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It included a lengthy new preface by the author, presenting a somewhat embellished version of the genesis of the story. This edition is the one most widely published and read now, although a few editions follow the text. Norton Critical edition.


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Part of Frankenstein's rejection of his creation is the fact that he does not give it a name, which causes a lack of identity. Instead it is referred to by words such as "wretch", "monster", "creature", "demon", "devil", "fiend", and "it". When Frankenstein converses with the creature in Chapter 10, he addresses it as "vile insect", "abhorred monster", "fiend", "wretched devil", and "abhorred devil".

During a telling of Frankenstein , Shelley referred to the creature as " Adam ". Although the creature would be described in later works as a composite of whole body parts grafted together from cadavers and reanimated by the use of electricity , this description is not consistent with Shelley's work; both the use of electricity and the cobbled-together image of Frankenstein's monster were more the result of James Whale 's popular film adaptation of the story , and other early motion-picture works based upon the creature.

In Shelley's original work, Dr. Frankenstein discovers a previously unknown but elemental principle of life, and that insight allows him to develop a method to imbue vitality into inanimate matter, though the exact nature of the process is left largely ambiguous. After a great deal of hesitation in exercising this power, Frankenstein spends two years painstakingly constructing the creature's proportionally large body one anatomical feature at a time, from raw materials supplied by "the dissecting room and the slaughter-house" , which he then brings to life using his unspecified process.

The creature has often been mistakenly called "Frankenstein". In one author said "It is strange to note how well-nigh universally the term "Frankenstein" is misused, even by intelligent people, as describing some hideous monster". This also occurs in Frankenstein films, including Bride of Frankenstein and several subsequent films, as well as in film titles such as Abbott and Costello Meet Frankenstein. Furthermore, the film Son of Frankenstein introduced an evil laboratory assistant, Ygor Bela Lugosi , who never existed in the original narrative.

Mary Shelley maintained that she derived the name Frankenstein from a dream-vision. Despite her public claims of originality, however, a number of other sources have been suggested as Shelley's actual inspiration. There is also a castle called Frankenstein in Bad Salzungen , Thuringia, and a municipality called Frankenstein in Saxony. It was at this castle that a notorious alchemist, Conrad Dippel , had experimented with human bodies, and Florescu reasons that Mary suppressed mention of her visit in order to maintain her public claim of originality.

Day supports Florescu's position that Mary Shelley knew of and visited Frankenstein Castle before writing her debut novel. A possible interpretation of the name Victor is derived from Paradise Lost by John Milton , a great influence on Shelley a quotation from Paradise Lost is on the opening page of Frankenstein and Shelley even has the monster himself read it.

In addition, Shelley's portrayal of the monster owes much to the character of Satan in Paradise Lost ; indeed, the monster says, after reading the epic poem, that he empathizes with Satan's role in the story. There are many similarities between Victor and Percy Shelley, Mary's husband. Victor was a pen name of Percy Shelley's, as in the collection of poetry he wrote with his sister Elizabeth, Original Poetry by Victor and Cazire. Percy Shelley was the first-born son of a wealthy country squire with strong political connections and a descendant of Sir Bysshe Shelley , 1st Baronet of Castle Goring , and Richard Fitzalan, 10th Earl of Arundel.

Percy had a sister named Elizabeth; Victor had an adopted sister named Elizabeth. On 22 February , Mary Shelley gave birth to a baby two months prematurely, and the baby died two weeks later. Percy did not care about the condition of this premature infant and left with Claire, Mary's stepsister, for a lurid affair. The Modern Prometheus is the novel's subtitle though some modern editions now drop the subtitle, mentioning it only in an introduction.

He made a being in the image of the gods that could have a spirit breathed into it. Prometheus, being the creator, took back the fire from Zeus to give to man. When Zeus discovered this, he sentenced Prometheus to be eternally punished by fixing him to a rock of Caucasus , where each day an eagle would peck out his liver, only for the liver to regrow the next day because of his immortality as a god. He was intended to suffer alone for eternity, but eventually Heracles Hercules released him.

