altered brain-gut interaction can result in worsening of IBS symptoms.

A viscous cycle can be triggered; pain and discomfort may lead to fear of symptoms, which then activate a stress response that alters brain-gut interactions, which may lead again to pain and discomfort. When this is happening, breaking the cycle can help relieve symptoms. I was diagnosed with IBS when I was 22 years old. I went two years trying to treat myself with moderate success. I finally sought professional treatment after suffering daily symptoms while on deployment in Iraq. Apparently the increased stress I was experiencing was taking its toll on my intestines.

I was put on a mild antidepressant and a stool softener. Both helped within a week. The only problems I still encounter happen when I lapse in my diet and eat too much dairy. For now I'm just trying to find a way to live with my stress while in Iraq while looking to the future when I'll be in more control of my surroundings and diet. Thank you to everyone who has shared their stories! The parallels, such as doctors' responses, food triggers, social situations, etc. I am a 39 year old female who was diagnosed with IBS when I was in college. However, I think I have had it most of my life.

However, it was not perfect. I still got flare-ups, especially around menstruation. I did a little research on myself and discovered that when there is a change in my hormones during menstruation or around ovulation, my IBS acts up. About a year ago, I ended up in the emergency room due to severe pain. The only thing the doctor did was prescribe a painkiller.

The interesting fact was that the painkiller could upset the stomach. Therefore, I chose not to take it. I let the pain subside naturally. After that incident, I told myself that I had enough. I would continue research on my own. I am not a doctor, but I understand that there is a relationship between the central nervous system, serotonin and hormones. I am no longer on the Zelnorm, since that was recalled, but I don't feel that I need it regularly anymore either. Managing IBS and other bowel disorders often means confronting issues of uncertainty, loss, and control.

While you may not always be able to control your symptoms, you may find ways to control how you manage them. I have had more than my fair share of bowel accidents, as I have frequent diarrhoea associated IBS. Basically it is often stress related as it happens to me as it is normally very difficult upon very short notice seconds! Most of the time, I win. But there are other times that, well I lose!

Like the athletic community I have had more than my fair share of public humiliation and embarrassment in the extreme. With exception to two instances which were victim of prank, all the other instances are either unexplained or due to heavy stressful situations. As these were indeed sporadic, which actually makes it worse, there is no telling of an impending attack. It just So I have to be very careful and always know my surroundings: that is awareness of just where the loos are, whether they are indeed publically accessible, and that I can gain access within as quick a time as conceivably possible.

Again, I am usually successful in this as I know my situation, but not always so lucky. It can be guesswork for me especially on travelling and in unknown destinations. Experiencing urgent diarrhoea attacks in public is no fun! Some of those who are 'uninitiated' seem to only make jest and crack insensitive jokes about it. Personally as I do take personal offence, I also understand that many of these people are rather ignorant and have not been properly educated thus living off of old and outdated mythos, as perpetuated through Western cultural traits.

Also from a financial end, procuring rather hefty laundry bills from having to wash soiled laundry so frequently can become quite taxing in its own right. I have unfortunately wound up destroying some very expensive and in some cases, irreplaceable clothing. That is very frustrating as well, needless to state. But unfortunately there is no 'cure' for soiled laundry, unless one went the napkin pad route. Sorry, but despite my own plight, I am still too conscious in regard to wearing adult nappies!

In a way, as this may seem rather odd, but I prefer to have some of these accidents in public as solely to EDUCATE the general public through hard and present experience, that yes, indeed this IS a more common issue than they seem to realise. It is more of an altruistic sacrifice of sustaining embarrassments as bad as they are, so that the general public at large shall finally come to terms that indeed this is a very common problem. It's a brave thing to do despite its inherent disgust in Western culture. I am 81 now and the past year has been difficult with never knowing when I need a bathroom.

I have pretty good control now IF I am careful about fresh foods, milk, etc. I eat lots of rice daily, oatmeal, black tea, etc. Some foods may or may not cause a problem, they cause me to be very careful and even when I am, it happens. Then constipation results, then it begins its pattern again. I have learned by trial and error. I believe it began because of a medicine I had to take. Hope this helps. I have had IBS for over 30 years. I was diagnosed maybe 20 years ago. It was such a relief to have a diagnosis, but that was short-lived.

Since that time I have been to so many GI docs as well as therapists and also a nutritionist to get some help in managing this. I have not been successful in getting any relief at all. I am now at a point where I have eliminated so many things from my diet that there isn't much left. I have a bad reaction from so many foods but also just from the action of eating. I am constipated but when I do have a BM it is soft or sometimes I don't go for 3 or 4 or 5 days and it is soft or watery. My system does not work right at all.

I suffer from abdominal pain constantly. After a BM it should feel better but for me it actually feels worse. I am a 24 year old female who has been dealing with IBS for as long as I can remember. I was officially diagnosed in with the syndrome, and have been finding ways to deal with it more comfortably every day. The majority of my family and close friends know about my disease, which has made dealing with flare-ups more comfortable. My friends are extremely supportive, and being able to talk with them has made dealing with IBS more bearable.

I now am able to use public restrooms more often, when previously I would hold it for HOURS, such as in high school, which was hell. Every day I left feeling extremely cramped and backed up from holding it for so long sometimes to the point of having difficulty walking. During college, I started to space out my classes enough to allow myself to be able to go home to use my bathroom in privacy if need be.

Also, using the restroom at low traffic times, or using the farthest stall from the sinks makes trips to the restroom more comfortable. Holding it makes everything so much worse. Working can be extremely embarrassing, especially because after eating my stomach makes noise and I get very bloated, and usually will have a BM shortly after. I have found that by working at jobs where I am on my feet moving around, I am more comfortable and do not stress myself out on whether or not my stomach is going to act up that day or not, and if people will hear it.

Having mobility also allows for my stomach to digest foods easier than sitting right after eating. I do sometimes have to make stops at home to relieve myself when certain situations are embarrassing, or when I know my BM is going to be diarrhea. It definitely sucks, but something I have unfortunately just accepted as being a part of my normal life. After doing research, I introduced probiotics into my daily routine, and stay away from as many fiber foods as possible.

I noticed also that alcohol increases spasms, as well as greasy foods. If I am going to go out with friends, I usually will have a cocktail at home so as to get my bowel movement out of the way and to allow any spasms that may occur a head start in the comfort of my own home. Nobody else in my family has it except for my father, who seems to manage it relatively well as to not affect his life too much.

