But in combination with psycholinguistic evidence, cited and described above, cognitive linguistics has made tremendous strides toward overcoming the restrictive, traditional view of metaphor that still, to some extent, exists among certain scholarly communities. The cognitive linguistic revolution on metaphor continues, although the debates over the role that metaphor plays in language, thought, and culture will surely continue.
There are several specific challenges that all metaphor scholars should strive to meet in their respective theoretical and empirical research. Let me briefly outline some of these. First, metaphor scholars must be explicit in the theoretical goals motivating their work. Scholars too often assume that everyone interested in metaphor is pursuing the same set of questions, or that research findings from one's own field of study should necessarily extend to theoretical concerns of scholars in all disciplines. For instance, cognitive linguists often assume without comment that their ideas on "metaphor understanding" pertain to any theory of metaphor processing, recognition, interpretation, and appreciation.
Yet each of these different aspects of metaphoric language use requires different theoretical accounts, and can only be properly described using appropriate research methods from many fields of study. Thus, cognitive linguistic methods are most relevant to demonstrating the ubiquity of metaphor in language, and can suggest conceptual reasons for why this may be so.
But cognitive linguistic work can not make definite claims about ordinary speakers' use of metaphorical knowledge in everyday language use and in on-line metaphor production and comprehension. Second, in light of the above suggestion, metaphor scholars must recognize the limitations of their own methods. This recognition requires that scholars first firmly establish the identity of their methods, their reliability, and their replicability e. This concern may be cognitive linguistics' most significant, immediate challenge, but one that these scholars themselves can address without needing to look for additional evidence from neighboring disciplines although issues of establishing reliability of methods is a key element in psychological research.
Third, researchers need to know the limits of their respective theories, given the types of metaphoric language they study. Scholars too often assume that accounts of their favorite linguistic examples e. But the diversity of metaphoric language suggests that different metaphorical mechanisms may be needed to explain the motivation and use of different kinds of metaphorical language. Grady , in fact, has nicely described how there are, at least, two motivations for metaphor: resemblance and correlation, each of which underlies different kinds of linguistic statements.
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Fourth, as noted above, cognitive linguistic work on metaphor mostly focuses on constructed linguistic examples, and has not examined the interpersonal dynamics that make particular metaphors salient in some discourse context. One observation from conversational analysts is that people mix their metaphors frequently when they talk, and conversational partners even negotiate which metaphors best characterize some emotion, idea, or situation. Research in sociolinguistics and educational linguistics has presented remarkable findings on the subtle dynamics of real-talk, but too often ignore the constraining presence of metaphorical thought because they have no method available for illuminating pervasive schemes in discourse.
My hope is that cognitive linguists, and others, will expand their empirical work to explore the socio-cultural dynamics of conceptual metaphor. Finally, little cognitive linguistic work has been devoted to understanding the cultural basis for metaphor in language and thought. Much of the research that does exist examines the extent to which particular conceptual metaphors motivate the existence of specific patterns of conventional expressions in varying languages Cienki, ; Emmanation, ; Kovecses, This work is important in demonstrating the ubiquity of metaphor in thought across culture.
Moreover, some of the cognitive linguistic research suggests that the similarities of conceptual metaphors across languages are related to commonalities in embodied experience Koveceses, ; Yu, But there is still insufficient attention paid to the exact ways that cultural beliefs shape both people's understandings of their embodied experiences and the conceptual metaphors which arise from these experiences. There is a need for better understanding the cultural grounding not only for the metaphors people use in talking about their experience, but also for the very embodied experiences that often underlie these metaphors.
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New York: Basic Books. Journal Pragmatics, 24, As time goes by: Understanding time as spatial metaphor. Language and Cognitive Processes, 17 , What do idioms really mean? Journal of Memory and Language, 31 , The poetics of mind: Figurative thought, language, and understanding. Idioms and mental imagery: The metaphorical motivation for idiomatic meaning. Cognition, 36 , Metaphor in idiom comprehension.
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Journal of Memory and Language, 37 , Metaphor is grounded in embodied experience. Journal of Pragmatics , 36, Metaphor in cognitive linguistics. Conceptual metaphor in mental imagery for proverbs. Journal of Mental Imagery, 21 , Cognitive Linguistics, 8, A typology of motivation for conceptual metaphor: Correlation vs. The body in mind. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Metaphor: Does it constitute or reflect cultural models.
Metaphor and emotion.
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Metaphor in American Sign Language. Washington, DC: Gallaudet. The contemporary theory of metaphor. E-mail: gibbs cats. All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License. Services on Demand Journal. Gibbs, Jr.
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Introduction Metaphoric language has the dual function of reminding us of pervasive patterns of experience while alerting us to new conceptual and aesthetic possibilities. Early philosophy. Picture theory of language Truth tables Truth conditions Truth functions State of affairs Logical necessity. Later philosophy. Analytic philosophy Linguistic turn Ideal language philosophy Logical atomism Logical positivism Ordinary language philosophy Fideism Quietism Therapeutic approach. Bertrand Russell G.
VIII, n. In: G. The Cartography of Syntactic Structure, vol. PAUL, E. In: W. Shipley ed. VI, n. In: U. Towards a Semantic Reinterpretation of Binding Theory. XIII, n.