Prometheus was also a myth told in Latin, but was a very different story. In this version Prometheus makes man from clay and water, again a very relevant theme to Frankenstein , as Victor rebels against the laws of nature how life is naturally made and as a result is punished by his creation. Victor's work by creating man by new means reflects the same innovative work of the Titan in creating humans. Some have argued that Mary Shelley saw Prometheus not as a hero but rather as something of a devil, and blamed him for bringing fire to man and thereby seducing the human race to the vice of eating meat fire brought cooking which brought hunting and killing.

Byron was particularly attached to the play Prometheus Bound by Aeschylus , and Percy Shelley would soon write his own Prometheus Unbound The term "Modern Prometheus" was actually coined by Immanuel Kant in reference to Benjamin Franklin and his experiments with electricity.

Shelley incorporated a number of different sources into her work, one of which was the Promethean myth from Ovid. Mary is likely to have acquired some ideas for Frankenstein's character from Humphry Davy 's book Elements of Chemical Philosophy , in which he had written that "science has Percy Bysshe Shelley's poem " Mutability " is also quoted and its theme of the role of the subconscious is discussed in prose.

The Creature also quotes a passage of the poem. His name has never appeared as the author of the poem although other poets are cited by name in the novel, implying that Mary wrote the poem and developed the psychological ideas. Another potential reason is to conceal his contributions to the novel. Many writers and historians have attempted to associate several then popular natural philosophers now called physical scientists with Shelley's work on account of several notable similarities. Two of the most noted natural philosophers among Shelley's contemporaries were Giovanni Aldini , who made many public attempts at human reanimation through bio-electric Galvanism in London [58] and Johann Konrad Dippel , who was supposed to have developed chemical means to extend the life span of humans.

While Shelley was aware of both these men and their activities, she makes no mention of or reference to them or their experiments in any of her published or released notes. Frankenstein has been both well received and disregarded since its anonymous publication in Critical reviews of that time demonstrate these two views, along with confused speculation as to the identity of the author.

The Quarterly Review stated that "the author has the power of both conception and language" Sir Walter Scott , writing in Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine , congratulated "the author's original genius and happy power of expression" , although he is less convinced about the way in which the monster gains knowledge about the world and language. On the other hand, the Quarterly Review described it "a tissue of horrible and disgusting absurdity". In two other reviews where the author is known as the daughter of William Godwin, the criticism of the novel makes reference to the feminine nature of Mary Shelley.

The British Critic attacks the novel's flaws as the fault of the author: "The writer of it is, we understand, a female; this is an aggravation of that which is the prevailing fault of the novel; but if our authoress can forget the gentleness of her sex, it is no reason why we should; and we shall therefore dismiss the novel without further comment" Godwin's novels" produced by the "daughter of a celebrated living novelist" Despite the reviews, Frankenstein achieved an almost immediate popular success.

It became widely known especially through melodramatic theatrical adaptations—Mary Shelley saw a production of Presumption; or The Fate of Frankenstein , a play by Richard Brinsley Peake , in Critical reception of Frankenstein has been largely positive since the midth century. Goldberg and Harold Bloom have praised the "aesthetic and moral" relevance of the novel, [63] although there are also critics such as Germaine Greer , who criticized the novel as terrible due to technical and narrative defects such as it featuring three narrators that speak in the same way.

Film director Guillermo del Toro describes Frankenstein as "the quintessential teenage book", adding "You don't belong. You were brought to this world by people that don't care for you and you are thrown into a world of pain and suffering, and tears and hunger. It's an amazing book written by a teenage girl. It's mind-blowing. Why are we here, what can we do? From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the novel by Mary Shelley. For the characters, see Victor Frankenstein and Frankenstein's monster.

For the historic German castles and other uses, see Frankenstein disambiguation. Dewey Decimal. Main article: Frankenstein's monster. Further information on derivative works: Frankenstein in popular culture. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

See also: List of films featuring Frankenstein's monster. United Kingdom portal Books portal. In Seed, David ed. Syracuse University Press. Retrieved 19 July The Times London, England. This day is published, in 3 vols. Back Bay Books; 20 August Mary Shelley. Atlanta, GA: Grove Press, Retrieved 18 February Retrieved 4 March Retrieved 20 November Journal of Religion and Health. Retrieved 26 May Comparative Literature. Colburn, — The New Yorker. Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley: An Introduction. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, Retrieved 13 November Retrieved 28 August Charles E.

