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Men of Mathematics. View Wishlist. The Wikipedia entry on Waldo states that the Waldenses were distinct from the Albigenses, or Cathars , however, some of the teachings of the two groups are quite similar: rejection of the established Church, anti-materialism, charity and simplicity. Furthermore, both groups drew heavily from Bogomilism, although the Albigenses embraced it more fully than had the Waldenses. The last point is particularly important, because Waldo commissioned a cleric from Lyon — and possibly collaborated with him — on a translation of the Bible into the local dialect, Arpitan , between and This was the first European translation of the Bible into the vernacular.

They were required to explain their theology. Waldo and his followers were no longer safe in Lyon. Many fled to the valleys of Piedmont, today in northern Italy but then a part of the Duchy of Savoy. Those who remained in France moved eastward to the Luberon region of Provence. Controversy carries on as to whether these inhabitants, known as Vaudes or Waldenses, were named after Waldo. However, the Waldensian Church, which still exists, states that they are named after him. I base this on the Swiss canton near Geneva — Vaud — which is in the Alps and with which I am well acquainted.

Because of the lack of documentation, it is unclear exactly when or where Peter Waldo died. Some scholars say he died in Some also think that he died in Germany. However, it seems as if he must still have been alive in , as Pope Lucius III excommunicated him during the synod at Verona that year. The Wikipedia entry on Waldensians explains the significance they had to subsequent pietist groups :. Indeed, the Bogomils said that their beliefs came from St Paul and that their movement originated in the region where he preached — Asia Minor. Karp Strigolnik, who in the 14th century preached the doctrine in Novgorod, explained that St.

There is a tradition that the Bogomils taught that prayers were to be said in private houses, not in separate buildings such as churches. The Waldenses were known by the sabots , or wooden clogs, they wore:. Sandaliati , who received sacred orders and were to prove the heresiarchs wrong; Doctores , who instructed and trained missionaries ; and Novellani , who preached to the general population. Some Catholics believed that Waldensian women were witches; illustrations to that effect appear in a French manuscript from Piedmont borders France and Switzerland, therefore, it was possible for determined Waldenses to travel if necessary, although it would not have been easy.

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In , an Italian synod of Waldenses decided to send envoys to Germany and Switzerland to meet with new Protestant groups. This meeting took place in This Italian branch then decided to break all ties with the Catholic faith and become a Reformed church. The French Waldenses developed a confession of faith and began to worship openly. French religious tensions between Catholics and Calvinists increased to bloody battles and massacres, which I intend to cover at some point in a history of the Huguenots, with whom the French Waldenses are linked.

As such:. As early as , Protestants scholars began to regard the Waldensians as early forerunners of the Reformation, in a manner that is similar to how the followers of John Wycliffe and Jan Hus — who were also persecuted by Roman Catholic authorities — were viewed. In England, Cromwell — in power during the Interregnum — and poet John Milton, sympathetic to the Calvinists then to the pietist, quietist Quakers , openly opposed French Catholic civil rulers who persecuted the Waldenses.

Later denominations such as Anabaptists and Baptists also began to point to the Waldensians as an example of earlier Christians who were not a part of the Roman Catholic Church, and held beliefs they interpreted to be similar to their own.

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James Aitken Wylie — likewise believed that the Waldensians preserved the apostolic faith during the Middle Ages. White taught that the Waldenses were preservers of biblical truth during the so-called Great Apostasy of the Roman Catholic Church. Some Waldensian families joined Anabaptism. A group from North Italy fled to Switzerland for religious protection and then to Pennsylvania later on after becoming followers of Menno Simons.

Some later migrated north to Canada, [36] where some of the communities still exist. Germany became a point of refuge for a number of Waldenses in Most eventually returned to Piedmont. However, some stayed and eventually joined the Lutheran or Calvinist churches.

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However, there are still 10 Waldensian congregations today united with the Evangelical Church in Germany, a united church on the Prussian model of the 19th century. In South America, Waldenses first arrived in In the United States , Waldenses, who began arriving in the late 19th century, are largely affiliated with Presbyterian practice:. By the s most of the Waldensian churches and missions merged into the Presbyterian Church due to the cultural assimilation of the second and third generations.

The mission of the American Waldensian Society is to foster dialogue and partnership among Waldensian Churches in Italy and South America and Christian churches within North America in order to promote a compelling vision of Waldensian Christian witness for North America. The alleged slayer of retired Englishwoman Jennifer Mills-Westley is probably not a Christian, despite misleading newspaper reports. The Telegraph briefly touches on linking Deyan Valentinov Deyanov, a year-old Bulgarian, to the heresy of Bogomilism, but never ties the strands together.

Ditto Deyanov with his deranged references to God and Jesus. First, the story, which shocked not only people in the Canary Islands, but the Spanish and British as well. The Telegraph describes this gruesome attack , which took place on Friday, May 13, emphases in bold mine :. The retired year-old from Norwich was stabbed to death and beheaded in the horrific attack on Friday. Her tormentor, a year-old homeless man called Deyan Valentinov Deyanov, was well known in the popular holiday resort for his unpredictable and sometimes violent behaviour ….

After a few minutes Deyanov left and the danger seemed to have passed. At about Tragically, she there encountered Deyanov again and he attacked her, with grisly consequences. Deyanov had left a psychiatric unit where he was reportedly being treated for paranoid schizophrenia in February …. Before her retirement Mrs Mills-Westley gave cycling safety training to schoolchildren in Norfolk, and also worked on other road safety projects. Deyanov was known to be sleeping rough in the streets and in an abandoned house in the resort.

