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President of the Cascadia PHP conference. Other interests include the phpMyDirectory web portal application, and leading workshops focused on PHP development concepts. Creator and Founder of the PHP project in Currently a Distinguished Engineer at Etsy. CTO at Happyr.

Currently a member of the Symfony core team and of the Symfony CARE team, which is focused on creating a more diverse and welcoming Symfony developer community. Principal Engineer at Zend. Also the creator of several other products within the Laravel ecosystem, including Spark standard components for rapid application development using Larvel , Forge automated server deployment and configuration , and Envoyer a comprehensive application deployment system.

A student in computer science and physics at the Technical University of Berlin who is already a prolific contributor and creator within the PHP ecosystem.

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Also owner and CEO of Blackfire. A key developer for Symfony , and an expert in relational databases within the PHP ecosystem. Previously the co-manager for the PHP 5. A well known speaker on the PHP community conference circuit. Senior Application Engineer with Medidata Solutions , a life-sciences technology provider. Follow it for tips, tricks, new releases, bug fixes, and all the latest information about PHP.

He's a veteran writer, editor, content strategist and IT industry analyst with more than two decades of experience following the evolution of cloud computing and related technologies. View posts by Matthew McKenzie. The views expressed on this blog are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of New Relic. This blog may contain links to content on third-party sites. By providing such links, New Relic does not adopt, guarantee, approve or endorse the information, views or products available on such sites. Interested in writing for New Relic Blog?

There may be a perception that our products and services are only useful to users who tweet, or to influential users with large audiences. Convincing potential new users of the value of our products and services is critical to increasing our user base and to the success of our business. Table of Contents We have a limited operating history, and only began to generate revenue in and we started to sell our Promoted Products in , which makes it difficult to effectively assess our future prospects or forecast our future results. You should consider our business and prospects in light of the risks and challenges we encounter or may encounter in this developing and rapidly evolving market.

These risks and challenges include our ability to, among other things:. If we fail to educate potential users and potential advertisers about the value of our products and services, if the market for our platform does not develop as we expect or if we fail to address the needs of this market, our business will be harmed. We may not be able to successfully address these risks and challenges or others. Failure to adequately address these risks and challenges could harm our business and cause our operating results to suffer. We have incurred significant operating losses in the past, and we may not be able to achieve or subsequently maintain profitability.

We believe that our future revenue growth will depend on, among other factors, our ability to attract new users, increase user engagement and ad engagement, increase our brand awareness, compete effectively, maximize our sales efforts, demonstrate a positive return on investment for advertisers, successfully develop new products and services and expand internationally. Accordingly, you should not rely on the revenue growth of any prior quarterly or annual period as an indication of our future performance. We also expect our costs to increase in future periods as we continue to expend substantial financial resources on:.

These investments may not result in increased revenue or growth in our business. In addition, we have granted stock options and RSUs to our employees. RSUs granted to domestic employees before February and all RSUs granted to international employees, or the Pre RSUs, vest upon the satisfaction of both a service condition and a performance condition.

The service condition for a majority of the Pre RSUs is satisfied over a period of four years. The performance condition will be satisfied on the earlier of i the date that is the earlier of x six months after the effective date of this offering or y March 8th of the calendar year following the effective date of this offering which we may elect to accelerate to February 15th ; and ii the date of a change in control.

As of June 30, , no stock-based compensation expense had been recognized for the Pre RSUs because a qualifying event as described above was not probable. In the quarter in which this offering is completed, we will begin recording stock-based compensation expense based on the grant-date fair value of the Pre RSUs using the accelerated attribution method, net of estimated forfeitures. Following the completion of this offering, the stock-based compensation expense related to Pre RSUs and other outstanding equity awards will have a significant negative impact on our ability to achieve profitability on a GAAP basis in and If we are unable to generate adequate revenue growth and to manage our expenses, we may continue to incur significant losses in the future and may not be able to achieve or maintain profitability.

Our business depends on continued and unimpeded access to our products and services on the Internet by our users and advertisers. If we or our users experience disruptions in Internet service or if Internet service providers are able to block, degrade or charge for access to our products and services, we could incur additional expenses and the loss of users and advertisers.

We depend on the ability of our users and advertisers to access the Internet. Currently, this access is provided by companies that have significant market power in the broadband and Internet access marketplace, including incumbent telephone companies, cable companies, mobile communications companies, government-owned service providers, device manufacturers and operating system providers, any of whom could take actions that degrade, disrupt or increase the cost of user access to our products or services, which would, in turn, negatively impact our business.

For example, access to Twitter is blocked in China. The adoption of any laws or regulations that adversely. Table of Contents affect the growth, popularity or use of the Internet, including laws or practices limiting Internet neutrality, could decrease the demand for, or the usage of, our products and services, increase our cost of doing business and adversely affect our operating results.

