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About this book A new assessment of the debates about Just War in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, from the imperial wars of the nineteenth century through the age of total war, the evolution of human rights discourse and international law, to proportionality during the Cold War and the redefinition of authority with the ascendancy of terror groups. Show all. Pages Show next xx.

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‘Network Propaganda’ takes a closer look at media and American politics – Harvard Gazette

Figure Network map based on Twitter sharing for the topic of immigration explore this map in higher resolution. On Twitter, Breitbart stories on immigration were shared more than twice as often as stories from the Guardian, which ranked second. Disinformation and propaganda are rooted in partisanship and are more prevalent on social media. The most obvious forms of disinformation are most prevalent on social media and in the most partisan fringes of the media landscape. Greater popularity on social media than attention from media peers is a strong indicator of reporting that is partisan and, in some cases, dubious.

Among the set of top media sources by inlinks or social media shares, seven sources, all from the partisan right or partisan left, receive substantially more attention on social media than links from other media outlets. These sites do not necessarily all engage in misleading or false reporting, but they are clearly highly partisan. Disproportionate popularity on Facebook is a strong indicator of highly partisan and unreliable media.

A distinct set of websites receive a disproportionate amount of attention from Facebook compared with Twitter and media inlinks. From the list of the most prominent media, 13 sites fall into this category.

Justifying War

Many of these sites are cited by independent sources and media reporting as progenitors of inaccurate if not blatantly false reporting. Both in form and substance, the majority of these sites are aptly described as political clickbait. Again, this does not imply equivalency across these sites.

Ending the Fed is often cited as the prototypical example of a media source that published false stories. The Onion is an outlier in this group, in that it is explicitly satirical and ironic, rather than, as is the case with the others, engaging in highly partisan and dubious reporting without explicit irony.

Asymmetric vulnerabilities: The right and left were subject to media manipulation in different ways. The more insulated right-wing media ecosystem was susceptible to sustained network propaganda and disinformation, particularly misleading negative claims about Hillary Clinton.

Politics, Propaganda, and the Use and Abuse of Sound-Bites

Traditional media accountability mechanisms—for example, fact-checking sites, media watchdog groups, and cross-media criticism—appear to have wielded little influence on the insular conservative media sphere. The institutional commitment to impartiality of media sources at the core of attention on the left meant that hyperpartisan, unreliable sources on the left did not receive the same amplification that equivalent sites on the right did. These same standard journalistic practices were successfully manipulated by media and activists on the right to inject anti-Clinton narratives into the mainstream media narrative.

Another example is the book and movie release of Clinton Cash together with the sustained campaign that followed, making the Clinton Foundation the major post-convention story. We document these dynamics in the Clinton Foundation case study section of this report. Read the Introduction. As autonomous systems play an increasing role in selecting the content we see online, questions arise about AI's influence on human judgment, opinions, and perceptions. Media Cloud is an open source, open data platform that allows researchers to answer complex quantitative and qualitative questions about the content of online media.

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Skip to the main content. Executive Summary In this study, we analyze both mainstream and social media coverage of the United States presidential election. Overview of Methods Cross-linking patterns between media sources offer a view of authority and prominence within the media world. After graduating summa cum laude from Princeton with a B. In a public lecture at the Institute in February, Allen offered a probing look at the role sound bites play in democratic politics. Tracing the Western roots of sound bites to Homer, who was the first purveyor of them, and Aristotle, who offered the first theory of them as maxims, Allen examined why sound bites are a necessary and valuable part of political conversation, while also considering the ways in which they are dangerous.

Allen explained that she became fascinated with sound bites eight years ago when the outcome of the presidential election between George W. Bush and Albert Gore was before the U.


Supreme Court. In particular, she was teaching books six and seven in which the primary protagonists, who debate whether to go to war, are Nicias, the elder statesman, and Alcibiades, the young Turk leading a new generation of politicians. Alcibiades, in contrast, was direct, blunt. Allen started paying attention to the language being used by present-day political candidates.

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So what are sound bites? Typically, they employ mnemonic techniques, such as alliteration and antithesis, to make them easy to remember.

  • Politics, Propaganda, and the Use and Abuse of Sound-Bites | Institute for Advanced Study.
  • Propaganda in World War I - Wikipedia.
  • Ancient States and Empires!

And so they become one of the elements that is essential to the replication of culture over time. Ultimately, the entire point of a sound bite is that the question of ownership should disappear.