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Interestingly, Dungans of different social backgrounds have pointed this out during my interviews and conversations. The unique nature of this cluster, which is rapidly developing and much more prosperous than surrounding Kazakh-inhabited settlements, was often proudly highlighted. Dungans, previously exclusively regarded as a close-knit group of farmers in Soviet-era public discourse in Kazakhstan, have strategically expanded their connections to Hui and Han Chinese groups across China in the last two decades.

The case of Shortobe suggests that the relationships between interconnected places are far from even or balanced. The outcome of translocal development has been exemplified by the educational migration of Dungan students between Shortobe and university cities in eastern China. The experience of a rapidly developing China has fostered hopes among Dungan students that they might personally benefit from these changes and at the same time contribute to ongoing development in Shortobe.

Agenstvo po statistike. Astana: Agenstvo Respubliki Kazakhstan po statistike, Agnew, John. Asian Ethnicity 6. Alff, Henryk. Alff, Henryk, and Andreas Benz, eds. Berlin: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Berlin, Brickell, Katherine, and Ayona Datta, eds. Translocal Geographies: Spaces, Places, Connections. Castree, Noel. In Nicholas Clifford, Sarah L. Holloway, Stephen P.

Rice, and Gill Valentine, eds. Key Concepts in Geography. London: Sage, , pp. Deleuze, Gilles. Negotiations, — New York: Columbia University Press, Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society Freitag, Ulrike, and Achim von Oppen, eds. Freitag, Ulrike, and Achim von Oppen. In Ulrike Freitag and Achim von Oppen, eds. Leiden: Brill, , pp. Gladney, Dru. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, History and Anthropology 9. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Hong, Ding. Working paper, Relocating Borders Berlin: EastBordNet, Central Asian Survey Koch, Natalie. Social and Cultural Geography Massey, Doreen.

Marxism Today 38 : 24— In Tracey Skelton, and Gill Valentine, eds. Cool Places: Geographies of Youth Cultures. London: Routledge, , pp. Geografiska Annaler B Oakes, Tim, and Louisa Schein. In Tim Oakes and Louisa Schein, eds. Rimsky-Korsakoff Dyer, Svetlana. Monumenta Serica 33 : — Sushanlo, Muhamed. Ocherki istorii sovetskikh dungan.

Negotiating Men Vs Women

Frunze: Ilim, Vansvanova, Mariya. Zoomers, Annelies, and Guus van Westen. International Development Planning Review They are one of the fifty-six officially recognized ethnic groups in the PRC. I have read the mission statement of intimidation, blackmail and extortion, unlawful the Thabo Mbeki African Leadership Institute, search and seizure, by both police and non- which, as we all know, states that the principal state actors.

Homophobic witch hunts which purpose of the institute is to train Africans for the have swept across Africa in Uganda, Cameroon, political, economic, social and cultural renewal of Nigeria, Zimbabwe, the Gambia, Malawi, Zambia, the African continent and its people. I maintain and Ghana have also provided a pretext and cover that issues of sexuality, gender based violence, for the blanket targeting of political opponents, and efforts to enforce compulsory sexuality are journalists, and activists that state elites find not only major issues in and of themselves, but threatening.

If serious thought leadership is absent rights of all citizens. While African leaders and publics are, centered epistemologies and methodologies. When he authorized the anti-gay about the rights of LGBT persons in Africa, legislation, Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni ideas of African culture and tradition are often supported it by saying that homosexuality was invoked in opposition to so-called Western same- an example of imperialism and Western cultural sex sexuality.

However, there is in fact a long chauvinism. For many become an authentic African leader in the service years, American fundamentalists have looked of humanity. Americans have not only sent money parts of Africa, particularly prior to colonization.

In this Book

Prior For example, woman-to-woman marriages have to crafting the bill, Ugandan politicians were been documented in over forty ethnic groups invited to attend prayer breakfasts in America. Furthermore, the first ever resolution on sexual orientation and Lively played a major role in helping Ugandan gender identity, with some Africa countries like politicians to draft the anti-homosexuality bill.

In Mauritius and Cape Verde voting in favor of it. Furthermore, been done without becoming complacent. With the death country to advocate for lesbian rights, and Free of former President Nelson Mandela last year, we Gender in South Africa which specifically focuses saw the impact that the South African freedom on the issue of helping victims of corrective rape.

We have had our ups and downs in the last twenty years it is true, Since the Thabo Mbeki African Leadership but the potential exists for us to inspire ourselves, Institute is located in South Africa, it has a and the rest of the world, again. Classical citizenship theory highlights the inclusionary aspects and discards those that do not meet its implicit criteria as employed, educated, independently resourced, male, self- defined individuals. It is critical that we examine the constructs of the economic agency of women and gendered citizenship as critical and differentiating nuances of citizenship theories in South Africa.

