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His artistic center of gravity lay closer to showcasing subjects in panoramas than to composing sustained narratives, a verdict that posterity ratified by largely overlooking his writing—ironically his most constant activity throughout his life. Indeed, his prose remains a bit hermetic today, often weighed down by rhetorical effects that tend to overemphasize the delivery of the message to the detriment of its substance. At the end of his life, Nadar dismissed his cartooning as youthful indiscretion, [77] glossing over it in memoirs otherwise rich in anecdotes.

Likewise, the depth of field achieved by re-placing the early comic strip within its context of pictorial effervescence in the publishing industry is revealing. Comics studies, perhaps because of the growing pains they experienced finding a consensual definition for their object of study, have often needed to construct it in isolation from its serial-image environment, at the risk of missing a larger picture.

Overall, the most dynamic developments of the early comic strip reflect a pull between the sequential and the panoramic in a context where the latter reigned as a symptom of modernity. So had Nadar before him; his first comic strips struggle to choose between linear and juxtaposed images and arguably find their most dynamic expression in a blend of both. Howard Eiland and Michael W. Jennings, vol. Eschewing research for synthesis and maximal connotation that are the very program of traditional illustration, they wallow in redundancy.

Its pages accumulate quite possibly the most exhaustive collection of attitudes of love and despair ever printed, with such minute variations between them that most tableaux within a given scene could be reordered without affecting the story. As such, Leonardo und Blandine could arguably be perceived as more panoramic than narrative. Jabot Paris: Hetzel, , 3:n. They appear in Kunzle, Early Comic Strip , Trottman et Cham , Nouveaux voyages et nouvelles impressions lithographiques, philosophiques et comiques de MM.

Trottman et Cham n. Kunzle, Nineteenth Century , Around the same time, poet, playwright, and novelist Alfred de Musset —57 chose the comic strip form to express his dismay at the wedding of the young soprano Pauline. The humorous autobiographic unpublished narrative, thought to be a possible collaboration with sculptor Auguste Barre, features George Sand among its characters.

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Initially planned to feature 50 installments, it gradually succumbed to censorship, which had taken a hiatus with the Second Republic, after In spite of the mutual esteem that will unite the shining stars of literature and photography fifteen years later, Hugo still stands in the opposite political camp at that point in time. Caricatured with a hypertrophied forehead, as has become standard in the satirical press since the 30s, he appears twice, both times with Girardin—himself first made up to look like Robert Macaire, and later represented as a vulgar rat. August 20, , One of his first self-portraits, for that matter, is a surrealistic, very experimental montage for the mids.

When last checked the page no longer existed at its original location. Under the general heading of word-and-image studies, his research interests lie at the intersection of cultural history, semiotics, and media studies, with a nineteenth-century focus. His current book project examines the works of key French-language nineteenth-century graphic novelists as well as other narrative forms from that era that blended text and image in various proportions, including the sequential photographic skits captured for the stereoscope.

Email the author pwillems[at]niu. From La Caricature 57, December 1, , n. From La Caricature 11, January 13, Le Salon caricatural. Wood engraving. Six Stages of Mending a Face. Ink and watercolor. Yale University Library, New Haven. Six Stages of Marring a Face. Les poires The Pears. From La Caricature , August 15, , 6.

From La Caricature , January 9, Le Magasin pittoresque 26, , Flip print. From La Caricature 5, December 2, , n. Drawer plate. From La Caricature 20, March 17, From La Revue Comique 6, December 16, , From La Revue Comique 22, April 7, , — From La Revue Comique 32, ca. From Le Journal pour rire 69, May 26, , 1. Volume 11, Issue 3 Autumn Dennis Reviewed by Gabriel P. More than a mere trend, panoramic series of images were a facet of a full-blown cultural paradigm that Kunzle evokes in the following terms: The miscellany review of the week, month, or year, copied by journals throughout France and in other countries, especially Italy, represents an innovation of considerable significance in the history of illustrated journalism and caricature.