We also rely on other companies to maintain reliable network systems that provide adequate speed, data capacity and security to us and our users. As the Internet continues to experience growth in the number of users, frequency of use and amount of data transmitted, the Internet infrastructure that we and our users rely on may be unable to support the demands placed upon it.

The failure of the Internet infrastructure that we or our users rely on, even for a short period of time, could undermine our operations and harm our operating results. Our new products, services and initiatives and changes to existing products, services and initiatives could fail to attract users and advertisers or generate revenue. Our ability to increase the size and engagement of our user base, attract advertisers and generate revenue will depend in part on our ability to create successful new products and services, both independently and in conjunction with third parties.

We may introduce significant changes to our existing products and services or develop and introduce new and unproven products and services, including technologies with which we have little or no prior development or operating experience. For example, in , we introduced Vine, a mobile application that enables users to create and distribute videos that are up to six seconds in length, and Music, a mobile application that helps users discover new music and artists based on Twitter data.

If new or enhanced products or services fail to engage users and advertisers, we may fail to attract or retain users or to generate sufficient revenue or operating profit to justify our investments, and our business and operating results could be adversely affected. In addition, we have launched and expect to continue to launch strategic initiatives, such as the Nielsen Twitter TV Rating, that do not directly generate revenue but which we believe will enhance our attractiveness to users and advertisers.

In the future, we may invest in new products, services and initiatives to generate revenue, but there is no guarantee these approaches will be successful. We may not be successful in future efforts to generate revenue from our new products or services. If our strategic initiatives do not enhance our ability to monetize our existing products and services or enable us to develop new approaches to monetization, we may not be able to maintain or grow our revenue or recover any associated development costs and our operating results could be adversely affected. Spam could diminish the user experience on our platform, which could damage our reputation and deter our current and potential users from using our products and services.

This includes posting large numbers of unsolicited mentions of a user, duplicate Tweets, misleading links e. Our terms of service also prohibit the creation of serial or bulk accounts, both manually or using automation, for disruptive or abusive purposes, such as to tweet spam or to artificially inflate the popularity of users seeking to promote themselves on Twitter.

Although we continue to invest resources to reduce spam on Twitter, we expect spammers will continue to seek ways to act inappropriately on our platform. In addition, we expect that increases in the number of users on our platform will result in increased efforts by spammers to misuse our platform.

We continuously combat spam, including by suspending or terminating accounts we believe to be spammers and launching algorithmic changes focused on curbing abusive activities. Our actions to combat spam require the diversion of significant time and focus of our engineering team from improving our products and services.

If spam increases on Twitter, this could hurt our reputation for delivering relevant content or reduce user growth and user engagement and result in continuing operational cost to us. Table of Contents If we fail to effectively manage our growth, our business and operating results could be harmed. We continue to experience rapid growth in our headcount and operations, which will continue to place significant demands on our management, operational and financial infrastructure.

We intend to continue to make substantial investments to expand our operations, research and development, sales and marketing and general and administrative organizations, as well as our international operations. We face significant competition for employees, particularly engineers, designers and product managers, from other Internet and high-growth companies, which include both publicly-traded and privately-held companies, and we may not be able to hire new employees quickly enough to meet our needs.

To attract highly skilled personnel, we have had to offer, and believe we will need to continue to offer, highly competitive compensation packages. In addition, as we have grown, we have significantly expanded our operating lease commitments. As we continue to grow, we are subject to the risks of over-hiring, over-compensating our employees and over-expanding our operating infrastructure, and to the challenges of integrating, developing and motivating a rapidly growing employee base in various countries around the world.

1. Introduction

In addition, we may not be able to innovate or execute as quickly as a smaller, more efficient organization. If we fail to effectively manage our hiring needs and successfully integrate our new hires, our efficiency and ability to meet our forecasts and our employee morale, productivity and retention could suffer, and our business and operating results could be adversely affected.

Providing our products and services to our users is costly and we expect our expenses to continue to increase in the future as we broaden our user base and increase user engagement, as users increase the amount of content they contribute, and as we develop and implement new features, products and services that require more infrastructure, such as our mobile video product, Vine. In addition, our operating expenses, such as our research and development expenses and sales and marketing expenses, have grown rapidly as we have expanded our business.

Historically, our costs have increased each year due to these factors and we expect to continue to incur increasing costs to support our anticipated future growth. We expect to continue to invest in our infrastructure in order to enable us to provide our products and services rapidly and reliably to users around the world, including in countries where we do not expect significant near-term monetization. Continued growth could also strain our ability to maintain reliable service levels for our users and advertisers, develop and improve our operational, financial, legal and management controls, and enhance our reporting systems and procedures.