This differentiating will then assist in formulating and correcting State led citizenship to enable social inclusion.

Globalisation In The Making: Translocal Gendered Spaces In Muslim Societies

It is the question formalities and voting rights, particularly for the that concerns every facet of our being on this earth. It is women in this country, them appreciating the every issue of life, every concern and every struggle. It particularities of their deficit social and power traverses every circumstance, every belief, every hope, relations Pheko Gasa , Mcfadden Governance needs to redefine the Although country contexts are heterogeneous, rights based approach that often shows callousness there remains an area of broad comparison and in its method of ascribing rights with a universality similarity particularly in the realms of governance, that is not appropriate for the imperatives and the relationship between power and gender, the realities of people who are not white, male, middle utilisation of women as voting fodder and often- class, university educated, able-bodied, socially- deep contradictions between women of various connected, formally employed and urbanised.

As a concept, gender justice faces special definitional While the social binaries are often overstated, difficulties for several reasons. Afrikan Feminist approaches It is foregrounded by a deeply fragmented and -though not universal- have traditionally had problematic link between the means of production a socialist and people centred bias owing to the —including human capital —and the gendered and geo-historic locus of struggle on this continent. Conversely the State violence and social disintegration have threatened still exerts patriarchal power and collusion with the emerging State.

Equally problems of hyper masculine violence which often occurs in authoritarianism, bureaucratic rigidity, promotion the private realm of home, marriage and family, of elite class interests, and unaccountable and and is often invisible or ignored. The issue therefore is not whether women are for Fundamentalism is inimical to most forms of or against this State; rather the subject of inquiry substantive citizenship and economic and cultural should be whether the South African State has fundamentalisms are two forms at play in this the capacity and intent to recognise and support country.

The foundation of the South African the nurturing of its citizens aspirations and State — in common with many other Afrikan respond to the demands derived from citizenship States- is that Afrikan women bear the cost of a entitlements.

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Perhaps an alternative starting point faltering State that has been unable to convert its is whether in fact the State in its construction constitutional premise to avert and reverse the and foundation has the capacity to recognise widening inequalities across various sectors of and enable the best interests of women.

There South African society Hoogeveen et al exist multiple layers of violences against women that manifest in both private and public spaces, While millions of women [and men] continue reiterated by legislation, judicial services, media to reside off the socio- economic radar in South narratives, interpretations of religion and culture, Africa, the idea of economic citizenship needs to policy priorities, literature and discursive spaces.

Political transformation: connected with wealth and provide basic services. It has not imbibed these experiences in postcolonial States. Taylor The formulation of universal rights suggests the An entry point to the feminist critiques of the liberal idea that individuals are each entitled to the same view of citizenship is that liberalism does not rights and treatment irrespective of race, class, caste easily recognise difference.

An important critique and gender. Possibly humanity, dignity, hospitality, care, nurturing more compelling, is the notion of human dignity and provision. It also resonates with regionalism inspired by thinkers and philosophers such as and Africanism as more compelling currencies of Confucius, King Moshoeshoe, King Dingane and citizenship, shared identity and belonging.

South Amartya Sen Agarwal et al , Palais An investigation into income scarce opportunity to be regarded as equal fellow alone does not produce a comprehensive or fully citizens with the rights that they have shaped to responsive answer. An examination of statistics give meaning to their own circumstances.

Afrikan on health, nutrition, education and labour force women have the highest levels of unemployment participation begin to more meaningfully confirm and the lowest salaries in relation to men and that women are severely impoverished and that white women despite ubiquitously evoked and this impoverishment includes more than just often-problematic State led initiatives and models material conditions, and is linked to various of inclusion such as gender mainstreaming.

This is in common with the of the State and State imperatives. This means that governance currency of people centred demands to carve should take into account how citizenship defines new economic and political spaces for women. The shifting tide towards citizenship, implemented in order to equilibrate economic participation and social inclusion does not relations, their impact has, to date been limited however mean that differently mediated gender Budlender Key to this, is a lack of conceptual relations inevitably become a launch pad for clarity about what these instruments are intended investigating the distribution of rights, resources to achieve and the appropriate understanding of and recognition.

Feminist scholarship across the how to qualitatively attain these results. However the law, the economy, concerns in substantive and transformative ways culture and other institutions that determine May The State far from oppressed groups. Feminists have evoked the being a neutral social arbiter reinforces the social politics of difference through social, community exclusion of women in the economy and in many and voluntary organisations.