Some can't or don't. But in either case, and whatever the outcome of this discussion may be, everyone on the planet will always be warmly welcomed to enjoy, read and use any of the content held, which is provided free to you and everyone - and by its governing constitution will always be free to enjoy.

In light of this concern, we prepared this amendment to the Terms of Use to explain a minimum standard of disclosure for paid edits. We feel it is an important and useful step forward on this issue because:. However, it is hard to solve the problem of paid advocacy editing without accidentally discouraging good-faith editors, like the various GLAM gallery, library, archive, and museum projects. Because of this difficulty, this amendment takes a simple approach: requiring straightforward disclosure of information.

This does not mean that paid-advocacy editing is acceptable! Instead, we think that the best way to attack the complex problem while still encouraging new good faith contributions is to combine this pro-transparency requirement with per-project policies that use this new information to make nuanced, difficult case-by-case judgments. We hope that this will lead to the best outcome by combining each Wikimedian's ability to handle nuance and complexity with the resources of the Foundation when that is absolutely necessary.

Also the proposed amendment makes clear that "community and Foundation policies, such as those addressing conflicts of interest, may further limit paid contributions or require more detailed disclosure. That is, the proposed amendment is a minimal requirement, but the community may impose greater restrictions or bans. Blondeignore talk , 20 March UTC. The same is true with GLAM employees. Disclosure is only necessary where compensation has been promised or received in exchange for a particular contribution.

A museum employee who is contributing to projects about topics of his general interest without more specific instruction from the museum need not disclose his affiliation with the museum. At the same time, when required, a simple disclosure that one is a paid Wikipedian in Residence with a particular museum, for example, would be sufficient disclosure for purposes of the proposed amendment.

If they make edits on Wikimedia as part of carrying out their job of public relations for their institution, surely they should disclose this, regardless of whether their employer has specifically compensated them for contributing to a Wikimedia project.

Dissertations & Theses from 2018

It seems like a better way to carve out these individuals would be to distinguish those who are employed to promote their institution and are editing Wikipedia for this reason from those who are editing for other reasons. Many tech companies encourage or allow employees to improve science or general interest pages on company time where neither topic nor change is specified by employer. Is that covered by the GLAM exemption? As professor of women's studies, declaring that affiliation allows readers to dismiss my work as feminist bias or be open to it as informed and educated.

Agree with above, and would like financial resources allocated from Wikipedia to which I contribute to pursue this end legally. Jacksalssome talk , 12 March UTC. I have a related suggestion, that a certain number of random samples be taken of "self-written" type articles on Wikipedia, and these be exchanged between randomly selected Wikipedia contributors who opt-in.

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After disclosure, all of these types of articles would be open to revision control from a randomly selected outside source. I don't think this goes far enough, personally, no matter that a project may impose further restrictions. Conflicts of interest should always be disclosed, irrespective of what time of day it is, and that should apply as one of the terms of use for the whole site.

Consider applying this sort of rule to a parliament: it simply would not be good enough. Disclosure is required, and then it is up to others to decide whether that conflict is colouring the statements given, or whether the statements stand irrespective of that affiliation. Although I would argue it is better simply to recuse oneself, as a judge must. After all editors are supposed to be providing at least an attempt at objectivity.

Impossible as it is to be completely objective, that's exactly what the conflict of interest rule is about.

John Tefteller Buys and Sells the World's Rarest Records!

One can make an exception for providing factual information, but that should still go through another editor, imo. It's not enough to avoid a conflict: one must be seen to avoid it, and if not to accept that the presumption against you is fully justified. Putting these requirements in the terms of use highlights the importance of transparency and disclosure, and provides prominent guidance for good faith members of our community and third party organizations. The terms of use are also likely to be read by businesses that regularly engage in paid editing, including their executives and lawyers.

Our experience at the WMF legal department is the people want to do the right thing most of the time, and our ability to refer them to the terms of use helps ensure compliance without any legal action. In short, a provision in the terms of use will put businesses on notice of their obligations.

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In the unlikely event of litigation, courts are less willing to excuse a violation of the terms of use, particularly a corporation that is intentionally deceiving the community. It is also consistent with best practices adopted by many projects, like Spanish Wikipedia.