As a public company we will incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. Our expenses may grow faster than our revenue, and our expenses may be greater than we anticipate. Managing our growth will require significant expenditures and allocation of valuable management resources. If we fail to achieve the necessary level of efficiency in our organization as it grows, our business, operating results and financial condition would be harmed.

Our business and operating results may be harmed by a disruption in our service, or by our failure to timely and effectively scale and adapt our existing technology and infrastructure. One of the reasons people come to Twitter is for real-time information. We have experienced, and may in the future experience, service disruptions, outages and other performance problems due to a variety of factors, including infrastructure changes, human or software errors, hardware failure, capacity constraints due to an overwhelming number of people accessing our products and services simultaneously, computer viruses and denial of service or fraud or security attacks.

Although we are investing significantly to improve the capacity, capability and reliability of our infrastructure, we are not currently serving traffic equally through our co-located data centers that support our platform. Accordingly, in the event of a significant issue at the data center supporting most of our network traffic,. Table of Contents some of our products and services may become inaccessible to the public or the public may experience difficulties accessing our products and services.

For example, in July , due to the failure of two parallel systems at nearly the same time in one of our data centers, Twitter became inaccessible for approximately two hours. Any disruption or failure in our infrastructure could hinder our ability to handle existing or increased traffic on our platform, which could significantly harm our business. As the number of our users increases and our users generate more content, including photos and videos hosted by Twitter, we may be required to expand and adapt our technology and infrastructure to continue to reliably store, serve and analyze this content.

It may become increasingly difficult to maintain and improve the performance of our products and services, especially during peak usage times, as our products and services become more complex and our user traffic increases. In addition, because we lease our data center facilities, we cannot be assured that we will be able to expand our data center infrastructure to meet user demand in a timely manner, or on favorable economic terms. If our users are unable to access Twitter or we are not able to make information available rapidly on Twitter, users may seek other channels to obtain the information, and may not return to Twitter or use Twitter as often in the future, or at all.

This would negatively impact our ability to attract users and advertisers and increase engagement of our users. We expect to continue to make significant investments to maintain and improve the capacity, capability and reliability of our infrastructure. To the extent that we do not effectively address capacity constraints, upgrade our systems as needed and continually develop our technology and infrastructure to accommodate actual and anticipated changes in technology, our business and operating results may be harmed. Action by governments to restrict access to our products and services or censor Twitter content could harm our business and operating results.

Governments have sought, and may in the future seek, to censor content available through our products and services, restrict access to our products and services from their country entirely or impose other restrictions that may affect the accessibility of our products and services for an extended period of time or indefinitely. For example, domestic Internet service providers in China have blocked access to Twitter, and other countries, including Iran, Libya, Pakistan and Syria, have intermittently restricted access to Twitter, and we believe that access to Twitter has been blocked in these countries primarily for political reasons.

In addition, governments in other countries may seek to restrict access to our products and services if they consider us to be in violation of their laws. In the event that access to our products and services is restricted, in whole or in part, in one or more countries or our competitors are able to successfully penetrate geographic markets that we cannot access, our ability to retain or increase our user base and user engagement may be adversely affected, and our operating results may be harmed.

If we are unable to maintain and promote our brand, our business and operating results may be harmed. We believe that maintaining and promoting our brand is critical to expanding our base of users and advertisers. Maintaining and promoting our brand will depend largely on our ability to continue to provide useful, reliable and innovative products and services, which we may not do successfully.

We may introduce new features, products, services or terms of service that users, platform partners or advertisers do not like, which may negatively affect our brand. Additionally, the actions of platform partners may affect our brand if users do not have a positive experience using third-party applications or websites integrated with Twitter or that make use of Twitter content. For example, in April , attackers obtained the credentials to the Twitter account of the Associated Press news service.

The attackers posted an erroneous Tweet from the Associated Press account reporting that there had been explosions at the White House, triggering a stock market decline, and focusing media attention on our brand and security efforts. Maintaining and enhancing our brand may require us to make substantial investments and these investments may not achieve the desired goals. If we fail to successfully promote and maintain our brand or if we incur excessive expenses in this effort, our business and operating results could be adversely affected.

Negative publicity could adversely affect our business and operating results. We receive a high degree of media coverage around the world. Negative publicity about our company, including about our product quality and reliability, changes to our products and services, privacy and security practices, litigation, regulatory activity, the actions of our users or user experience with our products and services, even if inaccurate, could adversely affect our reputation and the confidence in and the use of our products and services.

For example, service outages on Twitter typically result in widespread media reports. Such negative publicity could also have an adverse effect on the size, engagement and loyalty of our user base and result in decreased revenue, which could adversely affect our business and operating results.

