Reina roja Spanish Edition. Antes de que llegaras Spanish Edition. Lisa Wingate. Julia Navarro. El color del silencio Novela Spanish Edition. Mi historia Spanish Edition. Michelle Obama. Share your thoughts with other customers. Write a customer review. Showing of 3 reviews.
Top Reviews Most recent Top Reviews. There was a problem filtering reviews right now. Please try again later. Format: Kindle Edition Verified Purchase. La historia central es muy buena. Ahora, la historia amorosa que se ha creado para algunos de los personajes no me ha gustado nada. Muy recomendable. Una historia interesante, si se me hizo un poco larga. See all 3 reviews.
Amazon Giveaway allows you to run promotional giveaways in order to create buzz, reward your audience, and attract new followers and customers. Learn more about Amazon Giveaway. Set up a giveaway. There's a problem loading this menu right now. Learn more about Amazon Prime. Get fast, free shipping with Amazon Prime. Back to top. Get to Know Us. Amazon Payment Products. English Choose a language for shopping. Though drugs are widely available in western countries, their expense means they are unavailable to the vast majority of AIDS sufferers. International bodies are working towards widening access to treatment in the developing world.
Some companies in countries such as India and Thailand are now producing cheap generic copies of drugs. Staggering toll The economic and social burden of AIDS exerts a great toll on developing nations in addition to that exerted by mortality itself. AIDS is hindering development and leading to negative population growth in some of the most seriously affected nations, such as Botswana.
This excessive AIDS mortality is causing a great demographic shift, wiping out young adults in the prime of their lives. This leaves children orphaned, and is destroying workforces and economies. Some predict that 50 million children in Sub-Saharan Africa will have been orphaned by Social stigma and discrimination is yet another problem for many AIDS sufferers, especially in Asian nations.
El HIV destruye el sistema inmunitario de forma gradual hasta causar la muerte.
- Hispania. Volume 74, Number 3, September | Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes.
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La tuberculosis es especialmente prevalente entre los enfermos de sida. Este virus no se contagia al besar, toser o tocar, ni tampoco por las una picaduras de mosquito. En Nigeria y Tailandia se han probado vacunas hechas a partir de sangre de personas portadoras del VIH, que han generado controversia. Sin embargo, el virus se desarrolla con gran rapidez y puede llegar a adelantarse al efecto de estos medicamentos si el tratamiento no se sigue de forma rigurosa.
Statins, the miracle drugs responsible for keeping cholesterol in check in wide swaths of the population, may be reaching the limits of their effectiveness. Average cholesterol levels in Americans have stopped falling since , according to a large analysis of patient records published recently in PLoS One. Researchers at Quest Diagnostics, a national laboratory chain, reviewed blood levels of LDL, the so-called bad cholesterol, in million adults tested by the company between and Average LDL levels declined from milligrams per deciliter of blood in to But in the next three years, average LDL levels flattened out.
The study was not a random sampling; it comprised individuals whose physicians had requested cholesterol tests. Still, the findings have worried experts. Steven Nissen, the chairman of cardiovascular medicine at the Cleveland Clinic, who was not involved in the study. The authors suggested that these results may affect cardiovascular mortality rates as well. Harvey W. Kaufman, senior medical director at Quest Diagnostics and an author of the study. But statins have been a significant driver over the past 25 years.
The study did not look at causes for the plateau, but Dr. Tough times also may have affected lifestyle factors that can contribute to higher LDL, including stress levels, a high-fat diet and lack of exercise. The number of prescriptions for statins rose dramatically almost every year since , but the growth slowed in , according to IMS Health, a health care information company.
There also was a decline in physician office visits, which means that fewer people are getting their cholesterol tested and treated. But other experts suggested that LDL levels have flattened out simply because they may be as low as they can go with the available treatments. Ronald M. According to Dr. Elsa-Grace V. Krauss said. Giardina said.
Obesity may also be limiting the effectiveness of statins. Obesity raises the risks of high cholesterol, high blood pressure, high triglycerides and diabetes, all risk factors for heart disease. Nissen said. Para mucha gente con el colesterol alto, el momento del descubrimiento parece no llegar nunca. Los niveles medios de LDL disminuyeron desde miligramos por decilitro de sangre en hasta Elsa-Grace v.
Spanish translation section - - BJS - Wiley Online Library
At the extremes, infants and the elderly have frequent interruptions of sleep. Two principal systems govern the sleep-wake cycle: one actively generates sleep and sleep-related processes and another times sleep within the h day. Either intrinsic abnormalities in these systems or extrinsic disturbances environmental, drug or illness-related can lead to sleep or circadian rhythm disorders. The continuous recording of this array of electrophysiologic parameters to define sleep and wakefulness is termed polysomnography. NREM sleep is further subdivided into four stages, characterized by increasing arousal threshold and slowing of the cortical EEG.
