After taking into account the effects of individual and exercise variables, both social physique anxiety and self-esteem emerged as significant predictors. Thus, higher social physique anxiety and lower self-esteem predicted a propensity for eating disorder behavior.
The results of these analyses are summarized in table Regression model for the prediction of the EDE-Q global score. This study had two main aims. Then, we assessed the predictive ability of exercise, individual, and psychological variables in explaining eating disordered behaviors.. Regarding the first aim, three findings should be stressed.
First, being male, having a higher attraction toward exercise, and having a lower propensity for dieting were associated with a greater likelihood of exercising regularly among the adolescents. Some of these findings are consistent with those of other studies, in that females consistently report having a lower exercise frequency than boys Troiano et al. Thus, enjoyment and leisure clearly are important for participation in exercise, which reinforces the need for pleasure and fun in programs that promote physical activity in young people..
Second, adolescents with a pattern of occasional exercise reported having more eating disordered behaviors particularly in the shape concern subscale of the EDE-Q. Despite finding no significant difference between the groups in the diagnostic criteria of the EDE-Q, we should note that the higher percentage of possible cases of binge eating disorder and nonpurging-type bulimia nervosa were found in the occasional exercise group.
Few studies have examined the relationship between exercise frequency and eating disordered behaviors in such detail. However, in one study with US adolescents, Pate, Heath, Dowda and Trost concluded that low physical activity was associated with unhealthy habits, including excessive dietary behavior. Third, the regular exercise group was more motivated to exercise, had less social physique anxiety, and higher self-esteem.
These results support the importance of goal orientation not only for sport participation Harwood et al. In the same way, our results regarding self-esteem confirm previous findings of a positive association among self-esteem, exercise participation, and sport involvement e. Our results indicate that such these differences self-esteem also extend to adolescents with different exercise frequencies. Moreover, the fact that adolescents who exercise regularly had less social physique anxiety is important because research has demonstrated that social physical anxiety is associated with both low exercise frequency and excessive exercise, negative perfectionism, and socially prescribed perfectionism Caglar et al.
Regarding the second aim of this study, the results showed that eating disordered behaviors in adolescence are better predicted by the interaction between exercise e. In fact, having an occasional exercise routine, being female, being overweight, desiring to weigh less, having a low attraction toward exercise, having more social physique anxiety, and having lower self-esteem all predicted the propensity for eating disordered behaviors.
However, our results also emphasize the importance of some variables that have received less attention in the literature i. Some limitations of this research should be noted. The use of convenience sampling and the small number of participants in the study hinder the generalizability of the results. Moreover, the cross-sectional nature of our adopted design and our reliance on self-report questionnaires are also limitations of the study.. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that being male, having a higher attraction toward exercise, and having a lower propensity for dieting are associated with a greater likelihood of exercising regularly among adolescents.
By the contrary, adolescents who exercise occasionally are more concerned about their body shape, have lower task and ego motivation to exercise, have higher social physique anxiety, and have less self-esteem. In sum, regular exercise seems to be associated with psychological well-being and with a lower propensity for eating disordered behaviors in adolescents.. ISSN: Exercise, eating disordered behaviors and psychological well-being: a study with Portuguese adolescents. Descargar PDF. Rui Gomes.
Autor para correspondencia. Universidade Minho, Portugal. Under a Creative Commons license. Table 1. Table 2. In conclusion, this study validates the importance of regular exercise for promoting psychological well-being and preventing eating disordered behaviors in adolescence. Palabras clave:. Texto completo. Second, eating disordered behaviors were examined by taking into account exercise frequency as well as significant individual and psychological characteristics.
Thus, it becomes important to know whether exercise frequency is related to eating disordered behaviors during adolescence. However, less evidence exists regarding the differences in self-esteem between adolescents who exercise occasionally and those who exercise regularly. As noted by Cusatis and Shannon , it is crucial for studies to identify more variables that can help explain eating disordered behaviors of adolescents because previous research has incorporated a limited number of variables and thus has provided an incomplete and overly simplistic depiction of this phenomenon.
Method Participants A convenience sample was recruited from three public schools on the island of Pico Azores, Portugal. Measures Demographic and exercise information. The EDE-Q also included six items assessing specific behaviors related to eating disorders, and four of these items evaluated binge-eating and compensatory behaviors that occurred over the past 28 days.