I do get frustrated often by it, especially when I have bowel movements on some days, but I would rather live as accepting of IBS as I possibly can than be uncomfortable throughout my days. I loved reading all of these stories, and have learned so much from all of them. My IBS definitely is not enjoyable by any means, but I just try my hardest to cope with it and live as full of a life as possible. For many persons, IBS involves a seemingly endless search for answers.

Parts of life may be lost as adjustments are made in response to symptoms. It takes time, thought, and courage to keep sorting out and searching for ways to best manage the condition. I am a 47 year old female. The doctors are in the middle of diagnosing me — and they are leaning towards IBS-D one doctor has ruled out the obvious culprits and is not ready to give a diagnosis, and another doctor in the practice who I saw on one occasion thinks its IBS.

The diarrhea started a year ago. At first it came on so suddenly, that I was lucky to make it to the bathroom! My problem is that when I have to go to the bathroom — and it can be any type of bowel movement — not just diarrhea, I have to RUN to the bathroom. I have to rush to the bathroom for any kind of bowel movement on average every other day, with the off days feeling like my stomach is very tight gurgling, bloating, but no pain.

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From what I am reading, diet is a major factor and I am trying to cut back on the fat in my diet. Unfortunately, I am a very picky eater and have lived on dairy cheese, milk, eggs all my life! It is very hard to cut those out…. This has impacted my life where I have isolated myself from having a social life. I still go out and enjoy my friends, but not as often I use to. And forget about thinking about dating!

Anyway… this is a great web site…. I am a 50 year old female who has had chronic constipation problems all my life. I remember my mother having to give me a suppository and enema but it would still be so painful to pass and still had to strain a lot. Back in early March of this year I was looking for ways to relieve my constipation naturally without using laxatives and suppositories on a regular basis.

I found your article about retraining your bowels. I read it all the way through and followed the instructions carefully and then started myself on a bowel training program. It helps to keep a food diary and when and what time of day you usually have a bowel movement. Eating a big breakfast with a high fat and fiber content helps to kick in peristalsis very soon after eating. Drinking a hot beverage with caffeine helps too. Then minutes after you eat go sit on the toilet for 30 minutes.

Read, or listen to calming and relaxing music. Using slow deep breathing exercises help relax your whole body and actually helps you to have a bowel movement without having to strain or force stool out. I have found the deep breathing exercises to be the most beneficial to me.

I also increased my dietary fiber to grams a day and increased my water intake to 64 oz. I take fiber twice a day, morning and evening. To make it taste better I squeeze fresh lemon juice in it. I use the very early morning before my roommate gets up for work to sit on the toilet for 30 minutes and then I can totally relax and not worry about using the bathroom too long. This also keeps me from having to use a public bathroom later in the day to have a bowel movement.

I am totally uncomfortable and embarrassed because of the smell and noise it causes. At home I burn candles or use matches to clear the odor as much as possible. Ever since I started this bowel retraining program I don't have constipation problems unless I don't follow it daily. It has to be daily commitment on my part or I pay the consequences the next day. I have had IBS with constipation alternating with explosive diarrhea since I just put myself on a bowel movement retraining program to see if I can control my IBS symptoms this way so I can begin to have normal regular bowel movements every day at a timed schedule to avoid needing to be close to the bathroom.

Has anyone with IBS with constipation and alternating explosive diarrhea tried a bowel movement retraining program and have it work for you? At this point I want to have control over my bowel movements and when and where I have them and to have a normal formed bowel movement without severe pain when I need to have one! I am very grateful for everyone who has shared their story. Our collective experiences help us learn important details about IBS we couldn't learn any other way.

Our stories help us to cope and that gives me real hope. I am amazed when I see others who have the exact same issues and reactions as I. I would be so relieved if there was a pill I could take once a day that had all the nutrition I needed so I didn't have to eat. I have terrible urgency problems that have caused me great anxiety but I try hard to keep my head about it.

Many times I have not made it to the bathroom and have had to relieve myself outside someplace out of the way. I can just start the motion of eating and set off the process that leads to a couple of fierce cramps and then uncontrolled diarrhea. I have a classic set-up for IBS. First, I was a passenger in a motorcycle accident a deer leapt in front of the bike my friend was driving at 50 mph leading to seven surgeries on my gut that simultaneously caused and removed adhesions in and around my intestines.

I had endometriosis which required a hysterectomy and ultimately, the need for a resected sigmoid colon to get rid of it all. So mechanically, there are significant issues. With my immune system overtaxed, I got Lyme Disease which caused gastroparesis or paralysis of the stomach. After treating the Lyme for a couple of years, the stomach issue resolved almost completely but I believe damage to the nerves was done.

I am gluten intolerant and have multiple food allergies. All this has led to a malabsorption problem. Clearly the nerves and sensitivity of my entire gut have been heightened by all that's happened. Ongoing, my IBS symptoms occur about midday when I have one to two bouts four on bad days of urgent diarrhea and the rest of the day I'm okay except for nearly constant bloating. Sometimes I can go for a week with no problem. If I eat poorly I will have a heavy bloat and gas at night.

I prefer only one meal a day and little healthy snacks, otherwise in the evenings I feel like I have a lead balloon in my stomach. I am just trying to create some coping strategies to make this more manageable. My husband is oblivious so it's not hard to keep the details from him and he is not supportive of medical issues anyway. I have not told my friends either although I guess I could so I feel fortunate that there is a place to tell my story among people like you who truly understand. I have had constipation issues since I was a child.

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I grew up eating southern cooking, and I did not like vegetables or fruits. I am sure that eating this way has contributed to the situation I find myself living with now. I also am sure that my abusive father could have caused me to have nervousness, which could have caused stomach disorder. I had issues for years; however, it started getting worse in my thirties.

I was having more and more episodes with severe cramping followed by diarrhea and severe pain, and the episodes would last a few days. The doctor said I needed to take some laxatives, because I was having weight gain as well as the pain and it was because I was full of stool. I continued to have diarrhea and constipation episodes for years.

I have had every type of test you could imagine, and the doctors never seem to think it was that big of a deal. I got the same advice over and over: eat more fiber, vegetables etc. I have tried everything, the doctors have suggested, but nothing ever works for long, if at all.

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I was diagnosed with Irritable Bowel Syndrome in my later thirties. I was happy to at least have a name for my nemesis. I started cutting out foods that I thought were causing problems, and at first it seemed the more I cut out the better I was doing, but I ended up just having never ending constipation. I am now forty eight years old and for the last ten years, I have had to give myself warm water enemas.