So we think this approach strikes a good balance between enforceability and allowing local flexibility to address their specific needs and problems. These requirements use the second approach—disclosing to editors, through channels regularly visited by editors, namely user pages, talk pages, and edit summaries. This should minimize the disruption for readers while still achieving the end goal of neutral and reliable information. This is also consistent with existing best practices, like those for Wikimedians in Residence, who tend to disclose on user pages rather than on each individual article.

Note that local applicable law may still require disclosure in other locations, depending on the nature of the edit and the compensation. For more details on applicable law, see this FAQ entry.

Theses and Dissertations Available from ProQuest

No rule, whether a part of the terms of use or a community policy, is perfectly enforceable, especially when it comes to rules against deception. However, Wikimedians have found plenty of deceitful sockpuppets in the past, including paid advocacy editors. This language will support those processes, and, in the worst cases, could help us enforce our policies through civil legal means, like cease and desist orders or litigation.

Also, it is not only a negative tool to facilitate enforcement when bad players are caught - it is a positive tool to provide guidance to help guide good faith editors. That makes it valuable even if enforcement is difficult. Legally there is no way to prove that editorials are real or fake, hence the rule of 'no original research' to begin with. The same would apply to who wrote the editorial and whether or not compensation came into play. Legal requirements around the world vary, and can be hard to understand without legal advice. By putting a straightforward rule in the terms of use, we hope to give a clear and easily understandable baseline that will support community requirements like the various COI policies.

It also puts in place a reminder that governments and individual projects may have tougher standards, which we think is valuable. This requirement, like others, should be applied constructively to enable collaboration and improve our projects. Users who violate them should first be warned and informed about these rules, and then only blocked if necessary. If an editor wishes to avoid the disclosure requirement of this amendment, they should abstain from receiving compensation for their edits.

Please add new frequently-asked questions here, with links to the comments below if that would help provide more context. Don't use this section for questions that have not been asked repeatedly. There have been previous on-wiki proposals attempting to address paid editing, paid advocacy editing, and conflicts of interest. If you have been part of such a discussion, please add it here:. This section contains brief statements of support or opposition.

Some aircrews experienced uncommanded "stick kicker" activation at low level when flying straight and level, so F crews often flew with the system deactivated. Asymmetric flap deployment was another common cause of accidents, as was a persistent problem with severe nose wheel " shimmy " on landing that usually resulted in the aircraft leaving the runway and in some cases even flipping over onto its back. The introduction of a highly technical aircraft type to a newly reformed air force was fraught with problems.

Many pilots and ground crew had settled into civilian jobs after World War II and had not kept pace with developments, with pilots being sent on short "refresher" courses in slow and benign-handling first-generation jet aircraft. Ground crew were similarly employed with minimal training and experience, which was one consequence of a conscripted military with high turnover of service personnel. Operating in poor northwest European weather conditions vastly unlike the fair weather training conditions at Luke AFB in Arizona and flying low at high speed over hilly terrain, a great many accidents were attributed to controlled flight into terrain CFIT.

German Air Force and Navy losses totaled pilots, around half of them naval officers. In addition to the much lower-level mission profiles, the installation of additional avionic equipment in the FG version, such as the inertial navigation system , added far more distraction to the pilot and additional weight that further hampered the flying abilities of the plane. In contemporary German magazine articles highlighting the Starfighter safety problems, the aircraft was portrayed as "overburdened" with technology, which was considered a latent overstrain on the aircrews. In Johannes Steinhoff took over command of the Luftwaffe and grounded the entire Luftwaffe and Bundesmarine F fleet until he was satisfied that problems had been resolved or at least reduced.

In later years, the German safety record improved, although a new problem of structural failure of the wings emerged. Original fatigue calculations had not taken into account the high number of g-force loading cycles that the German F fleet was experiencing, and many airframes were returned to the depot for wing replacement or outright retirement.