Our future performance depends in part on support from platform partners and data partners. We believe user engagement with our products and services depends in part on the availability of applications and content generated by platform partners. Beginning in , we launched Twitter Cards, which allow platform partners to ensure that whenever they or any user tweets from their websites or applications, the Tweet will automatically include rich content like a photo, a video, a sound clip, an article summary or information about a product, and make it instantly accessible to any other user on Twitter.

Twitter Cards allow platform partners to create lightweight interactive applications to promote their content or their products. If platform partners focus their efforts on other platforms, the availability and quality of applications and content for our products and services may suffer. There is no assurance that platform partners will continue to develop and maintain applications and content for our products and services. If platform partners cease to develop and maintain applications and content for our products and services, user engagement may decline.

In addition, we generate revenue from licensing our historical and real-time data to third parties. If any of these relationships are terminated or not renewed, or if we are unable to enter into similar relationships in the future, our operating results could be adversely affected. We focus on product innovation and user engagement rather than short-term operating results. We encourage employees to quickly develop and help us launch new and innovative features. We focus on improving the user experience for our products and services and on developing new and improved products and services for the advertisers on our platform.

We prioritize innovation and the experience for users and advertisers on our platform over short-term operating results. We frequently make product and service decisions that may reduce our short-term operating results if we believe that the decisions are consistent with our goals to improve the user experience and performance for advertisers, which we believe will improve our operating results over the long term.

These decisions may not be consistent with the short-term expectations of investors and may not produce the long-term benefits that we expect, in which case our user growth and user engagement, our relationships with advertisers and our business and operating results could be harmed. In addition, our focus on the user experience may negatively impact our relationships with our existing or prospective advertisers. This could result in a loss of advertisers, which could harm our revenue and operating results.

Table of Contents Our international operations are subject to increased challenges and risks. We have offices around the world and our products and services are available in multiple languages. We expect to continue to expand our international operations in the future by opening offices in new jurisdictions and expanding our offerings in new languages. However, we have limited operating history outside the United States, and our ability to manage our business and conduct our operations internationally requires considerable management attention and resources and is subject to the particular challenges of supporting a rapidly growing business in an environment of multiple languages, cultures, customs, legal and regulatory systems, alternative dispute systems and commercial markets.

International expansion has required and will continue to require us to invest significant funds and other resources. Operating internationally subjects us to new risks and may increase risks that we currently face, including risks associated with:. Bribery Act, including by our business partners;. If we are unable to manage the complexity of our global operations successfully, our business, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected.

Table of Contents Our products and services may contain undetected software errors, which could harm our business and operating results. Our products and services incorporate complex software and we encourage employees to quickly develop and help us launch new and innovative features. Our software has contained, and may now or in the future contain, errors, bugs or vulnerabilities. For example, we experienced a service outage in June during which Twitter service was inaccessible for approximately two hours as a result of a cascading software bug in one of our infrastructure components. Some errors in our software code may only be discovered after the product or service has been released.

Any errors, bugs or vulnerabilities discovered in our code after release could result in damage to our reputation, loss of users, loss of platform partners, loss of advertisers or advertising revenue or liability for damages, any of which could adversely affect our business and operating results. Our business is subject to complex and evolving U. These laws and regulations are subject to change and uncertain interpretation, and could result in claims, changes to our business practices, monetary penalties, increased cost of operations or declines in user growth, user engagement or ad engagement, or otherwise harm our business.

We are subject to a variety of laws and regulations in the United States and abroad that involve matters central to our business, including privacy, rights of publicity, data protection, content regulation, intellectual property, competition, protection of minors, consumer protection and taxation.

Many of these laws and regulations are still evolving and being tested in courts and could be interpreted or applied in ways that could harm our business, particularly in the new and rapidly evolving industry in which we operate. The introduction of new products or services may subject us to additional laws and regulations.

In addition, foreign data protection, privacy, consumer protection, content regulation and other laws and regulations are often more restrictive than those in the United States. In particular, the European Union and its member states traditionally have taken broader views as to types of data that are subject to privacy and data protection, and have imposed greater legal obligations on companies in this regard.

A number of proposals are pending before federal, state and foreign legislative and regulatory bodies that could significantly affect our business. For example, regulation relating to the European Union Data Protection Directive is currently being considered by European legislative bodies that may include more stringent operational requirements for entities processing personal information and significant penalties for non-compliance. Similarly, there have been a number of recent legislative proposals in the United States, at both the federal and state level, that would impose new obligations in areas such as privacy and liability for copyright infringement by third parties.