Chin EMG activity is absent, reflecting the brainstem-mediated muscle atonia that is characteristic of that state. Parasomnias The term parasomnia refers to abnormal behaviours or experiences that occur during sleep. A continuum of parasomnias arise from NREM sleep, from brief confusional arousals to sleepwalking and night terrors. The presenting complaint is usually related to the beahavior itself, but the parasomnias can disturb sleep continuity or lead to mild impairments in daytime alertness.
Sleepwalking Somnambulism Patients affected by this disorder carry out automatic motor activities that range from simple to complex. Individuals may walk, urinate inappropriately, eat, or exit from the house while remaining only partially aware. Full arousal may be difficult, and individuals may rarely respond to attempted awakening with agitation or even violence. Sleepwaking arises from stage 3 or 4 NREM sleep, usually in the first 2 hours of the night, and is most common in children and adolescents. The cause is unknown, though it has a familial basis in roughly one-third of cases.
Sleep terrors This disorder, also called pavor nocturnus, occurs primarily in young children during the first hours after sleep onset, in stages 3 and 4 of NREM sleep. The child suddenly screams, exhibiting automatic arousal with sweating, tachycardia, and hyperventilation.
The individual may be difficult to arouse and rarely recalls the episode on awakening in the morning. Parents are usually reassured to learn that the condition is self-limited and benign and that no specific therapy is indicated. The patient is usually unaware of the problem. The typical age of onset is years, and spontaneous remission usually occurs by age Sex distribution appears to be equal.
In many cases, the diagnosis is made during dental examination, damage is minor, and no treatment is indicated. In more severe cases, treatment with a rubber tooth guard is necessary to prevent disfiguring tooth injury. Stress management or, in some cases, biofeedback can be useful when bruxism is a manifestation of psychological stress. There are anecdotal reports of benefit using benzodiazepines.
Sleep enuresis Bedwetting, like sleepwalking and night terrors, is another parasomnia that occurs during sleep in the young. Before age 5 or 6, nocturnal enuresis should probably be considered a normal feature of development. In older patients with enuresis a distinction must be made between primary and secondary enuresis, the latter being defined as bedwetting in patients who have previously been fully continent for months. Urologic abnormalities are more common in primary enuresis and must be assessed by urologic examination.
Important causes of secondary enuresis include emotional disturbances, urinary tract infections or malformations, cauda equine lesions, epilepsy, sleep apnea and certain medications. Symptomatic pharmacotherapy is usually accomplished with desmopressin 0. Miscellaneous parasomnias Other clinical entities may be characterized as a parasomnia or a sleep-related movement disorder in that they occur selectively during sleep and are associated with some degree of sleep disruption. Examples include jactatio capitis nocturna nocturnal headbanging, rhythmic movement disorder , confusional arousals, sleep-related eating disorder and nocturnal leg cramps.
It primarily afflicts men of middle age or older, many of whom have an existing, or developing, neurologic disease. Presenting symptoms consist of agitated or violent behavior during sleep, as reported by a bed partner. In contrast to typical somnambulism, injury to the patient or bed partner is not uncommon, and, upon awakening, the patient reports vivid, often unpleasant, dream imagery.
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The principal differential diagnosis is nocturnal seizures, which can be excluded from polysomnography. The pathogenesis is unclear, but damage to brainstem areas mediating descending motor inhibition during REM sleep may be responsible. In support of this hypothesis are the remarkable similarities between RBD and the sleep of animals with bilateral lesions of the pontine tegmentum in areas controlling REM sleep motor inhibition.
Treatment with clonazepam 0. Pueden abarcar desde los despertares breves y confusos, hasta el sonambulismo y los terrores nocturnos. La causa de este trastorno se desconoce, pero se sabe que en uno de cada tres casos tiene componente familiar. El paciente no suele saber que lo padece. Se han dado casos aislados en los que el tratamiento con benzodiacepinas ha sido beneficioso.
Algunas causas relevantes de la enuresis secundaria son las alteraciones emocionales, las infecciones o malformaciones del tracto urinario, las lesiones de la cola de caballo, la epilepsia, la apnea nocturna y algunos medicamentos. En casi todos los casos descritos de este trastorno, el tratamiento con clonazepam 0, mg h. A model of poorly controlled type 1 diabetes mellitus and its treatment with aerobic exercise training Background Modern exogenous insulin therapy can improve the quality of life of Type 1 Diabetic Mellitus T1DM patients, although maintenance of normal glycaemic levels is often a challenge given the variety of factors that alter it.
A number of studies have examined the effect of exercise in T1DM; however, the majority of experimental studies have utilized diabetic rodents with severe hyperglycaemia. Given that T1DM patients are likely to refrain from hyperglycaemia, studies examining the effects of regular exercise in which blood glucose is poorly controlled would better represent the T1DM population. Methods The current study examined the ability of a ten-week aerobic exercise training program to modify markers of cardiovascular function and bone health in STZ-induced diabetic rodents maintained in the 9—15 mM glycaemic range through insulin therapy.