Last night at the filthy location, there was still a Bible and a shrine made out of breeze blocks among scattered possessions. Deyanov was being held at the police station in nearby resort of Playa de Las Americas …. Deyan Valentinov Deyanov, a year-old Bulgarian, asked the store owner in Tenerife for a large knife and was caught on security camera spreading his arms to demonstrate the size he required. The shopkeeper, who said he recognised the man as a vagrant who slept in a derelict building nearby, refused his request and threw him out of the shop.

Within half an hour, Deyanov had entered another supermarket where he encountered Jennifer Mills-Westley, grabbed a knife from the shelf and cut off her head in a random attack …. Locals said Deyanov had become increasingly aggressive in recent weeks after splitting up with his girlfriend. Others said he was a habitual user of marijuana and was often seen muttering to himself. In one incident he attacked a security guard who was patrolling the beach area, knocking out three teeth.

The security video footage shows the man searching the shelves of the hardware section of the supermarket on the seafront in Los Cristianos. The visit to the shop was at around 10am on Friday. By Witnesses at the Chinese-run discount supermarket in the Valdes shopping centre … said he had severed her head with a long, thin, very sharp blade, the traditional knife used for carving Spanish ham.

At the same time, with an increasing inflow of hard currency, the northern republics grew resentful of the obligation to lodge most of this money in the federal bank in Belgrade. Such centrifugal pressures could not go unnoticed for long, and, indeed, by the Croatian party had become dominated by nationalist communists—who were then purged by Tito. Yugoslav devolutionists were granted concessions in the constitution, which gave the party of each constituent element of the federation much greater authority in its own area.

For the most part, interference from without was prevented, and in this way the Yugoslav republics became fiefdoms ruled by native barons in much the same way that the other Balkan states were ruled by their national parties. This compartmentalization became a fundamental feature of Yugoslav stability for the next decade.

By the turn of the 21st century he had definitively destroyed the idea of Yugoslavism. The transition from authoritarianism to democracy in the Balkans was punctuated in many areas, particularly in Yugoslavia, with civil war. By December both Croatia and Slovenia had voted for autonomy, and the Serb minority in Croatia had sought to unite with Serbia. Croatia and Slovenia both declared their independence on June 25, ; the republics of Macedonia and Bosnia and Herzegovina soon followed; and, as fighting erupted over disputed territories of mixed population, the presidents of the six republics—Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Slovenia, Macedonia, and Montenegro—failed to revive the loose confederation.

To stem the conflict, the United Nations UN dispatched some 15, peacekeepers mostly British and French and devised a plan that would have divided Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia into a crazy quilt of cantons based on local ethnic majorities. By the mids Slovenia was independent and at peace, and the Republic of Macedonia, protected by a small international force, was admitted to the UN under the name the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia at the insistence of Greece , which claimed a monopoly on the use of the term Macedonia.

Croatia controlled almost all its putative territory, including the Dalmatian coast. What remained of Yugoslavia included Serbia, Montenegro , and portions of Bosnia and Herzegovina inhabited or claimed by Bosnian Serbs, including a corridor stretching almost to the Adriatic Sea.

Each time a truce seemed near, fighting broke out anew, until the Dayton Accords of created a loosely federalized Bosnia and Herzegovina divided roughly between the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina a decentralized federation of Croats and Bosniaks and the Republika Srpska Bosnian Serb Republic. See Kosovo conflict. The new Yugoslavia, now composed of only Serbia and Montenegro, attempted to rebuild its shattered society and economy, while the independent states of Bosnia and Herzegovina , Croatia, Macedonia, and Slovenia sought closer ties with the countries of the EU.

However, secessionists in Montenegro soon pushed for independence from the new Yugoslavia, against the wishes of the international community , which feared that further political instability might rekindle the destructive forces that were unleashed in the early s.

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In the EU brokered an agreement between the leaders of Yugoslavia, Serbia, and Montenegro that called for the formation of a loose federation, called Serbia and Montenegro, which would have a single federal policy on defense, foreign affairs, and trade but would grant each republic autonomy in most other policy areas and enable either republic to hold a referendum on independence after three years. The agreement was ratified by the federal parliament and the Serbian and Montenegrin assemblies in , effectively erasing Yugoslavia from the map.

Three years later, after Montenegrins approved a referendum on independence, Serbia and Montenegro disbanded the federation and became independent republics.

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Meanwhile, the future status of Kosovo remained uncertain; the ethnic Albanian majority there desired independence, but Serbia emphatically opposed it. Kosovo formally seceded from Serbia in February Outside Yugoslavia, secession from a large federation also brought independence, as the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic became Moldova , the majority of whose inhabitants were ethnic Romanians.

In Romania itself, an ingrained fear of the security police produced a short and intense civil war. A similar development in Albania , where terror and deprivation had been as great, was only just avoided. Only in Bulgaria —where, for ethnic Bulgarians at least, the last years of communist rule had been relatively benign—was a peaceful transition achieved.

The various Balkan states thus found different paths out of socialism but faced similar problems when they emerged. The vast subsidized and hugely inefficient heavy industrial plants in which communist propagandists had taken such pride were now virtually useless. Widespread unemployment was the not-surprising consequence. Furthermore, the old communist-inspired industries left another and potentially even more dangerous legacy: environmental pollution on a prodigious scale.

In all postcommunist states except Serbia , the solutions to economic problems were expected to be found in a market economy and in eventual association with the EU. International agencies such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund promised financial help for the new Balkan regimes but required an economic transformation, as the states were expected to privatize their industries and agriculture, remove government subsidies, and restrain public expenditure. The social costs of these adjustments were enormous.