The U. Additionally, recent amendments to U. We currently allow use of our platform without the collection of extensive personal information, such as age. We may experience additional pressure to expand our collection of personal information in order to comply with new and additional regulatory demands or we may independently decide to do so.

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Having additional personal information may subject us to additional regulation. Further, it is difficult to predict how existing laws and regulations will be applied to our business and the new laws and regulations to which we may become subject, and it is possible that they may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our practices. These existing and proposed laws and regulations can be costly to comply with and can delay or impede the development of new products and services, result in negative publicity, significantly increase our operating costs, require significant time and attention of management and technical personnel and subject us to inquiries or investigations, claims or other remedies, including fines or demands that we modify or cease existing business practices.

Table of Contents Regulatory investigations and settlements could cause us to incur additional expenses or change our business practices in a manner materially adverse to our business. We have been subject to regulatory investigations in the past, and expect to continue to be subject to regulatory scrutiny as our business grows and awareness of our brand increases. In March , to resolve an investigation into various incidents, we entered into a settlement agreement with the FTC that, among other things, requires us to establish an information security program designed to protect non-public consumer information and also requires that we obtain biennial independent security assessments.

We expect to continue to be the subject of regulatory inquiries, investigations and audits in the future by the FTC and other regulators around the world. It is possible that a regulatory inquiry, investigation or audit might result in changes to our policies or practices, and may cause us to incur substantial costs or could result in reputational harm, prevent us from offering certain products, services, features or functionalities, cause us to incur substantial costs or require us to change our business practices in a manner materially adverse to our business.

Violation of existing or future regulatory orders, settlements or consent decrees could subject us to substantial monetary fines and other penalties that could negatively affect our financial condition and operating results. Even though Twitter is a global platform for public self-expression and conversation, user trust regarding privacy is important to the growth of users and the increase in user engagement on our platform, and privacy concerns relating to our products and services could damage our reputation and deter current and potential users and advertisers from using Twitter.

From time to time, concerns have been expressed by governments, regulators and others about whether our products, services or practices compromise the privacy of users and others. Concerns about, governmental or regulatory actions involving our practices with regard to the collection, use, disclosure or security of personal information or other privacy-related matters, even if unfounded, could damage our reputation, cause us to lose users and advertisers and adversely affect our operating results.

While we strive to comply with applicable data protection laws and regulations, as well as our own posted privacy policies and other obligations we may have with respect to privacy and data protection, the failure or perceived failure to comply may result, and in some cases has resulted, in inquiries and other proceedings or actions against us by governments, regulators or others, as well as negative publicity and damage to our reputation and brand, each of which could cause us to lose users and advertisers, which could have an adverse effect on our business.

We expect to continue to expend significant resources to protect against security breaches. The risk that these types of events could seriously harm our business is likely to increase as we expand the number of products and services we offer, increase the size of our user base and operate in more countries.

Governments and regulators around the world are considering a number of legislative and regulatory proposals concerning data protection. In addition, the interpretation and application of consumer and data protection laws or regulations in the United States, Europe and elsewhere are often uncertain and in flux, and in some cases, laws or regulations in one country may be inconsistent with, or contrary to, those of another country. It is possible that these laws and regulations may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our practices.

If so, in addition to the possibility of fines, this could result in an order requiring that we change our practices, which could have an adverse effect on our business and operating results. Complying with new laws and regulations could cause us to incur substantial costs or require us to change our business practices in a manner materially adverse to our business.

Table of Contents If our security measures are breached, or if our products and services are subject to attacks that degrade or deny the ability of users to access our products and services, our products and services may be perceived as not being secure, users and advertisers may curtail or stop using our products and services and our business and operating results could be harmed. For example, in February , we disclosed that sophisticated unknown third parties had attacked our systems and may have had access to limited information for approximately , users.

Our security measures may also be breached due to employee error, malfeasance or otherwise. Since our users and advertisers may use their Twitter accounts to establish and maintain online identities, unauthorized communications from Twitter accounts that have been compromised may damage their reputations and brands as well as ours.

Any such breach or unauthorized access could result in significant legal and financial exposure, damage to our reputation and a loss of confidence in the security of our products and services that could have an adverse effect on our business and operating results.


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Because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access, disable or degrade service or sabotage systems change frequently and often are not recognized until launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures. If an actual or perceived breach of our security occurs, the market perception of the effectiveness of our security measures could be harmed, we could lose users and advertisers and we may incur significant legal and financial exposure, including legal claims and regulatory fines and penalties.

Any of these actions could have a material and adverse effect on our business, reputation and operating results. We may face lawsuits or incur liability as a result of content published or made available through our products and services. We have faced and will continue to face claims relating to content that is published or made available through our products and services or third party products or services.