Illustrating this in the economy through autonomous organisations is that no analysis is made of the existing effects and spaces unfettered by the encroachment of of current trade policies on men as compared to intrusive social or political agendas. Stokvels and burial societies in South Africa Tsikata, offer such opportunities but do not encompass the full scope of moving beyond conservatism Economic and trade policy are mistakenly and radically changing the structural deficits presumed to be gender neutral in intent and that prevent women from moving from the impact.

In common with many States, South periphery of small businesses, co-ops and African policymaking assumes that women and survivalists enterprises to the centre of the men can participate in and benefit equally from economy Mhone However, these trade policy and economic participation. Achieving structural affected by power and social relationships between transformation thus becomes the domain of men and women. Budlender et al Being on the periphery suggests that feminist perspectives have not permeated the centre of This bias is circumscribed and shaped primarily trade policy and decision-making structures.

The in ways in which South Africa organises the puzzle of orthodox trade discourses in relation relationship between paid work and raising to differentiated citizenship is that the policies children unpaid work. Markets operate without recognising water will inevitably further marginalise them that the unpaid work of social reproduction and and exclude from professional, social, economic, maintenance of human resources contributes to educational, recreational and creative pursuits the functioning and realisation of formal market [Adeleye-Fayemi, ].

The existence of equality clauses in the South The contradiction of the neo liberal trade agenda African constitution does not preclude unequal with differentiated citizenship is that the policies treatment sanctioned by custom, community and do not recognise the variant starting points, social religious regulations. Citizenship undertakes deficits and different relationships with the State, to release the citizen subject from the burden of with policy and with power presented to women ascribed social relations into a relationship with a as opposed to men.

As an example, most policy neutral arbiter, the State Oyewumi This is making dos not offer an analysis of the existing or manifested in the substance of laws and policies potential effects of current trade policies on men and in their interpretation and implementation. Amadiume functions they conduct. This tax is not recoverable has all but legitimised the exclusion of women from the South African State and is not indicated from the centre of mainstream economic activity.

Assigning women in ways in which South Africa organises the the monopoly of basic services of care work given relationship between paid work and raising the already challenging effects of privatised and children unpaid work. Political organising and state led forms of governance Systematically linking a gender-relations analysis are still considered to the most pivotal.

Three to trade and economic policy frameworks is components intersect to give meaning to the role a difficult task, given the blindness to gender of the State: issues in economic discourse. Gender relations can be defined in terms of the interplay between 1. State power as the interconnection between historical practices that are distinguished control over resources, over actors and according to masculine and feminine theories and over outcomes.

Most political discourses are implicitly practices such as State and market , and material presumed to be exclusive to masculine conditions the nature and distribution of material State formations and power. Power resides largely with the same Gender relations are social constructs social State processes and is determined by the forces and historical structures that differentiate interplay between social and economic, the and circumscribe material outcomes for women private and public, personal expectations and men. This definition of gender relations and policy interests and the power these recognizes that the interplay of race, class and have over the people in those states.

Most economic discourse is dominated by neo-classical conceptions of Gendered Analysis of Poverty and markets that function on the basis of perfect Social exclusion competition. The indivisibility or interdependence of economic rights which include social, cultural civil and As a result, economic analysis is rooted, in its political rights reiterate that it is difficult to fully basic theoretical assumptions, in a gender- exercise political and civil rights if people are neutral abstraction of markets functioning with hungry or homeless.

However, markets have both been conceptualised in terms of the do have a gender dimension to them. A gender denial of the enjoyment of the trio of political, civil relations analysis focuses precisely on how and social citizenship rights. The markets and the market relationships that appear gender-neutral trade regime deny the dignified and respectful implicitly infer the male standpoint.

The distributional structure 1. The creation of dedicated divisions or units along gender, class and race that affect resource with a small share of resources and the label allocation and access to development benefits in of being a special group with regard to anti- particular would be important mediating factors poverty and basic needs programmes. This is to consider. This is where existent linkages to broader macro-economic outcomes of deficit power relations, truncated and trade policies.

The marginalisation of women in the and citizenship must be questioned. Procedural structural mechanism of the economy, trade citizenship as facilitated by the South African and industry where the bulk of resources State should be engineered in coalescence with and implementation mechanisms exist is substantive citizenship; this could potentially problematic.

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  • The process of systemic social Trade Policy Budlender , Tsikata Amadiume, I. Daughters of the goddess, daughters The context of the Afrikan woman in South of imperialism: African women struggle for culture, Africa provides an opportunity to examine the power and democracy pp. London: Zed various textures of economic struggle including books. Zed Books. South Atkinson, A.

    Gender, Religion, and International Relations

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    Oyewumi, O. Violence and the blatancy of at national, regional and continental levels. When do we begin engaging in the new discourses and debates about how Africans 1. Du kanske gillar. Ladda ned. Spara som favorit. Skickas inom vardagar.