Higher scores in each dimension are indicative of greater orientation toward task and ego goals. Procedure The study followed ethical procedures as outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki version from Results Associations between individual variables and physical activity In the first set of analyses, we tested the association between exercise groups i.
Physical activity and eating disordered behaviors The purpose of these analyses was to test for differences between the occasional and the regular exercise groups in terms of eating disordered behaviors. This same procedure was also used in the next analysis reported in this paper. These differences are presented in table 1. Occasional exercise Regular exercise g. Table 3. Caglar, N. Bilgili, A. Karaca, S. Ayaz, F. The psychological characteristics and health related behavior of adolescents: The possible roles of social physique anxiety and gender.
The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 13 , pp. Cusatis, B. Journal of Adolescent Health, 18 , pp. Davies, J. Gregory, A. Physical activity and body fatness in pre-school children. Ekeland, F. Heain, K. Can exercise improve self-esteem in children and young people?. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 39 , pp. Fairburn, S. Assessment of eating disorders: Interview or self-report questionnaire?. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 16 , pp.
Fairburn, Z. Binge eating: Nature assessment and treatment. Guilford Press, ,. Welch, H. Doll, B. Davies, M.
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Risk factors for bulimia nervosa: A community-based case-control study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54 , pp. Self-esteem, self-perceptions and exercise. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 31 , pp. Garner, L. Rosen, D. Eating disorders among athletes: Research and recommendations. Gomes, T. Commitment to exercise: The influence of personal, athletic, and psychological characteristics. Universitas Psychologica, 12 , pp. Technical report. Braga: Universidade do Minho..
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Universidade do Minho, ,. Gomes, C. Martins, L. Eating Disordered Behaviours in Portuguese athletes: The influence of personal, sport, and psychological variables. European Eating Disorders Review, 19 , pp. Exercising for weight and shape reasons vs. Eating Behaviors, 13 , pp. Grieve, D. Wann, C. Henson, P. Healthy and unhealthy weight management practices in collegiate men and women. Journal of Sport Behavior, 29 , pp. Griffiths, M. The questionnaire was administered to each participant by the principal investigator. Individuals were informed that they should not worry about the accuracy of their responses, but rather just report what they understood, the difficulty of each question or statement on the questionnaire, and their level of acceptance of the questionnaire.
At the end, individuals were asked to make a general open comment about the questionnaire so that its overall acceptability, understandability, and clarity could be assessed. All comments were recorded on a specific form. Finally, in the reconciliation phase, the review committee and the expert committee met to produce the final Portuguese-language version of the LCQ.
To that end, the latest provisional version of the measure was analyzed item by item. The cognitive debriefing findings were discussed, and the relevant changes were made. Therefore, the final Portuguese-language version of the measure was produced.
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Of the ten patients interviewed in the cognitive debriefing phase, seven were female. Patient age ranged from 23 to 72 years, and patient educational level ranged from elementary school to college. Only two patients had no comorbidities, and the most common comorbidities were systemic arterial hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, hypothyroidism, allergic rhinitis, and depression Table 1. Half of the patients interviewed were still undergoing diagnostic evaluation.
For the remaining patients, one or more causes of cough had been found Table 2. In the phases of translation and back-translation, no questions or corrections were raised. However, in the phase of acquisition of approval from the author of the original LCQ, some items on the back-translated version were in part questioned by him because they showed a slight difference in wording. However, since the concept was preserved, no changes were made. The following items were questioned: "by sputum phlegm production when you cough? The review performed by the expert committee indicated some grammatical errors and offered conceptual suggestions, all of which are described in Table 3.
In the cognitive debriefing phase, three questions produced understandability difficulties. In addition, the title of the questionnaire was a source of difficulty for nearly half of the respondents. Therefore, in the final reconciliation phase, in which the review committee and the expert committee met, it was unanimously agreed that changes should be made to the title and to two of the questions.
Table 4 shows the changes made after cognitive debriefing. The final version of the document incorporated those changes, as shown in Appendix 1. In the present study, a health-related quality-of-life measure for patients with chronic cough was translated to Portuguese and adapted for use in Brazil.