If I do not use them every day I have pain and bloating. I also have started having problems with fissures and hemorrhoids, which is horrible when I am still having to enema. I have never discussed this with anyone other than close family members, or with women I was seriously dating. When I came across this web page and read some of the articles, I literally cried out loud and could not stop for a few minutes.

I was crying because I felt like I was not alone, and others did understand. I have wondered what would happen to me down the road as I grew older, or if I would live a long life, or if this constipation could cause cancer or other issues. But I keep living, and most people who know me think I am completely normal. I never complain or talk about it, because no one understands, and if they did know they would think all I have to do is eat more fiber, or drink more water. I had a successful business in construction, until the economy took me out of the game. I never had a college education, so it was not easy to find a job, so I decided after filing for bankruptcy, I would need to return to school, and get some type of degree.

I have been completing prerequisites for the nursing program at the community college in my home town. I decided to become a nurse, because I want to be able to help others. I do have times when I feel like giving up, because each time I have to give myself another enema, it is a constant reminder of my dilemma. I keep pushing forward, and hope to be a successful nurse in the new future. I will not give up, and I do hope that someone is able to find a way to help all of us who suffer have normal lives.

I do appreciate all the people who have shared their personal stories, and know that maybe I am not as good at expressing myself as others, but I do hope that someone will benefit from reading my story, as I have benefited from reading your stories. Since I was 13 I am now 20 I have had stomach issues. Beginning in the 6th grade I began to drop a lot of weight from not eating much because everything made me very nauseated. Everyone thought I had an eating disorder for the longest time, but the food really was making me so much worse!

Finally, my mother took me to Children's Hospital Pittsburgh for an upper endoscopy and a colonoscopy, to no surprise they were both clear! My issues continued but then seemed to stop. Now for the past 8 years they come and go. I remember from age I felt wonderful and was able to eat anything I wanted! However, beginning in the early winter of my issues seemed to arise from a bout of anxiety. Anxiety was what I was told I had when there was no explanation for my stomach issues, which at the time made sense because I have an extreme fear of vomiting.

So anyways, since my stomach has been in and out of spells of nausea. Recently, I decided to make an appointment with Mayo Clinic. I had a hydrogen breath test milk makes me pretty ill for a few days which came back negative. A normal score is less then 20 and I only blew a 2! I then had an upper endoscopy with a biopsy testing for celiac disease which was clear. I have been to the ER 4 times since April 24th ! That is 4 times in one month due to the extreme bloating and nausea I have.

Finally, the doctor diagnosed me with IBS. Whether it is more constipation or diarrhea, I couldn't say. It definitely began with more D then C but now it seemed to be switching to C! I have cut soda-pop out of my diet completely and try very hard to stay away from large amounts of fried foods. I also steer clear of milk but I find I can tolerate cheese and sometimes ice cream in smaller amounts. Thank goodness because alfredo is my favorite!! I began eating probiotic yogurt today in hopes of making myself a little more regular.

My mother has also had "stomach issues" for as long as I can remember. Nice to know that I am not alone in this. Hope everyone finds something that at the least relieves their symptoms to some degree. Lets all pray for a treatment to end the suffering and keep our heads high! I have a very hard time keeping it under control. My symptoms are diarrhea, constipation, terrible pain, bloating, stomach pain, hot flashes.

They are very bad. I find my breath smells too and when I am having an attack I hate to talk to anyone. It definitely makes your life a living hell, sometimes I wish I did have a disease they could help me with. I go to doctors, and do as they ask, come home with prescriptions and pain medication. I find my pain meds help calm everything down so I ask for them. I hate being in pain. Thanks for reading my story. I am 50 yrs old and have suffered with IBS since I was a teen. Dating and traveling were almost impossible. I tried out for band and made it, only to have to give it up because I couldn't ride the bus to games because of the diarrhea that would hit without notice.

I have been able to live with it, but I don't enjoy life to the fullest because of stress of not having a bathroom close. I almost cancelled my wedding and eloped because of the fear I would get to the alter and have to go to the bathroom. Thank goodness Imodium has worked miracles for me. I have a wonderful husband and two children, and up to this summer neither had IBS. But my 15 year old daughter started to have severe stomach pain which the doctors thought was just school anxiety from exams. The pain from the gallbladder is gone but now she has a new pain after she eats and in the mornings.

She had a colonoscopy this week and found no problem so they say it has to be IBS-C. This might have been brought on by the pain medication, which caused the constipation, which is so painful that she lays in the floor with pain and cramps. She has missed so much school that today we had to enroll her in a school online. She was unable to sit in class because of the pain, and the anxiety only caused the pain to get worse.

I don't want her to suffer the same way I have for years. Surely they can find a cure of IBS. She does eventing with her horse and has missed a whole year of showing because of this pain.

Right now they have her on a probiotic and an anticholinergic and a laxative once a day. The only thing I know to do is to treat the anxiety now, which really scares me with all the medications they might put her on. Prayer is the only thing that has got us through these past 6 months. I know that we aren't alone but it seems there is no answer either.

I am 55 years old. I have been suffering with IBS for over 30 years. I wasn't diagnosed until after going to specialists for over 10 years. The medications that I have tried have not worked. Nothing that I have read about has helped. I have constant pain and discomfort. I have some kind of reaction from most foods that I eat.

So, I have eliminated all but a few things from my diet. Some times even just the act of eating brings on an episode. This has impacted my life so totally that I don't want to do anything any more. I only do what I have to do - that's it. My husband has been so understanding. But he is the only one and even at times his patience wears thin. You can't have friends when you have this disorder. I have had to lie and make excuses so often when I have to back out of plans that I just don't make plans any more. It is so hard when you can't eat. It is so hard to feel sick every day.

It is so hard when there is no hope of anything getting any better. I sympathize with all of you who have IBS. I also have acid reflux. When I get an IBS attack it moves right up and causes reflux. I have been seeing a gastro doctor who is trying to help me. Sometimes medicine works but other times it doesn't. I am a nervous person and also have TMJ. Some days the IBS is worse than others. I haven't been going out to eat because I'm afraid if I eat the wrong thing I will get diarrhea and the bathrooms will be full.