In particular, the nature of our business exposes us to claims related to defamation, intellectual property rights, rights of publicity and privacy, illegal content, content regulation and personal injury torts. The law relating to the liability of providers of online products or services for activities of their users remains somewhat unsettled, both within the United States and internationally. This risk may be enhanced in certain jurisdictions outside the United States where we may be less protected under local laws than we are in the United States.

In addition, the public nature of communications on our network exposes us to risks arising from the creation of impersonation accounts intended to be attributed to our users or advertisers. We could incur significant costs investigating and defending these claims. If we incur costs or liability as a result of these events occurring, our business, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected.

Our intellectual property rights are valuable, and any inability to protect them could reduce the value of our products, services and brand. Our trade secrets, trademarks, copyrights, patents and other intellectual property rights are important assets for us. We rely on, and expect to continue to rely on, a combination of confidentiality and license agreements with our employees, consultants and third parties with whom we have relationships, as well as trademark, trade dress, domain name, copyright, trade secret and patent laws, to protect our brand and other intellectual property rights.

However, various events outside of our control pose a threat to our intellectual property rights, as well as to our products, services and. Table of Contents technologies. For example, we may fail to obtain effective intellectual property protection, or effective intellectual property protection may not be available in every country in which our products and services are available. Also, the efforts we have taken to protect our intellectual property rights may not be sufficient or effective, and any of our intellectual property rights may be challenged, which could result in them being narrowed in scope or declared invalid or unenforceable.

There can be no assurance our intellectual property rights will be sufficient to protect against others offering products or services that are substantially similar to ours and compete with our business. We rely on non-patented proprietary information and technology, such as trade secrets, confidential information, know-how and technical information. While in certain cases we have agreements in place with employees and third parties that place restrictions on the use and disclosure of this intellectual property, these agreements may be breached, or this intellectual property may otherwise be disclosed or become known to our competitors, which could cause us to lose any competitive advantage resulting from this intellectual property.

We are pursuing registration of trademarks and domain names in the United States and in certain jurisdictions outside of the United States. Effective protection of trademarks and domain names is expensive and difficult to maintain, both in terms of application and registration costs as well as the costs of defending and enforcing those rights.

We may be required to protect our rights in an increasing number of countries, a process that is expensive and may not be successful or which we may not pursue in every country in which our products and services are distributed or made available. We are party to numerous agreements that grant licenses to third parties to use our intellectual property, including our trademarks. For example, many third parties distribute their content through Twitter, or embed Twitter content in their applications or on their websites, and make use of our trademarks in connection with their services.

If the licensees of our trademarks are not using our trademarks properly, it may limit our ability to protect our trademarks and could ultimately result in our trademarks being declared invalid or unenforceable. We have a policy designed to assist third parties in the proper use of our brand, trademarks and other assets, and we have an internal team dedicated to enforcing our policy and protecting our brand.

Our brand protection team routinely receives and reviews reports of improper and unauthorized use of the Twitter brand, trademarks or assets and issues takedown notices or initiates discussions with the third parties to correct the issues. However, there can be no assurance that we will be able to protect against the unauthorized use of our brand, trademarks or other assets. If we fail to maintain and enforce our trademark rights, the value of our brand could be diminished. There is also a risk that one or more of our trademarks could become generic, which could result in them being declared invalid or unenforceable.

We also seek to obtain patent protection for some of our technology and as of June 30, , we had 6 issued U. We may be unable to obtain patent or trademark protection for our technologies and brands, and our existing patents and trademarks, and any patents or trademarks that may be issued in the future, may not provide us with competitive advantages or distinguish our products and services from those of our competitors. In addition, any patents and trademarks may be contested, circumvented, or found unenforceable or invalid, and we may not be able to prevent third parties from infringing, diluting or otherwise violating them.

Effective protection of patent rights is expensive and difficult to maintain, both in terms of application and maintenance costs, as well as the costs of defending and enforcing those rights. In May , we implemented the IPA, which we enter into with our employees and consultants,. Table of Contents including our founders. The IPA, which applies to our current and future patents, allows us to assert our patents defensively.

The IPA also allows us to assert our patents offensively with the permission of the inventors of the applicable patent. In addition, the IPA provides that the above limitations apply to any future owner or exclusive licensee of any of our patents, which could limit our ability to sell or license our patents to third parties. While we may be able to claim protection of our intellectual property under other rights, such as trade secrets or contractual obligations with our employees not to disclose or use confidential information, we may be unable to assert our patent rights against third parties that we believe are infringing our patents, even if such third parties are developing products and services that compete with our products and services.

For example, in the event that an inventor of one of our patents leaves us for another company and uses our patented technology to compete with us, we would not be able to assert that patent against such other company unless the assertion of the patent right is for a defensive purpose. In such event, we may be limited in our ability to assert a patent right against another company, and instead would need to rely on trade secret protection or the contractual obligation of the inventor to us not to disclose or use our confidential information.