Robinson ed. The Original Frankenstein. Oxford: Bodleian Library. Archived from the original on 25 September Garland Publishing, Inc. Mary Wollstonecraft. Shelley: An Introduction. Bedford Publishing. Vintage Books has an edition presenting both versions. Archived from the original PDF on 4 December Retrieved 31 December Fantasmagoriana Tales of the Dead.

Fantasmagoriana Press. Retrieved 23 June The Literary Encyclopedia. The Literary Dictionary Company. Retrieved 2 January Romantic Natural History. Department of English, Dickinson College. A letter from Hookham to say that Harriet has been brought to bed of a son and heir. Shelley writes a number of circular letters on this event, which ought to be ushered in with ringing of bells, etc. But in other versions, such as several of Aesop's fables See in particular Fable , Sappho Fragment , and Ovid's Metamorphoses, Prometheus is the actual creator of humanity.

Retrieved 8 August The Public Domain Review. The Quarterly Review. January It's obvious — because the book is so bad". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 October Published in the Norton critical edition. Retrieved 27 August Retrieved 8 July Rool, assumes the persona of Baron K.

A Frankenstein-like monster called Victor von Gerdenheim is a playable character in the fighting game series Darkstalkers , along with many other monsters from popular culture. Frankenstein's monster also appears in the video game adaptation of the film Van Helsing. He only appears as a non-playable character. The role-playing game Promethean: The Created by White Wolf Publishing , focuses on beings created from human remains and animated by "the Divine Fire" who seek to attain humanity. One of the "Lineages" groupings of said creatures is that of the Frankensteins, who, like their namesake, are crafted from the best parts of multiple corpses and brought to life by lightning.

The monster himself, going by the name John Verney, appears in some of the book's fiction and illustrations. In , the line of action figures for The Real Ghostbusters featured figures of several Universal Monsters , including Frankenstein's Monster. In , a new green skined Minifigure called Monster resembles the creature.

The video game Fable II contains a quest in which a man named Victor is attempting to reanimate the body of a deceased woman, both homages to the book. Upon completion of the quest, if the player buys the house, it unlocks an area known as "The Shelley Tomb", a reference to the author of the novel. In the Wii game MadWorld , Frankenstein's monster appears as a boss battle at the base of a dungeon, and is simply called "Frank" with bolts in his back, rather than his neck as common stereotypes depict.

He is also shown as being regenerative when connected to an electric chair, and his size well exceeds the usually large 7'0" to go as much as 20'0". In Atlus' popular Persona series, the residents of the "Velvet Room", a supernatural room that is "Between mind and matter", are named after characters from the Frankenstein series, namely Igor, Elizabeth, Margret, Theodore, Marie, Caroline, and Justine. Science fiction author Isaac Asimov coined the term Frankenstein complex for the fear of robots.

Frankensteining is a term used by abusers of crystal methamphetamine to calm themselves by diassembling and reassembling objects. The term is used in that subculture and is recently gaining wider currency: it has been used in an episode of CSI: Miami and has four different definitions in Urban Dictionary , all with the same meaning of assembling parts from diverse sources. It is especially common when discussing assembling bicycles from parts stripped from others, illegally or otherwise, as can be seen from a Google search of frankensteining bicycles.

Frankenstein or Franken- is sometimes used as a prefix to imply artificial monstrosity as in " frankenfood ", a politically charged name for genetically manipulated foodstuffs. The Franken- prefix can also mean anything assembled haphazardly from originally disparate elements, especially if those parts were previously discarded by others—for example, a car built from parts salvaged from many other cars. For many years Eddie Van Halen played a guitar built in such a manner which he called the " Frankenstrat ".

In , General Mills introduced " Franken Berry ", a strawberry-flavored corn cereal whose mascot is a variation of the monster from the movie. The first incarnation was portrayed by veteran actor David Carradine and the second by Jason Statham. George A. Romero 's film Day of the Dead features a scientist conducting experiments on zombies nicknamed "Frankenstein". The hit song China in Your Hand by the British rock band T'Pau employs the story of Frankenstein , and Mary Shelley's writing of it, in its role as a classic cautionary tale.

