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He was a devout Muslim and established Sharia law throughout the kingdom, and also strengthened political and cultural ties with the rest of the Muslim world through encouraging immigration of scholars and skilled workers from Arabia, Egypt, Morocco and Muslim Spain. He was the first West African ruler to allow the exchange of ambassadors with these and other Muslim states. After conquering the empire, logistical implications of ruling the land led to the Moroccans withdrawing from the region in Various emperors attempted to restore the empire to its former glory, whoever a French colonial invasion in led to its final demise.

Also known as Abyssinia, the kingdom of Ethiopia is thought to be very ancient along with the kingdom of Kush.


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The kingdom expanded southwards to the Shoan Plateau, resulting in the rise of the Zagew Dynasty in AD who ultimately overthrew the old Axumite elites. Economic revival was experienced during the Zagwe rule as it renewed trade with the Muslim world. It exported gold, ivory, and frankincense. Slaves were also traded with Arabia and India.

Before Islam

The group came about with a fusion of Geez and Cushitic speaking people, birthing the Amhara people, who remain culturally dominant in modern day Ethiopia. The Mossi Kingdoms consisted of a number of independent kingdoms located by the headwaters of the Volta River within modern Burkina Faso and Ghana. The formation of the kingdoms dates back to the s, with expansion occurring at the moment of French conquest in the s from the Mossi plateau of Burkina Faso.

The Mossi states were well placed for trade as they were inland at the bend of the Niger River, where the empires of Ghana, Mali and Songhai rose and fell. They were also in close proximity to areas where European trade was dominant. The states lasted for years and survived conflicts with neighbouring Muslim empires during the spread of Islam across northern and western Africa.

The empire declined after French colonization in the s.

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According to a traditional account, the Edo Empire, better known as Benin Empire, was founded by semi-mythical kings known as the Ogisos, forming the city of Ibinu Benin City in AD. After years of kingship changes, Ekewa became the first Oba King of Benin, and in , Oba Ewuare also known as Ewuare the Great came to power and turned the city-state into an empire, naming it Edo. Oba Ewuare is credited with turning Benin City into a military fortress and expanding the kingdom into the modern southwestern region of Nigeria and Ghana.

The empire developed advanced artistic creations made of bronze, iron and ivory that was commonly created for various royal ceremonies. Artworks included bronze wall plaques and life-sized bronze heads of the Obas of Benin, with the most common artifact being based on Queen Idia. The empire grew in wealth during the 16th century due to lave trade with Europe as they sold off their war captives.

Persian Empire [abepivurev.tk]

The empire built a strong mercantile relationship with Portugal in the s, and the two nations traded tropical goods, slaves and European goods and weapons. Visitors and Christian missionaries came to the empire during this time.


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The English formed a relationship with the empire in the s, trading in ivory, slaves and other goods, with visitors going back to Europe to tell tales the great empire. In the modern era, the borders of the nation state have tried to settle this matter, but the nation state itself formed around a core state that standardized language and other aspects of culture in a way that typically alienated outlying regions.

In the end, the acid test for cultural identity has remained solidarity in the face of a common enemy and this is a test most empires have at some stage passed. To explain how empires, thus defined, have risen, persisted and fallen over the millennia, the core, the periphery and the international situation each need to be examined.

The core state is the place to look to find various motives for expansion, from the dream of imposing an imperial peace on squabbling states to the desire for economic exploitation, lust for the glory of conquest or zeal for evangelism, religious or ideological. The periphery is the place to look for crucial resistance or collaboration. Specifically, the fates of many empires have hinged on peripheral leaders deciding where their best interests lay.

Examples of Empires in the ancient world include those of Sumeria , Babylonia , Assyria , that of the Hittites , the Egyptian , the Persian, the Macedonian, the Inca , the Aztec , and, most famously, the Roman.


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Editorial Review This Article has been reviewed for accuracy, reliability and adherence to academic standards prior to publication. We're a small non-profit organisation run by a handful of volunteers. Become a Member. Davidson, P. Ancient History Encyclopedia.

Empires of Ancient Persia explained in 10 minutes ( History of Iran )

Davidson, Peter. Last modified September 02, Ancient History Encyclopedia, 02 Sep Edited excerpt of Atlas of Empires by Peter Davidson. Republished with permission. Original definition by Peter Davidson. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. More Details Other Editions Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up.

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Great African Empires

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