In addition, the terms of the IPA could affect our ability to monetize our intellectual property portfolio. Significant impairments of our intellectual property rights, and limitations on our ability to assert our intellectual property rights against others, could harm our business and our ability to compete. Also, obtaining, maintaining and enforcing our intellectual property rights is costly and time consuming. Any increase in the unauthorized use of our intellectual property could make it more expensive to do business and harm our operating results. We are currently, and expect to be in the future, party to intellectual property rights claims that are expensive and time consuming to defend, and, if resolved adversely, could have a significant impact on our business, financial condition or operating results.

Companies in the Internet, technology and media industries own large numbers of patents, copyrights, trademarks and trade secrets, and frequently enter into litigation based on allegations of infringement, misappropriation or other violations of intellectual property or other rights. Many companies in these industries, including many of our competitors, have substantially larger patent and intellectual property portfolios than we do, which could make us a target for litigation as we may not be able to assert counterclaims against parties that sue us for patent, or other intellectual property infringement.

Further, from time to time we may introduce new products and services, including in areas where we currently do not have an offering, which could increase our exposure to patent and other intellectual property claims from competitors and non-practicing entities. In addition, although our standard terms and conditions for our Promoted Products and public APIs do not provide advertisers and platform partners with indemnification for intellectual property claims against them, some of our agreements with advertisers, platform partners and data partners require us to indemnify them for certain intellectual property claims against them, which could require us to incur considerable costs in defending such claims, and may require us to pay significant damages in the event of an adverse ruling.

Such advertisers, platform partners and data partners may also discontinue use of our products, services and technologies as a result of injunctions or otherwise, which could result in loss of revenue and adversely impact our business. Table of Contents We presently are involved in a number of intellectual property lawsuits, and as we face increasing competition and gain an increasingly high profile, we expect the number of patent and other intellectual property claims against us to grow.

There may be intellectual property or other rights held by others, including issued or pending patents, that cover significant aspects of our products and services, and we cannot be sure that we are not infringing or violating, and have not infringed or violated, any third-party intellectual property rights or that we will not be held to have done so or be accused of doing so in the future. Any claim or litigation alleging that we have infringed or otherwise violated intellectual property or other rights of third parties, with or without merit, and whether or not settled out of court or determined in our favor, could be time-consuming and costly to address and resolve, and could divert the time and attention of our management and technical personnel.

Visual Studio Code, an alternative code editor to Qt Creator, has been supported since the last release. Once your default is set, clicking on the Edit button in the side panel will open your AppStudio in the desired code editor. Support for opening permission dialog prompt.

The Permission singleton can query the permission status. The PermissionDialog component provides the ability to open a dialog prompt to ask for the camera, microphone, storage Android , location, or background location permission on mobile devices. It can also open the device settings if the user declines the permission prompt. Permission Dialog Sample. You can download the sample app here: AppStudio Desktop 4. We have been actively listening to feedback and suggestions from the community and are happy to announce support for one of the most requested features - previewing and sharing files.

We have enhanced the AppFramework clipboard. Share text, URL, or file sample. Support for changing languages when the app is running. Previously, the language of a localized AppStudio app would be based on the device language. With this release, you can now change app language inside of the app without changing the device language. This is huge as now you can also test your apps without changing phone OS locale and also have the ability to provide the option in UI to switch between languages. Getting Started. You are now all set to start testing the AppStudio 4. We want to thank everyone who contributes to this release in advance, and we wish you happy testing!

It's one of my favourite problems to solve. The blog also talks about a Sorting Cities sample app. The rest of the blog explains how the function works. The Sorting Cities sample app is an AppStudio 3. It comes with five U. The sort order can be either ascending or descending. In particular, Array has a sort method whilst ListModel does not. When you assign an Array to a QML visual component, e. If you were to push new records onto the Array the ListView will not update.

To refresh the ListView you need to reassign the Array every time the Array changes. This will cause the ListView to repaint. This could lead to bad user experience. For instance, I may be writing an application that collates results from an online search. Each update will cause the ListView to repaint and scroll back to the top. The experience is different with ListModels. When you assign a ListModel to a ListView you don't need to assign it again.

When you append new records to the ListModel, the ListView will receive sufficient change notification and will automatically update to reflect that new records have arrived. The user would not experience any negative user experience with the ListView. A compare function takes any two elements from the Array or ListModel and returns an integer.