In David Brin 's science fiction novel Kiln People , defective golems that become autonomous are called "frankies". Unlike Shelley's monster, however, his intentions were initially evil until he discovered an inner loneliness, causing him, and eventually his creator, to turn from crime to justice. Throughout the franchise, Stitch also demonstrates the monster's herculean strength and childlike curiosity.

In season 3 of Beast Wars Megatron clones Dinobot , making a Frankenstein's monster out of the clone by transmetallizing him with the Transmetal Driver and adding the half of Rampage's mutant spark he cut out earlier. The result was an extremely mutated Transmetal II minion under the influence of his "half-brother's" evil.

Frankenstein's Monster sic at 6. The California Medical Association , in a rather humorous gesture, chose Halloween to announce that Dr. Richard Frankenstein had been elected president of the organization. Frankenstein is a character in the Korean web-comic manhwa Noblesse.

He, like that of the actual character Frankenstein, is a scientist, but the similarities end there. Through his research he has gained immortality and immense power. He now serves the most powerful of all vampires, the Noblesse. Pop artist Eric Millikin created a large mosaic portrait of Frankenstein's monster out of Halloween candy and spiders as part of his "Totally Sweet" series in The character Professor Franken Stein from Soul Eater is based loosely off Frankenstein's monster but with Frankstein himself in the mix.


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  • In Hellsing , Alexander Anderson is based on Frankenstein's monster, given that his name came from a song that has a reference about Frankenstein's monster, his abilities are similar and he is referred to as God's Monster after using the nail of Helena. This depiction of the monster is a young female homunculus in a wedding gown. The film Ex Machina is a film noir retelling of the Frankenstein story with a 21st century femme fatale android.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article contains embedded lists that may be poorly defined, unverified or indiscriminate. Please help to clean it up to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. Where appropriate, incorporate items into the main body of the article. April See also: List of films featuring Frankenstein's monster.

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    See also: Universal Monsters. Main article: Frankenstein comics. Main article: Frankenstein Prize Comics. Main article: Frankenstein DC Comics. Main article: Frankenstein's Monster Marvel Comics. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Journal of Media Psychology. Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved Archived from the original on June 14, Archived from the original on June 16, Retrieved June 24, Screen Rant.

    After a four-month recovery, he receives a letter from his father notifying him of the murder of his brother William. Upon arriving in Geneva, Victor sees the Creature near the crime scene and climbing a mountain, leading him to believe his creation is responsible. Justine Moritz, William's nanny, is convicted of the crime after William's locket, which had contained a miniature portrait of Caroline, is found in her pocket.

    Victor is helpless to stop her from being hanged, as he knows no one would believe his story. Ravaged by grief and guilt, Victor retreats into the mountains. The Creature finds him and pleads for Victor to hear his tale. Intelligent and articulate, the Creature relates his first days of life, living alone in the wilderness and finding that people were afraid of and hated him due to his appearance, which led him to fear and hide from them. While living in an abandoned structure connected to a cottage, he grew fond of the poor family living there, and discreetly collected firewood for them.

    Secretly living among the family for months, the Creature learned to speak by listening to them and he taught himself to read after discovering a lost satchel of books in the woods. When he saw his reflection in a pool, he realized his physical appearance was hideous, and it terrified him as it terrifies normal humans. Nevertheless, he approached the family in hopes of becoming their friend. Initially he was able to befriend the blind father figure of the family, but the rest of them were frightened and they all fled their home, resulting in the Creature leaving, disappointed.

    He traveled to Victor's family estate using details from Victor's journal, murdered William, and framed Justine. The Creature demands that Victor create a female companion like himself. He argues that as a living being, he has a right to happiness. The Creature promises that he and his mate will vanish into the South American wilderness, never to reappear, if Victor grants his request. Should Victor refuse his request, The Creature also threatens to kill Victor's remaining friends and loved ones and not stop until he completely ruins him.