The original version of the LCQ was developed primarily to assess patients in English, and, to date, only a Dutch-language version has been produced and validated. The decision to culturally adapt the LCQ, rather than to develop a new measure, was based on the fact that the adaptation of a previously described and validated measure, which has been translated and validated to other languages, makes it possible to compare results across studies conducted in different countries.
In addition, this is a current trend that aims to facilitate the use of such a measure in international multicenter studies and has boosted the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of several generic and specific instruments to several languages. Kalpaklioglu et al. The present study aimed to translate and culturally adapt the LCQ because it is a careful questionnaire, which consists of well-formulated questions and is structured by domains. The methodology used in the development of the LCQ 10 ensures proper validation of content.
In addition, the LCQ is valid and reproducible, 10 as well as being discriminative 21 and responsive to longitudinal changes. Therefore, guidelines on the management of chronic cough describe the LCQ as an important tool for quantification of cough and assessment of patient quality of life, 24 - 26 since there are few objective and well-validated instruments for quantification of cough. In more recent studies, the LCQ has been validated for assessment of chronic cough in the context of specific diseases 27 , 28 and for use in acute cough. One factor that ensures the applicability of the LCQ in Brazil is the methodology used in the process of translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the questionnaire, which has been shown to preserve the sensitivity of the measure, 14 as well as promoting an appropriate level of equivalence between the versions.
In addition, it is known that the internal structure, semantics, and psychometric characteristics of a measure may change when this measure is translated to another language. This is more common if the process of cross-cultural equivalence is not performed correctly. The need to take into account cultural influences on health and disease is increasingly being recognized in multicenter and multinational studies. The purpose of adapting a quality-of-life measure is to obtain health measurements that are appropriate and valid in different cultural groups.
This means developing a measure that is conceptually equivalent in different cultures. In the present study, the difficulties encountered in the translation phase resulted from the need to produce a conceptual translation. There were no difficulties in translating words referring to symptoms, physical activities, or activities of daily living. However, some English-language idioms and phrases, such as "fed up" and "overall enjoyment", were a matter of review and discussion. In addition, there was a need to adjust the verb tense so that the addressed situation made sense in Portuguese.
In the phase of acquisition of approval from the original author, only two items were questioned by him as to differences in the literal translation. However, since, according to the original author himself, conceptual equivalence was preserved, no changes were needed. Once the back-translated version was approved, an expert committee met to evaluate its matching Portuguese-language version in order to detect errors, make suggestions, and analyze content and structure.
In this phase, it is of particular value that the expert committee include bilingual members. The first modification was to the questionnaire formatting. The original version uses a Likert-type scale with response choices arranged in horizontal sequence.
In the Portuguese-language version, the same Likert-type scale was placed within a single-row, seven-column table. The modification made it easier to visualize all response choices. In order to achieve semantic, conceptual, and idiomatic equivalence, some expressions, words, prepositions, and verb tenses were changed. The difficulty lies in the fact that some English-language expressions have no literal equivalent in Portuguese, and, in such cases, conceptual equivalence is sought. Corrections of grammatical errors were made by the Portuguese-language expert, and the questionnaire version intended for use in the cognitive debriefing phase was then produced.
Cognitive debriefing is an essential phase in the cross-cultural adaptation process, because even a detailed methodological process does not ensure equivalence between target and source versions. Although the participants had varied educational levels, no significant difficulties that would prevent them from understanding the questionnaire were identified. This demonstrates that the measure produced can be administered to individuals from various socio-cultural classes. To ensure that the entire translation was easy to understand, cognitive debriefing involved an item-by-item review, rather than a random sample review.
An analysis of the responses given during the cognitive debriefing process showed that few items needed to be revised because of understandability difficulties. This finding is of great relevance because it shows the robustness of the process of translation and cross-cultural adaptation. Therefore, the final version was produced after changes, which were unanimously agreed by the review committee and the expert committee, were made to three items, among which was the title of the questionnaire.
The respondents' comments on the questionnaire were very positive. All stated that, in general, the questionnaire was clear, easy to understand, and easy to answer, with simple and quick-to-follow instructions. In addition, the questionnaire was considered to be significantly relevant in the evaluation of chronic cough, being well adapted to that condition and covering its various aspects in detail. We would like to thank the developer of the LCQ, Prof. Andalusia Andes: 1. Andes Andorra: 1. Andromeda Angola: 1. Angora, Ankara Antares: 1.
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