I wake up in the morning and go to bed at night with gas and sometimes bloating. I wish there was a cure for this disease. I'm 22 years old and am in the process of being diagnosed with IBS, I have a hospital appointment in a few weeks to out rule anything more serious but the doctor is sure I have IBS. I cant believe how IBS has affected my life! It started back in July and after one extremely embarrassing incident it never went away. It was my sisters christening in Yorkshire and my uncle drove my auntie, brother, boyfriend and myself there and back in one day.

Around the same time I left my job of three years and moved house and started my long summer break from university. Before now I have been super active and had really full days without really having a break between school, work and socializing. This summer has been the worst! I've had quite a few job interviews and have had to cancel a couple due to an IBS attack, I had to walk out of a hair appointment last week because the thought of being stuck in the salon mid cut caused me to panic and need the loo! I've had IBS since I was 4 years old. I'm 38 now.

Two yrs ago I had an accident where a tree hit me. It broke my left hip and tailbone and shattered my right hip and pelvis. I'm on so many medications with no relief except for the diarrhea, which is also the problem. Do I have to live the rest of my life like this? There has to be a solution.

I have been recently diagnosed with IBS. It is predominantly diarrhea. It happened after a stomach infection.

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I am taking an anti-diarrheal when I have a flare up and hyoscyamine for the pain. I am new to this and trying to read as much as possible. I am late to work every morning because of the discomfort. I am sad to know that my life is going to be like this. I am single and live alone so it's more difficult to forget about it.

Just wish I could be the same as I was before my infection two months ago. I would like to meet people who have this and get some support. Hopefully I can do it through this website. Thank you. If one isn't flaring up the other one is. Like others who have shared their story, I have a constant need for bathrooms. My 89 mile drive to work makes this difficult as do my somewhat irregular hours. Every day I have to plan my route around the placement of bathrooms along the way. I can go as many as 5 times in the course of an hour. I have been taking probiotics which seem somewhat effective, and an anti-diarrheal.

I suffer from really bad flatulence which is especially bad after a day of sitting behind the computer. I have recently started body building again. There was a time that I was unable to do anything due to the pain and the lack of energy from medication I was on. The medication was supposed to help control the pain from the interstitial cystitis. I was so over medicated at one point that I was close to lbs and on blood pressure medication. I decided to take control of that situation at the beginning of last year.

I slowly weaned myself off the medications, lost 38 lbs and lowered my blood pressure. I know there's no cure for this horrible disease and I'm sure that people have no idea how embarrassing and uncomfortable, if not downright painful it can be. I have to miss quite a bit of work due to this.

So far I haven't found a magic bullet. Stress remains constant at work and I have very little control over that. I'm seriously considering disability but I know that's a long hard road. I have a combination of very painful diseases all in the lower part of my body. So far the only thing that gives any relief from the cramping and bloating is valium in small doses. I'm constantly searching for something that will help get this under control, but haven't found anything yet. I was diagnosed with IBS about a month ago. I am 46 years old so I am pre-menopausal and I find that when I get near or have my menses the symptoms are worst.

I have constipation mostly and occasional diarrhea. I have lost about 5 to 7 lbs because I am nauseas some days and can't eat. I have a constant pain in my left side and around my back. I sometimes just feel spaced out and tired. People tend to think you are crazy. I have a medication that the doctor gave me but I really haven't seen any difference so I don't take it like I should. Is this my life for the rest of my days? I have had IBS for about 7 years. I have an increased urgency that generally lasts from when I wake for a few hours.

Some mornings I go times in a few hour period. The main problem is that I can go from feeling fine to having a large movement in a matter of 5 to 25 minutes. Needless to say this makes my mornings very restrictive. I feel that my symptoms are brought on in part by stress, and acutely by the stress of having to be near a bathroom throughout the morning. Diet has not had a very noticeable impact. It is frustrating and I believe I need to reduce my stress in order to see some relief - easier said than done. Managing the challenges of a bowel disorder in the workplace can be a most difficult situation; it forces a mixing of our most personal and our most public lives.

People try many different strategies for managing at work but still report a tremendous amount of stress over the situation. If you have a special strategy for managing your bowel disorder at work, please share your story with us. I have been diagnosed with IBS. I only have the diarrhea, but it is like a water faucet being turned on when it happens.

I have had more than one "attack" at work and have had to go home. And since stress it what triggers my IBS that only makes it that much worse. I was in college when I was diagnosed with IBS. I had been having almost constant diarrhea. Finally when I was at the campus clinic for a cold, I asked about the bowel problems. What a load of help that was I spent the last five years finding my own triggers and crying and wallowing in pain and informing people who are around me.

This is part of who I am and I think people should accept it. I am fortunate to have a family that suffers from bowel problems so everyone understood and my boyfriend turned into husband has been incredibly supportive. I have had my share of embarrassing moments.

I remember taking a test in my psych class and having to ask to be excused to go to the bathroom. I had a great teacher who let me go and come back to finish the test. I had to run the entire length of the building to get the women's bathroom and barely made it in time. It was extremely embarrassing explaining it to the teacher afterward, but she was very understanding. Now I'm a kindergarten teacher. I can only go to the bathroom at certain times of the day.

Still there are times I have to fight intense bowel pain to stand up and teach my students or sit and read a story. Another teacher across the hall has been my savior, because when I can't hold it in any longer I can pop in and say watch my kids please! Then I run down the hall to the adult bathroom. Equally embarrassing is the gas that comes with it. Fortunately, five year olds have great potty humor and it is good reminder that everyone has gas. Public bathrooms are nightmares when you have diarrhea.

Is there anything more embarrassing than the nasty wet loud poop followed by the inane giggling or sniffing by the other bathroom occupants? I know I sometimes wish I could flush myself down the toilet instead of having to walk out of the stall. Remember you are not alone out there! Often you will find that people can be very caring even when they don't fully understand.

Also, you never know when the person next to you in class or at work has the same problem and is just as afraid or ashamed to discuss it. I still struggle with IBS, but I have been slowly changing my diet and habits to meet my needs. People can't understand until you inform them!

Then if they don't understand maybe you need to find some new people. Recently it has become a very big problem with all the typical symptoms as described by other contributors. I am so concerned at work as I need to use the bathroom frequently, which in itself is not a problem, but the noisy evacuation has been worrisome as I am sure it can be heard in the workplace and in neighboring offices.

I guess everyone is being polite, but I do not know whether to explain things to my work colleagues or not. Any suggestions? Teens and young adults who suffer from functional GI disorders are especially vulnerable. The high school and college years are filled with stressors, social activities, and life changes. Feeling constrained by the need for bathroom access can lead to severe social isolation.