    Fearing for his family, Victor reluctantly agrees. The Creature says he will watch over Victor's progress. Clerval accompanies him to England , but they separate at Victor's insistence at Perth , Scotland. Victor suspects that the Creature is following him. Working on the female creature on the Orkney Islands , he is plagued by premonitions of disaster, such as the female hating the Creature or becoming more evil than him, but more particularly the two creatures might lead to the breeding of a race that could plague mankind.

    He tears apart the unfinished female creature after he sees the Creature, who had indeed followed Victor, watching through a window. The Creature later confronts and tries to threaten Victor into working again, but Victor is convinced that the Creature is evil and that its mate would be evil as well, and the pair would threaten all humanity.

    Victor destroys his work and the Creature vows that he will "be with [him] on [his] wedding night". Victor interprets this as a threat upon his life, believing that the Creature will kill him after he finally becomes happy.

    Frankenstein - Wikipedia

    When Victor lands in Ireland , he is soon imprisoned for Clerval's murder, as the Creature had strangled Clerval to death and left the corpse to be found where his creator had arrived, causing the latter to suffer another mental breakdown in prison. After being acquitted, Victor returns home with his father, who has restored to Elizabeth some of her father's fortune. In Geneva, Victor is about to marry Elizabeth and prepares to fight the Creature to the death, arming himself with pistols and a dagger.

    The night following their wedding, Victor asks Elizabeth to stay in her room while he looks for "the fiend". While Victor searches the house and grounds, the Creature strangles Elizabeth to death. From the window, Victor sees the Creature, who tauntingly points at Elizabeth's corpse; Victor tries to shoot him, but the Creature escapes. After Victor gets back to Geneva, Victor's father, weakened by age and by the death of his precious Elizabeth, dies a few days later. Seeking revenge, Victor pursues the Creature to the North Pole , but collapses from exhaustion and hypothermia before he can find his quarry.

    At the end of Victor's narrative, Captain Walton resumes the telling of the story, closing the frame around Victor's recounting. A few days after the Creature vanished, the ship becomes trapped in pack ice and multiple crewmen die in the cold, before the rest of Walton's crew insists on returning south once it is freed. Upon hearing the crew's pleas to their captain, Victor, angered, lectures them with a powerful speech: it is hardship, not comfort and easiness, that defines a glorious undertaking such as theirs; he urges them to be men, not cowards.

    The ship is freed and Walton, owing it to the will of his men, albeit regretfully, decides to return South. Victor, even though in very weak condition, states that he will go on by himself. Victor dies shortly thereafter, telling Walton, with his last words, to seek "happiness in tranquillity and avoid ambition". Walton discovers the Creature on his ship, mourning over Victor's body.

    The Creature tells Walton that Victor's death has not brought him peace; rather, his crimes have left him completely alone. The Creature vows to kill himself so that no others will ever know of his existence. Walton watches as the Creature drifts away on an ice raft that is soon "lost in darkness and distance", never to be seen again.

    Mary Shelley had a tragic life from the beginning. Shelley's mother, Mary Wollstonecraft , died from infection shortly after giving birth to her.


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    • Shelley grew a close attachment to her father having never known her mother. Her father, William Godwin , hired a nurse briefly to care for her and her half sister before he ended up remarrying. Shelley's stepmother did not like the close bond she had with her father, which caused friction and Godwin to then favor his other two daughters and sons. Her father was a famous author of the time and her education was of great importance, though not formal.

      Shelley grew up surrounded by her father's friends, writers and persons of political importance, that gathered often at the family home. This inspired her authorship at an early age. Shelley met Percy Bysshe Shelley , who later became her husband, at the age of sixteen while he was visiting with her father. Godwin did not agree with the relationship of his daughter to an older, married but separated man, so they fled to France along with her stepsister, Claire Clairmont.

      Later, Shelley gave birth and lost their first child. Over eight years she would endure a similar pattern of pregnancy and loss, one hemorrhaging occurring until Percy placed her upon ice to cease the bleeding. Mary and Percy's trip with Claire to visit her lover Lord Byron , in Geneva during the summer of , began the friendship amongst the two couples in which Byron suggested they have a competition of writing the best ghost story. Historians suggest an affair occurred too, even that paternity of one Shelley child may have been a Byron.