Towards the end of Luftwaffe service, some aircraft were modified to carry a flight data recorder or "black box" which could give an indication of the probable cause of an accident. In Navy service it lacked the safety margin of a twin engine design like the Blackburn Buccaneer. To the dismay of his superiors, Hartmann judged the fighter unfit for Luftwaffe use even before its introduction.

The causes of a large number of aircraft losses were the same as for any other similar type. They included: bird strikes particularly to the engine , lightning strikes , pilot spatial disorientation , and mid-air collisions with other aircraft. A particularly notable accident occurred on 19 June when a formation of four FF aircraft, practicing for the type's introduction-into-service ceremony, crashed together after descending through a cloud bank. Three Germans and one American pilot were killed, and the four aircraft destroyed. This accident was explained as probable spatial disorientation of one of the trainee wingmen, [69] [ verification needed ] and formation aerobatic teams were consequently banned by the Luftwaffe from that day on.

The safety record of the F Starfighter became high-profile news in the mids, especially in Germany. The Federal German Republic initially ordered instead of the French Mirage , and later another , a total of aircraft. In June four Fs crashed on the same day. Grieving widows sued Lockheed from , and by more than thirty of them had received 3 million DMs each. By comparison, the mishap rate of the Convair F Delta Dagger was Notable U.

Air Force pilots who lost their lives in F accidents include Maj. Robert H. Lawrence Jr. Iven Kincheloe. Chuck Yeager was nearly killed in December when he lost control of an NFA during a high-altitude record-breaking attempt; he lost the tips of two fingers and was hospitalized for a long period with severe burns after ejecting from the aircraft. On 2 November , an F crashed into a house in suburban Dayton, Ohio , killing two young girls and critically burning their mother; the pilot had ejected to safety a half-mile away from the crash site.

The F was the first aircraft to simultaneously hold the world speed and altitude records. On 7 May , U. Air Force Maj. Howard C. Air Force Capt. Walter W. Irwin, flying YFA , set a world speed record of 1, Air Force Lt. William T. Smith and Lt. Einar Enevoldson set several time-to-climb records on 13 and 14 December [82]. On 14 December , U. Air Force Captain "Joe" B. Robert W. Lockheed test pilot Darryl Greenamyer built an F out of parts he had collected. The aircraft, NRB , first flew in A tracking camera malfunction eliminated the necessary proof for the official record.

On 26 February , Greenamyer made a practice run for a world altitude record attempt. After the attempt, he was unable to get a lock light on the left wheel; after multiple touch-and-go tests at an Edwards Air Force Base runway, he determined that it was not safe to land. He ejected, and the NRB crashed in the desert. Since being withdrawn from service, the Starfighter has been preserved in museums and is a popular gate guardian. Data from Quest for Performance [96]. The Starfighter was called the "missile with a man in it", a name swiftly trademarked by Lockheed for marketing purposes, and the press coined the F the Widowmaker due to its high accident rate, but neither were used in service.

The term Super Starfighter was used by Lockheed to describe the FG in marketing campaigns, but fell into disuse. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Lockheed XF This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Lockheed bribery scandals. Main article: List of Lockheed F Starfighter variants.

Main article: List of Lockheed F Starfighter operators. Main article: List of surviving Lockheed F Starfighters. United States Air Force portal Aviation portal. Haynes, Webmaster, SR Kelly Johnson Biography". Popular Mechanics. Hearst Magazines. The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft.

Reaves March Lockheed Aircraft Corporation. Retrieved 27 March Retrieved 12 July Retrieved 13 July Retrieved: 8 August Retrieved: 6 February The India-Pakistan Air War of Archived from the original on 6 July Retrieved 9 January Retrieved: 9 April Retrieved: 11 January Archived from the original on 9 June Retrieved 25 May Retrieved: 27 June The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 4 February The Aviationist. Retrieved 4 July Retrieved: 10 August Retrieved 15 March All the dead pilots, with names and dates of death, were listed on the screen.

Starfighter , p. Fortress Plubications, Retrieved: 9 August International F Society. Archived from the original on 7 January Retrieved 14 July Retrieved: 17 May Archived 16 January at Archive. Retrieved: 23 June