A young adult living on their own for the first time may not feel they can rely as much on their parents to help manage their personal health, but may not know how to take charge of scheduling doctor visits and finding effective treatment. Support is needed from families and physicians to help these young sufferers transition from a pediatric to an adult model of medical management. I am an 18 year old guy and a senior in high school with a diagnosis of IBS. It is hell dealing with this. I always have to go but I only go about 3 times a day. I am on some medicine but it only helps when I am not going to school like on the weekends.

When I have to go at school I have to hold it until I get to a certain class because some of my teachers wouldn't let me go to the restroom. Reading these stories really makes me feel better because it lets me know that I am not the only one out there with this. It makes me wonder how many people in my school have the same problem. I am 18 and about two years ago I met my boyfriend and we started dating. Almost immediately after I started getting these IBS symptoms and constantly running to the bathroom.

Six months after dating he enlisted in the military, which I believe made my IBS worse. I read some of these stories of the people who have IBS with constipation, I would trade for that any day. In the beginning I thought I had colon cancer or something and after a year of having gassy diarrhea at least 10 times a day I went to the doctor. I cried in front of my doctor because finding out absolutely nothing was wrong made me feel even worse.

I was leaving for a vacation in a week to the Caribbean and I wasn't even excited. I went through another year of dealing with IBS and finally went to a gastroenterologist. He checked my blood and stool again and found a parasite. I was so happy thinking he solved my problems. He gave me medicine and while on it I felt how I did 2 years before for the 3 days I was on it. Then the symptoms came back. He diagnosed me with IBS and nothing is working. I've changed my diet and everything. I've lost all hope and I completely gave up on myself. I don't want to work, finish college.

All I want to do is stay home near the bathroom. This constant worrying completely changed me. I miss the old me who was excited to go out with my friends and party, and go on vacations, or even a bike ride. I want to go to yoga or the gym to take my mind off it but then I go and have to use the bathroom. IBS is a complex condition. When IBS is severe it takes time and possibly an expert team approach to bring symptoms under control.

I am 18 years old, and have been dealing with the every day stresses of IBS since I was in fifth grade. I am socially withdrawn because I can't engage in normal teenage activities. My friends get disappointed when they invite me places and I don't go. They don't understand the anxiety it causes me to just go to a movie. I have lied about being busy to get out of going somewhere out of fear of getting sick.

Going out is not worth the risk of embarrassing myself and ruining everyone else's good time. So, I sit at home, dealing with the extremely painful gas and cramps on my own, while other people my age go out and have fun. Worrying about getting sick stresses me out further, which ironically makes me even sicker.

When something important comes up, the nerves set in and all I do is give myself cramps from the anxiety of maybe getting sick. I try not to get too upset when I am sick, but it's tough not to feel sorry for yourself when the pain sets in and you feel alone and miserable. I have even told myself it'd be better if I hadn't been born. But lately I've been doing all the research I can to help make myself better. I have simethicone pills for gas. I use it for when I get my painful gas attacks.

Antispasmodics didn't help me any. I recently bought a soluble fiber supplement to add to my diet. We'll see. I haven't been brave enough to add it to my diet yet because I know the first few days will make me gassy and uncomfortable. I think I will always have to deal with IBS. I think that's all any IBS sufferer can really do.

I try to tell myself that these are the cards I've been dealt, so I have to make the most of them. Somehow, I believe things will be okay. I just have to take one step at a time and take life as it comes. I am beginning to realize I can't control what happens to me, but I can control how I let it effect my spirit. I hope all IBS sufferers will someday find the answers we've been searching for. We just need to stick together and know we aren't alone.

My name is Liz and I am Three years ago, I was formally diagnosed with IBS after years of symptoms. Unfortunately, as a preteen, the constant pain and irregularity led me to desperate attempts to control my stomach, including an eating disorder. Since my formal diagnosis I have become healthier and more optimistic that I will one day be able to regulate my bowels. I struggle every day in isolating trigger foods, mitigating stress, and living my life as a teenage girl. I have had many difficulties in overcoming the self-image issues that come with being a young woman with a quite un-glamorous syndrome.

However, with the support of family, friends, and the help of humor, I am now fully comfortable with myself and no longer ashamed of admitting to my gastrointestinal issues. My teachers and close friends are aware of my circumstances and their compassion and understanding have alleviated many symptoms caused by the stress and anxiety of my frequent bathroom trips. I look forward to a healthy future as I explore new paths of treatment. If any teens have questions regarding the struggles IBS youth specifically face i.

I am 19 years old and lately I have felt so desperate and so frustrated by my own body. When I was little I was a picky eater and did not eat enough fruits or vegetables and from what I can remember barely drank any water either. I was almost constantly constipated as a result. I worry that I may have somehow damaged my body when I was young. I have also always been very sensitive to stress and used to be very shy. Within the last 2 to 3 years my confidence has grown considerably.

Things that used to stress me to the point of nausea I now think nothing of. I have also cut out bad food from my diet and I now eat lots of fruits, vegetables, and grains and drink a lot of water. In that case I would have to break that mental association and hopefully be able to do things without worrying in the back of my mind. Now, instead of constipation its diarrhea. This entire month I have been miserable, trying and trying to justify my body's dysfunction. I think it may be from stress as my mom has been pushing me to get a job and get into college as soon as I can. I don't even feel comfortable leaving the house let alone having to go to class or work everyday.

I used to be so nervous going on a date that I get sick and I believe it interfered with my social life and my confidence. I am very lucky now to have a boyfriend who is understanding and supportive. Lately though I have just been crying and feeling so overwhelmed that I am stressing him out.

Every time I get my period I have horrible diarrhea that forces me to spend hours on the toilet. I graduated early and got a job, but I quit that after a few months and now I am trying to convince myself that I can deal with this.

I want to be a biologist and see the wilderness and the rest of the world without worrying about walking out my own front door. Thank you to everyone who shared their stories. Reading some of them has brought tears to my eyes knowing I am not alone and that others have it much worse. Hopefully more research will help us all in time.

My daughter will be 9 yrs. I live in a small, rural community in Alabama. Our pediatrician sent us to Birmingham to see a gastrointestinal specialist. We were living a nightmare watching our daughter suffer from this disorder that I still know little about. She would wake up early in the morning sick to her stomach, slumped over with abdominal pain and vomiting on average 2 to 3 days a week! As a mother, I felt very helpless and began to wonder what brought this on all of a sudden.