Results Moderate hyperglycaemia, when prolonged, leads to significant changes in cardiac structure, bone health, and glucose handling capacity.
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Ten weeks of exercise was able to alleviate many of these deleterious events as no significant cardiovascular functional alterations were evident except a reduction in resting heart rate and an increase in stroke volume index. Conclusions Together, this study demonstrates that despite moderate hyperglycaemia, the combined role of a ten-week exercise training program coupled with insulin therapy is able to alleviate many of the well-known complications associated with diabetes progression.
Keywords Cardiovascular function; Insulin supplementation; Bone mineral content; Glucose tolerance; Streptozotocin; Moderate hyperglycaemia Abstract 2: Published in 'Cancer Epidemiology' 37 4 , August , Can we really predict risk of cancer? Background: Growing awareness of the potential to predict a person's future risk of cancer has resulted in the development of numerous algorithms. Such algorithms aim to improve the ability of policy makers, doctors and patients to make rational decisions about behaviour modification or surveillance, with the expectation that this activity will lead to overall benefit.
There remains debate however, about whether accurate risk prediction is achievable for most cancers. Methods: We conducted a brief narrative review of the literature regarding the history and challenges of risk prediction, highlighting our own recent experiences in developing tools for oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Results and conclusions: While tools for predicting future risk of cardiovascular outcomes have been translated successfully to clinical practice, the experience with cancer risk prediction has been mixed.
Models have now been developed and validated for predicting risk of melanoma and cancers of the breast, colo-rectum, lung, liver, oesophagus and prostate, and while several of these have adequate performance at the population-level, none to date have adequate discrimination for predicting risk in individual patients. Challenges of individual risk prediction for cancer are many, and include long latency, multiple risk factors of mostly small effect, and incomplete knowledge of the causal pathways. Chronic Kidney Disease: Mineral and Bone Disorder in Children Childhood and adolescence are crucial times for the development of a healthy skeletal and cardiovascular system.
Disordered mineral and bone metabolism accompany chronic kidney disease CKD and present significant obstacles to optimal bone strength, final adult height, and cardiovascular health. Early increases in bone and plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 FGF23 are associated with early defects in skeletal mineralization. Later in the course of CKD, secondary hyperparathyroidism—caused by a combination of declining calcitriol values and phosphate retention—results in high-turnover renal osteodystrophy whereas increased levels of both phosphate and FGF23 contribute to cardiovascular disease.
Treatment of hyperphosphatemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism improves high-turnover bone disease but fails to correct defects in skeletal mineralization. Because overtreatment may result in adynamic bone disease, growth failure, hypercalcemia, and progression of cardiovascular calcifications, therapy therefore must be titrated carefully to maintain optimal serum biochemical parameters according to stage of CKD. Newer therapeutic agents and new treatment paradigms may suppress serum PTH levels effectively while limiting intestinal calcium absorption and skeletal FGF23 stimulation and may provide future therapeutic alternatives for children with CKD.
A estos roedores se les mantuvo el nivel de glucosa en sangre entre los 9 mM y los 15 mM mediante el tratamiento con insulina. Entre ellos se encuentran la acrivastina, la cetirizina, la desloratadina, la fexofenadina, la levocetirizina, la loratadina, la mizolastina, la alimemazina, la clorfenamina, la clemastina, la ciproheptadina, la hidroxizina, el ketotifeno y la prometazina. Existen diferentes nombres comerciales y se pueden tomar en comprimidos, jarabes o aerosoles nasales; en algunos casos se administran como colirios.
Entre ellos se encuentran la alimemazina, la clorfenamina, la clemastina, la ciproheptadina, la hidroxizina, el ketotifeno y la prometazina. Sin embargo, se tiende a usar los no sedantes porque causan menos somnolencia. En todo caso, si se padecen, estos son leves. I have been working in the language industry since and I currently work part-time as an Associate Lecturer in Spanish at the University of Exeter and part-time as a freelance translator from English to Spanish or Catalan.
I previously worked at the University of Bristol , the University of the West of England , several language schools and several international corporations.
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My previous professional background is in History and Archaeology and, more precisely, in geophysics applied to Archaeology. I successfully gained an MPhil in this subject in Distinction and worked in the field for 5 years. For this reason, I am highly familiarised with those fields and have translated archaeological scientific papers and websites for research groups and companies. As this subject is related to geological engineering, I am also familiarised with the vocabulary in this sector and have translated scientific papers for SPICC, a geological engineering consultant.
I am passionate about science and, in order to learn more about technical translation, I am starting a 3 month course on Technical Translation with International House Barcelona in July In addition to these fields, I have always been fascinated by biomedics, the functioning of the human body and health related innovations. I am constantly reading articles on these subjects and querying matters with my mum, who is a nurse, and to some close friends, who are doctors. Thanks to these courses I learned to translate informed consent forms, patient information leaflets, informative healthcare leaflets, scientific articles and medical manuals.