It can be negative, zero or positive. For example, if one wanted to compare any two numbers, one could write the following compare function:. You'll see the arrow function syntax allows us to omit the 'function' keyword, the function's name and the 'return' keyword. We make this choice if we believe such a choice improves our code readability and maintainability. There are plentiful sorting algorithms out there. One of the best algorithms out there, Quicksort , is complex to transcribe correctly. Instead, I wanted to leverage from Array sort's implementation. In a nutshell, the algorithm would be:.

The Array would be a set of integer indexes and we just be traversing it as a on the fly lookup into the QML ListModel. Then, we use Array's sort method to reorder the indexes Array. We use an arrow function to pick any two entries from the QML ListModel and feed them to the user supplied compare function:. This reorders the indexes Array.

We can now use this sorted Array to traverse the ListModel in sorted order. The above loop iterates through the items in the ListModel in sorted order. Once all the items have been moved, we delete the empty holes left behind by the move. It's a heavy handed approach.

The animation above helps you visualize sorting the cities based on their distance to ESRI. The records are tagged by an index Next, the sorted records are moved, one by one, to the end, then the sorted records are moved back to the top deleting the temporary empty holes.

This is so that updates to the content will not interrupt the user experience. Whenever you can, leverage from an existing implementation e. Array sort rather than implement your own. You minimize your coding effort and future maintenance efforts. Otherwise, if they're complex, then, then you should use a named compare function. Send us your feedback to appstudiofeedback esri. Watch this video on how to sign up for a free trial. The AppStudio team periodically hosts workshops and webinars; please click on this link to leave your email if you are interested in information regarding AppStudio events.

AppStudio 3. This blog isn't a comprehensive guide to Promises. There already is a lot of content on the internet. I recommend you seek them out. Note that the ArcGIS. Promises module and begin removing them from your existing AppStudio apps. When the Button is clicked, we simulates 3 concurrent downloads.

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You may be thinking "This looking confusing" and "Do I really need this? It describes this all this in one place, in the one function. If you didn't use Promises, we would have to create numerous signals and slots and spread the implementation throughout the application. Promise chaining is a coding pattern where you want to run your asynchronous tasks sequentially.

You may need to do this if you wish to use the output of one task as an input to the next. When the Button is clicked, we want to start the download of 3 web pages, one after the after. If downloads are successful, you will see the web page's title. If any task fails, we do not continue downloading. The download function returns the web page's title. Please vote to have it fixed!

Since Promise chaining doesn't work in AppStudio 3. This one demonstrates Promises nesting where each subsequent task is nested in the success of the previous task. This implementation works, but it is extremely ugly.

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It is infamously known as callbackhell. You see each subsequent task incurs another level of indentation and another copy of the error handler. The main characteristic is the use of the new async and await keywords and that the main body reads sequentially and elegantly. Unfortunately, this feature didn't make it to AppStudio 3.

Generator functions made it into AppStudio 3. View the full PromiseBabel. We aren't interested in the completion of the subsequent Promises. We will be notified the success message or failure error of that first sub Promise. Surprisingly, no matter how many times you try, you find the AppStudio Home Page always wins the race.

Why is the second Promise always succeeding the race? That's because the community GeoNet page take longer to load! I hope this blog helps gives a good overview to Promises and why they matter in your AppStudio apps. Promises, whilst new in AppStudio 3. Promises, I believe, work very well with Qt's signal and slot mechanism taking it to a whole new level.

The following will execute the following 4 console. It exists globally on the window object. Here is a sample AppStudio app that includes a simple implementation of setTimeout. Everytime the button is clicked the 4 setTimeout functions are triggered with the 4 resulting console. Disclaimer: this is a minimal implementation of setTimeout not a fully functioning implementation. If you want to use this implementation you will need to adapt it accordingly. This implementation of setTimeout returns a Timer object instead of a timerId.

When the time delay specified in milliseconds has been reached the nominated Javascript function is triggered with the parameters you supplied to setTimeout. If you wish to abort the action, you can passed the Timer object to the clearTimeout function. Functions implemented in the top level component here, it was App will be seen by all child components. In this example, we have a StackView which means, all pages that are pushed to the StackView will have access to the setTimeout function.

The first parameter to setTimeout refers to a function or code. Prior to ECMAScript 6, we could always do anonymous functions, but the syntax was somewhat cumbersome with the required use of the function keyword:. Sometimes, to avoid the use of the anonymous function syntax, I find it better to name things clearly and space out my code for increase readability and maintainability:. For completeness, we recognize that console.

We used it in the declaration of the setTimeout function to pick up all remaining parameters as an array. This blog discusses an AppStudio implementation of setTimeout. That blog will reuse the setTimeout function and arrow functions introduced here.

This blog talks about Unicode and the wonderful emojis and cliparts that are hidden within. It also covers some new syntax introduced in AppStudio 3.