After seeing the specialist in Birmingham, we learned what food she could tolerate and what she couldn't. We have changed her eating habits That has seemed to help. I wish the school would be more understanding. Her symptoms have improved but are not completely better. The lunchroom manager at her school gets offended because I no longer let her eat school lunch.

She seems to have less problems when I prepare her food at home. I want to be able to help my daughter but without hurting others in the process. I feel foolish as a parent because even though her symptoms are not as bad I feel like I don't know enough about IBS, why she developed it, and will she ever get completely better. Our doctors here don't seem to know too much about it. There's always that what-if question.

What if her symptoms persist or get worse like before? What do we do then? IBS may have other symptoms apart from pain and bowel dysfunction. The anger, anxiety, or tiredness that many sufferers report may arise from the burden of trying to manage the recurring and unpredictable symptoms of a chronic illness. These feelings become just as much a part of the illness experience as the underlying disease.

Talk to your doctor about addressing all of these aspects in your treatment plan, and check our library for further information. I am 56 years old and have had stomach problems for as long as I can remember. The IBS-D problems have been getting much worse. I am so depressed and anxious about it that I cannot do anything without the fear of having an accident. So many milestones in my life have been ruined for me because of my problems. I have tried SO many different medications and nothing has helped.

Nor is this history important solely as a cautionary retort to those who would doubt the need for aggressive regulation of industry, when commercial interests ask us to sanction genetically modified food on the basis of their own scientific assurances, just as the merchants of lead once did. The leaded gasoline story must also be read as a call to action, for the lead menace lives. Because lead particles in automobile exhaust travel in wind, rain and snow, which know no national boundaries, lead makers and refiners who peddle leaded gasoline knowingly injure not only the local populations using their product but men, mice and fish tens of thousands of miles distant.

GM and Standard Oil sold their leaded gasoline subsidiary, the Ethyl Gasoline Corporation, to Albemarle Paper in , while Du Pont only cleaned up its act recently, but all hope to leave their leaded gasoline paternity a hushed footnote to their inglorious pasts. The principal maker of lead additive today the Associated Octel Company of Ellesmere Port, England and its foremost salesmen Octel and the Ethyl corporation of Richmond, Virginia acknowledge what they see as a political reality: Their product will one day be run out of business. But they plan to keep on selling it in the Third World profitably until they can sell it no longer.

These mighty corporations should pay Ethyl and Octel for keeping their old lies alive. Along with the makers of lead paint and the lead trade organizations with whom they both once worked in close concert, suppliers and champions of lead gasoline additives—Ethyl, Du Pont and PPG—have been named as defendants in the suit. Though the number of cases of lead poisoning has been falling nationwide, the lead dust in exhaust spewed by automobiles in the past century will continue to haunt us in this one, coating our roads, buildings and soil, subtly but indefinitely contaminating our homes, belongings and food.

The Problem With Lead Lead is poison, a potent neurotoxin whose sickening and deadly effects have been known for nearly 3, years and written about by historical figures from the Greek poet and physician Nikander and the Roman architect Vitruvius to Benjamin Franklin. Odorless, colorless and tasteless, lead can be detected only through chemical analysis. Unlike such carcinogens and killers as pesticides, most chemicals, waste oils and even radioactive materials, lead does not break down over time.

It does not vaporize, and it never disappears. For this reason, most of the estimated 7 million tons of lead burned in gasoline in the United States in the twentieth century remains—in the soil, air and water and in the bodies of living organisms. Classical acute lead poisoning occurs at high levels of exposure, and its symptoms—blindness, brain damage, kidney disease, convulsions and cancer—often leading, of course, to death, are not hard to identify.

Children are the first and worst victims of leaded gas; because of their immaturity, they are most susceptible to systemic and neurological injury, including lowered IQs, reading and learning disabilities, impaired hearing, reduced attention span, hyperactivity, behavioral problems and interference with growth. Because they often go undetected for some time, such maladies are particularly insidious. In adults, elevated blood-lead levels are related to hypertension and cardiovascular disease, particularly strokes, heart attacks and premature deaths.

In the eighties the EPA estimated that the health damages from airborne lead cost American society billions each year. In Venezuela, where the state oil company sold only leaded gasoline until , a recent report found 63 percent of newborn children with blood-lead levels in excess of the so-called safe levels promulgated by the US government. Tetraethyl lead was first discovered by a German chemist in Still unused in , sixty-seven years after its invention, it was not an obvious choice as a gasoline additive.

In Kettering had invented the electric self-starter—a landmark development in automotive history that eliminated dangerous hand-cranking and enabled many Americans particularly women to drive for the first time, arguably killing steam and electric cars in the process. Following the sale, this work was transferred to his new firm, the Dayton Research Laboratories, where a newly hired assistant, Thomas Midgley, was assigned to study the problem of engine knock. They could also be designed to run with higher compression in the cylinders, which would allow more efficient operation, resulting in greater fuel economy, greater power or some harmonious combination of the two.

The key was finding a fuel with higher octane. By limiting allowable compression, low-octane fuel meant cars would be burning more gasoline. Like many visionary engineers, Kettering was enamored of conservation as a first principle. As a businessman, he also shared persistent fears at the time that world oil supplies were running out. Low octane and low compression meant lower gas mileage and more rapid exhaustion of a dwindling fuel supply. Inevitably, demand for new automobiles would fade. By Kettering and his staff had trained their octane-boosting sights on ethyl alcohol, also known as grain alcohol the kind you drink , power alcohol or ethanol.

In tests supervised by Kettering and Midgley for the Army Air Corps at Wright Field in Dayton, Ohio, researchers concluded that alcohols were among the best antiknock fuels but were not ideal for aircraft engines unless used as an additive, in a blend with gasoline. For more than a hundred years, Big Oil has reckoned ethanol to be fundamentally inimical to its interest, and, viewing its interest narrowly, Big Oil might not be wrong.

Alcohol initially held much fascination for the company, for good reason. Ethanol is always plentiful and easy to make, with a long history in America, not just as a fuel additive but as a pure fuel. The first prototype internal-combustion engine in used alcohol and turpentine. Prior to the Civil War alcohol was the most widely used illuminating fuel in the country. Indeed, alcohol powered the first engine by the German inventor Nicholas August Otto, father of the four-stroke internal-combustion engines powering our cars today. As the automobile era picked up speed, scientific journals were filled with references to alcohol.