      Shelley was heavily influenced by both of her parents' works. Her father's novels also influenced her writing of Frankenstein. Leon, and Fleetwood. All of these books were set in Switzerland, similar to the setting in Frankenstein. Some major themes of social affections and the renewal of life that appear in Shelley's novel stem from these works she had in her possession.

      Percy and Byron's discussion on life and death surrounded many scientific geniuses of the time. They discussed ideas from Erasmus Darwin and the experiments from Luigi Galvani. Mary joined these conversations and the ideas of Darwin and Galvani were both present in her novel. The horrors of not being able to write a story for the contest and her hard life also influenced the themes within Frankenstein.

      The themes of loss, guilt, and the consequences of defying nature present in the novel all developed from Mary Shelley's own life. The loss of her mother, the relationship with her father, and the death of her first child created the monster and his separation from parental guidance. In a issue of The Journal of Religion and Health a psychologist proposed guilt stemmed from her not feeling good enough for Percy because of the loss of their child.

      During the rainy summer of , the " Year Without a Summer ", the world was locked in a long cold volcanic winter caused by the eruption of Mount Tambora in The weather was consistently too cold and dreary that summer to enjoy the outdoor holiday activities they had planned, so the group retired indoors until dawn. Sitting around a log fire at Byron's villa, the company amused themselves by reading German ghost stories translated into French from the book Fantasmagoriana , [18] then Byron proposed that they "each write a ghost story".

      I was asked each morning, and each morning I was forced to reply with a mortifying negative. I saw the pale student of unhallowed arts kneeling beside the thing he had put together. I saw the hideous phantasm of a man stretched out, and then, on the working of some powerful engine, show signs of life, and stir with an uneasy, half vital motion. Frightful must it be; for supremely frightful would be the effect of any human endeavour to mock the stupendous mechanism of the Creator of the world.

      In September , astronomer Donald Olson, after a visit to the Lake Geneva villa the previous year and inspecting data about the motion of the moon and stars, concluded that her "waking dream" took place "between 2 a. She began writing what she assumed would be a short story. With Percy Shelley's encouragement, she expanded the tale into a full-fledged novel. Shelley's first child died in infancy, and when she began composing Frankenstein in , she was likely nursing her second child, who would also be dead at Frankenstein 's publication.

      Byron managed to write just a fragment based on the vampire legends he heard while travelling the Balkans , and from this John Polidori created The Vampyre , the progenitor of the romantic vampire literary genre.

      stein other twisted Ebook

      Thus two seminal horror tales originated from the conclave. The group talked about Enlightenment and Counter-Enlightenment ideas as well. Shelley believed the Enlightenment idea that society could progress and grow if political leaders used their powers responsibly; however, she also believed the Romantic ideal that misused power could destroy society Bennett 36— Shelley wrote much of the book while residing in a lodging house in the centre of Bath in Shelley's manuscripts for the first three-volume edition in written — , as well as the fair copy for her publisher, are now housed in the Bodleian Library in Oxford.

      The Bodleian acquired the papers in , and they belong now to the Abinger Collection. Robinson, that contains comparisons of Mary Shelley's original text with Percy Shelley's additions and interventions alongside. It was published in an edition of just copies in three volumes, the standard " triple-decker " format for 19th-century first editions.

      The second edition of Frankenstein was published on 11 August in two volumes by G. Whittaker following the success of the stage play Presumption; or, the Fate of Frankenstein by Richard Brinsley Peake. It included a lengthy new preface by the author, presenting a somewhat embellished version of the genesis of the story. This edition is the one most widely published and read now, although a few editions follow the text. Norton Critical edition. Part of Frankenstein's rejection of his creation is the fact that he does not give it a name, which causes a lack of identity.

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      Instead it is referred to by words such as "wretch", "monster", "creature", "demon", "devil", "fiend", and "it". When Frankenstein converses with the creature in Chapter 10, he addresses it as "vile insect", "abhorred monster", "fiend", "wretched devil", and "abhorred devil". During a telling of Frankenstein , Shelley referred to the creature as " Adam ". Although the creature would be described in later works as a composite of whole body parts grafted together from cadavers and reanimated by the use of electricity , this description is not consistent with Shelley's work; both the use of electricity and the cobbled-together image of Frankenstein's monster were more the result of James Whale 's popular film adaptation of the story , and other early motion-picture works based upon the creature.