Tests in by the Department of Agriculture underscored its power and economy benefits. Louis, concluding that higher engine compression could be achieved with alcohol than with gasoline. They noted a complete absence of smoke and disagreeable odors. Henry Ford built his very first car to run on what he called farm alcohol. Ethanol made a lot of sense to a practical Ohio farm boy like Kettering. It was renewable, made from surplus crops and crop waste, and nontoxic.

It delivered higher octane than gasoline though it contained less power per gallon , and it burned more cleanly. Later that month K. GM was concerned albeit temporarily about an imminent disruption in oil supply, and alcohol-powered cars could keep its factories open. Because of the possible high compression, the available horsepower is much greater with alcohol than with gasoline. Their estimation would be confirmed by others. In the thirties, after leaded gasoline was introduced to the United States but before it dominated in Europe, two successful English brands of gas—Cleveland Discoll and Kool Motor—contained 30 percent and 16 percent alcohol, respectively.

Today, in the postlead era, ethanol is routinely blended into gasoline to raise octane and as an emissions-reducing oxygenate. Race cars often run on pure ethanol. GM helped underwrite the Ethanol Vehicle Challenge, which saw college engineering students easily converting standard GM pickup trucks to run on E85, producing hundreds of bonus horsepower.

The following year the company installed him as vice president of research of the renamed General Motors Research Corporation. No longer the shambling, anarchic outfit it had been under the inveterate risk-taker W. Durant, GM was now to be run in the militarily precise mold of E. Awash in a sea of gunpowder profits from World War I, the du Pont family had been increasing its stake in GM since The pressure on all concerned, including Kettering and his research division, was to make money and to make it fast.

It may be inferred at some future time…that we are spending too much money down there [in Dayton] and being in a position to show what benefits had accrued to the corporation would strengthen our position materially. And the Winner Is… The effect of this sudden time constraint was striking. As GM researcher and Kettering biographer T.

Farm alcohol was one thing, but a patentable process for production of petroleum-derived alcohol—a possible money-maker—was quite another, one of considerably greater interest to the corporation. Another time, he claimed 14, elements were examined, while a Ethyl corporation statement set the number at There was as yet, however, no plan to market Ethyl. Industrial Alcohol Co. Clements [the lab manager at GM] stated some time ago that it might be worth our while to carry our investigations further on the problem of utilizing alcohols in motors.

I think he mentioned specifically combinations of alcohol and gasoline. Equally troubling, any idiot with a still could make it at home, and in those days, many did. Moreover, the oil companies hated it, a powerful disincentive for the fledgling GM, which was loath to jeopardize relations with these mighty power brokers. Manufacturing began in with a small operation in Dayton, Ohio, that made gallons of tetraethyl lead a day and shipped it out in one-liter bottles, each of which would treat gallons of gasoline. He suggested that the PHS rely upon industry to supply the relevant data, a spectacularly poor plan that would amount to government policy for the next forty years.

In January, on account of lead poisoning, Thomas Midgley was forced to decline speaking engagements at three regional panels of the American Chemical Society, which had awarded him a medal for his discovery. Charles Kettering may have been concerned by this growing chorus of TEL critics, but the early months of saw his mind preoccupied with another matter. I have been extremely unhappy and know that I have made you and Mr. Enough may come out of the Laboratory to have paid for their existence but no one will care to continue in Research activities as the situation now stands.

In this regard, TEL held out an immediate lifeline. Writing Kettering from Florida in March , Midgley related a mad brainstorm whose relevance had now become fully clear to Kettering. I think we ought to go after it as soon as we can without being too hasty. With a legal monopoly based on patents that would provide a royalty on practically every gallon of gasoline sold for the life of its patent, Ethyl promised to make GM shareholders—among whom the du Ponts, Alfred Sloan and Charles Kettering were the largest—very rich.

Profit-free ethanol, indeed. In addition to consumer financing which Ford opposed , Sloan was convinced that style, snob appeal and speed would help GM steal its customers away. He was right. Following the failure of his copper-cooled engine, Kettering rejigged his arguments for TEL for internal—definitely not public—consumption. As it happened, the new additive could be fitted neatly into the Sloanist equation. For while it was initially seen by Kettering and his staff as a way to cure knock and to husband fossil-fuel supplies, the high compression it enabled in motors was just as easily exploited to make cars faster and more powerful, thus easier to sell.

Kettering did not give up on efficiency and conservation as his own ideals, but ever after he knew better than to try to push a product that would not sell. Ethyl gasoline has made it possible! Ride with Ethyl in a high compression motor and get the thrill of a lifetime. So just remember this: the next best thing to a brand new car is your present car with Ethyl.

Thus, as Kovarik has reasoned, the competition referred to must have been from those who would have offered a different kind of antiknock. But the facts were otherwise. Ethanol was still out there. Farben over an additive it made from iron carbonyl. The point is, there were alternatives. In a public relations coup, Ethyl leaded gasoline fueled the top three finishers at the Indianapolis motor race on Memorial Day, Less than thirty days would pass before the first of several TEL poisoning deaths of workers there would occur.

Even so, news of these and similar deaths would inevitably come out. Even by the lax standards of its day, the bureau was a docile corporate servant, with not an adversarial bone in its body. It saw itself as in the mining promotion business, with much of its scientific work undertaken in collaboration with industry. That is alright from the standpoint of the General Motors Company but it is quite a question in my mind as to whether the Bureau of Mines would be justified in adopting this name so early in the game.

Large numbers of nonfatal poisonings were noted at this time. Two months later, he would urge Du Pont to step up production. Gilman Thompson, consulting physician to Standard Oil of New Jersey which had been marketing Ethyl and dabbling in its manufacture , as chairman. GM still held the TEL patent, but Standard now had the better manufacturing technology and a patent of its own to prove it. Why, one wonders, would GM deign to form Ethyl, a new company, with Standard? We were mechanical people dealing in metal processing.

Sloan would also later record his view that management should not get sidetracked on noncore businesses. But there were clearly bushels of money to be made. As the management expert P. In total, more than 80 percent of the Bayway staff would die or suffer severe poisoning. News of these deaths was the first that many Americans heard of leaded gasoline—although it would take a few days, as the New York City papers and wire services rushed to cover a mysterious industrial disaster that Standard stonewalled and GM declined to delve into.

Thomas Midgley had been rushed to 26 Broadway from Dayton and would address the corps. This has occasioned unforeseen accidents…. One of these has been the sudden escape of fumes from large retorts, and the inhalation of such fumes gives rise to acute symptoms, particularly congestion of the brain, producing a condition not unlike delirium tremens. Although there is lead in the compound, these acute symptoms are wholly unlike those of chronic lead poisoning such as painters often have. It was making TEL to sell. The celebrated engineer and Ethyl VP, who had only recently been forced to leave work to recover from lead poisoning, proposed to demonstrate that TEL was not dangerous in small quantities, by rubbing some of it on his hands.

Midgley was fond of this exhibition and would repeat it elsewhere, washing his hands thoroughly in the fluid and drying them on his handkerchief. Ethyl Adrift The response of local governments and public health officials to the Bayway disaster was swift and stern. Ethyl would continue to be sold in the Midwest, but elsewhere on the East Coast its use was unofficially discouraged by authorities.

In early November , after the fifth Bayway worker died, the Bureau of Mines study on TEL was released remember that GM and then Ethyl had reserved for themselves the right to approve the timing of its release. Perhaps if leaded gasoline kills enough people soon enough to impress the public, we may get from Congress a much-needed law and appropriation for the control of harmful substances other than foods. But it seems more likely that the conditions will grow worse so gradually and the development of lead poisoning will come on so insidiously for this is the nature of the disease that leaded gasoline will be in nearly universal use and large numbers of cars will have been sold that can run only on that fuel before the public and the Government awaken to the situation….

This is probably the greatest single question in the field of public health that has ever faced the American public. It is the question whether scientific experts are to be consulted, and the action of Government guided by their advice, or whether, on the contrary, commercial interests are to be allowed to subordinate every other consideration to that of profit. Echoing the fears of PHS lab director William Clark more than two years earlier, Henderson had clearly isolated the greatest threat of leaded gasoline— not the severe cases of industrial poisoning that had grabbed the headlines but the slow, unrelenting low-level exposure that was sure to occur as the use of leaded gasoline spread.

As we shall see, the industry would use this dichotomy—accidental deaths at the plant versus insidious poisoning—to its advantage. The former risk could be acknowledged because it could be prevented, while the latter was doubted, denied and endlessly debated. In years to come, the federal government would do much to help the lead interests actively across a variety of fields, but the greatest assistance offered was an act of omission: a signal failure to arrange for independent examination of the effects of automotive lead emissions on the public health.

Corporation and the Standard Oil Co. The disaster was so bad that the state of New Jersey entered the picture and issued an order that Standard could never go back into the manufacture of [tetraethyl lead] without the permission of the state of New Jersey. In fact, the furor over it was so great that the newspapers took it up, and they misrepresented it, and instead of realizing that the danger was in the manufacture, they got to thinking that the danger was exposure of the public in the use of it, and the criticism of its use was so great that it was banned in many cities and they had to close down the manufacture and sale of Ethyl.

The wave of publicity surrounding the Bayway disaster had left Ethyl on the defensive, however. The company knew it would be up to government to set matters right.

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A Gift of God? Today business school students carefully analyze the corporate response to the scare caused by a small batch of tainted Tylenol and widely hail it as a work of genius. Ethyl, to use the modern argot, had an aggressive plan and made it stick. You might say it was one of the most brilliant exercises in co-branded damage control ever.

Cumming readily agreed. Nowhere was it reported that Mellon family interests controlled Gulf Oil, which had recently acquired an exclusive Ethyl distributorship. Our problem is not that simple. We cannot quite act on a remote probability. We are engaged in the General Motors Corporation in the manufacture of automobiles, and in the Standard Oil Company in the manufacture and refining of oil. On these things our present industrial civilization is supposed to depend. I might refer to the comment made at the end of the war—that the Allies floated to victory on a sea of oil—which is probably true….

Should we throw this thing aside? Because some animals die and some do not die in some experiments, shall we give this thing up entirely? Frankly, it is a problem that we do not know how to meet. We cannot justify ourselves in our consciences if we abandon the thing. I think it would be an unheard-of blunder if we should abandon a thing of this kind merely because of our fears. Possibilities cannot be allowed to influence us to such an extent as that in this matter.

Many years later, Howard would be forced to relinquish his Standard post by the Federal Trade Commission for collaborating with Nazi Germany, but he would retain his seat at Ethyl. Ethyl sales manager A. Yet TEL defenders to this day cite conservation as its key benefit. Instead, it voted unanimously on a motion by Dr. Matthias Nicoll, New York State Commissioner of Health, to place the question of tetraethyl lead in the hands of Cumming and a seven-member committee of experts to be appointed by him, with orders to report back by January 1, And it commended Ethyl for withdrawing its product while the question of its effect on the public health was still unsettled.

Often referred to publicly by Du Pont as a dye works, it was rather a complex of poison-gas works, producing phosgene and chlorine gases as well as the lethal benzol series. Deepwater had no legal government—just Du Pont and its private police force. We have to protect them against themselves. It did not give tetraethyl lead a clean bill of health or settle the question of its effect on the public health. In fact, it cautioned: It remains possible that if the use of leaded gasolines becomes widespread, conditions may arise very different from those studied by us which would render its use more of a hazard than would appear to be the case from this investigation.

Longer experience may show that even such slight storage of lead…may lead eventually in susceptible individuals to recognizable or to chronic degenerative diseases of a less obvious character…. In view of such possibilities the committee feels that the investigation begun under their direction must not be allowed to lapse….

The vast increase in the number of automobiles throughout the country makes the study of all such questions a matter of real importance from the standpoint of public health, and the committee urges strongly that a suitable appropriation be requested from Congress for the continuance of these investigations under the supervision of the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service.

While proposing that the sale of leaded gasoline should go forward, regulated by the Surgeon General, the committee passed a resolution calling on the Public Health Service to conduct further studies. Yet none of these calls for further government action were ever acted upon, and it was this failure that gave Ethyl its opening.

Committee member Dr. Farben], now being produced in Germany at the rate of 60, gallons per month.

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Such alcohol is reported to be produced for between 10 cents and 20 cents per gallon and has much promise as a mixture with hydrocarbon [gasoline] fuels to eliminate knocking and carbonization. Smith, Ford Motor Co. Surgeon General Cumming was not interested in alternatives to lead, even though proof of their existence ought to have immediately thrown the veracity of all Ethyl utterances into question. Kettering was also forgetting Synthol, the octane-boosting alternative he had publicized just months earlier when it looked like Ethyl might be forced to close shop.

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