      In Shelley's original work, Dr. Frankenstein discovers a previously unknown but elemental principle of life, and that insight allows him to develop a method to imbue vitality into inanimate matter, though the exact nature of the process is left largely ambiguous. After a great deal of hesitation in exercising this power, Frankenstein spends two years painstakingly constructing the creature's proportionally large body one anatomical feature at a time, from raw materials supplied by "the dissecting room and the slaughter-house" , which he then brings to life using his unspecified process.

      The creature has often been mistakenly called "Frankenstein". In one author said "It is strange to note how well-nigh universally the term "Frankenstein" is misused, even by intelligent people, as describing some hideous monster". This also occurs in Frankenstein films, including Bride of Frankenstein and several subsequent films, as well as in film titles such as Abbott and Costello Meet Frankenstein. Furthermore, the film Son of Frankenstein introduced an evil laboratory assistant, Ygor Bela Lugosi , who never existed in the original narrative.

      Mary Shelley maintained that she derived the name Frankenstein from a dream-vision. Despite her public claims of originality, however, a number of other sources have been suggested as Shelley's actual inspiration. There is also a castle called Frankenstein in Bad Salzungen , Thuringia, and a municipality called Frankenstein in Saxony. It was at this castle that a notorious alchemist, Conrad Dippel , had experimented with human bodies, and Florescu reasons that Mary suppressed mention of her visit in order to maintain her public claim of originality.

      Day supports Florescu's position that Mary Shelley knew of and visited Frankenstein Castle before writing her debut novel. A possible interpretation of the name Victor is derived from Paradise Lost by John Milton , a great influence on Shelley a quotation from Paradise Lost is on the opening page of Frankenstein and Shelley even has the monster himself read it. In addition, Shelley's portrayal of the monster owes much to the character of Satan in Paradise Lost ; indeed, the monster says, after reading the epic poem, that he empathizes with Satan's role in the story.

      There are many similarities between Victor and Percy Shelley, Mary's husband. Victor was a pen name of Percy Shelley's, as in the collection of poetry he wrote with his sister Elizabeth, Original Poetry by Victor and Cazire. Percy Shelley was the first-born son of a wealthy country squire with strong political connections and a descendant of Sir Bysshe Shelley , 1st Baronet of Castle Goring , and Richard Fitzalan, 10th Earl of Arundel. Percy had a sister named Elizabeth; Victor had an adopted sister named Elizabeth. On 22 February , Mary Shelley gave birth to a baby two months prematurely, and the baby died two weeks later.

      Percy did not care about the condition of this premature infant and left with Claire, Mary's stepsister, for a lurid affair. The Modern Prometheus is the novel's subtitle though some modern editions now drop the subtitle, mentioning it only in an introduction. He made a being in the image of the gods that could have a spirit breathed into it.

      Prometheus, being the creator, took back the fire from Zeus to give to man. When Zeus discovered this, he sentenced Prometheus to be eternally punished by fixing him to a rock of Caucasus , where each day an eagle would peck out his liver, only for the liver to regrow the next day because of his immortality as a god. He was intended to suffer alone for eternity, but eventually Heracles Hercules released him. Prometheus was also a myth told in Latin, but was a very different story.

      In this version Prometheus makes man from clay and water, again a very relevant theme to Frankenstein , as Victor rebels against the laws of nature how life is naturally made and as a result is punished by his creation. Victor's work by creating man by new means reflects the same innovative work of the Titan in creating humans.

      Some have argued that Mary Shelley saw Prometheus not as a hero but rather as something of a devil, and blamed him for bringing fire to man and thereby seducing the human race to the vice of eating meat fire brought cooking which brought hunting and killing. Byron was particularly attached to the play Prometheus Bound by Aeschylus , and Percy Shelley would soon write his own Prometheus Unbound The term "Modern Prometheus" was actually coined by Immanuel Kant in reference to Benjamin Franklin and his experiments with electricity.