Moos, R. Life transitions and crises: A conceptual overview. In Moos, R. Mosher, W. Fecundity and infertility in the United States, — Nolen-Hoeksema, S. Sex differences in unipolar depression: Evidence and theory. Pennebaker, J. The psychophysiotogy of confession: Linking inhibitory and psychosomatic processes. Disclosure of traumas and immune function: Health implications for psychotherapy. Rose, S. Salzer, L.
Process research on Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) for couples: linking theory to practice.
Hall, Boston. Sanders, C. Shapiro, C. Stanton, A. Cognitive appraisals, coping processes, and adjustment to infertility. Selected issues in women's reproductive health: Psychological perspectives.
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Psychological adjustment to infertility: An overview of conceptual approaches. Coping through emotional approach: Problems of conceptualization and confounding. Strentz, T. Adjustment to the stress of simulated captivity: Effects of emotion-focused versus problem-focused preparation on hostages differing in locus of control. Stuart, R. Taylor, S. Health psychology: The science and the field. Social support, support groups, and the cancer patient. Consult Clin. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment Ware, J.
The Case of Martin Different parts of this case conceptualization interplay with each other and are co-constructed with the client. For example, Therapist: And you Martin, what would you like to focus on over the weeks? Triggers of Emotional Pain: Misempathy Ruptures The therapist is listening for client triggers that are current, interpersonal situations that trigger underlying painful emotions, such as isolation or rejection.
Secondary Emotions—Global Distress Potential threats triggers are all pervasive for a person who has a desire to relate to others but is in a state of interpersonal confusion and constant fear of rejection. Negative Self-Treatment Through observation, clients with autistic process attempted to deal with distress or potential distress by controlling their own actions withdrawal , others behavior dominant controlling actions or their environment see Fig.
Anticipatory Anxiety, Emotional and Behavioral Avoidance Longing with Associated Rejecting Fear Feared triggers and the emotional pain they bring are also controlled through emotional avoidance mainly through a hidden longing desire to connect, but fear based shame and corresponding behavioral avoidance. For example, Martin: I was horrendously upset by bullying when I was a child. Martin: Even teachers, even a teacher called me the names […] Martin: I got bullied at the golf course, for being thin and I got called these girls names, I got bullied because I was quiet, bullied because people thought they could get away with it.
Retrieval of Distanced, Not Recognized Trauma Creating narratives about oneself requires internal coherence Pascual-Leone a particular challenge for people with autistic process as they have autobiographical memory difficulties characterized by reduced specificity, less detailed self-narratives with lower coherence McDonnell et al.
For example, Martin: I could have used violence on all those people at the golf calling me names. Reaching Core Emotional Pain In EFT, the core pain is the underlying primary painful emotional response to the triggering situations or perceived trigger Timulak and Pascual-Leone Discovering the Unmet Need In EFT, research indicates that for depression, trauma and anxiety certain types of needs are associated with certain clusters of primary and painful emotions Timulak and Pascual-Leone Transformation of Emotional Pain One of the core principals of EFT is you have to arrive at an emotion core emotion and change this with an emotion Pascual-Leone and Greenberg For example, Martin: The annoying thing was that the adults were calling me the name as well, so the anger that that generates is still there It sounds, a strong anger Martin: I am angry with all those people who called me the name is if that was ok, as I accepted it.
For example, Therapist: In EFT we sometimes use [explanation of enactment task]…If you could speak to your Dad, if he was here in front of you, sitting in that chair, what would you like to say to him? Martin: What? Martin: You sided with all the people who used to call me it.
Therapist: You took their side. Tell him [pointing to empty chair] Martin: Why did you get it all wrong? Therapist: You got it so wrong Martin: Why did you say it was the way I react? Therapist: I felt …. Martin: sad. For example, Therapist: Where are the emotions coming? Therapist: Your emotional, I see tears.
I want to give Martin a hug [Carla looks towards Martin, who holds her gaze, they hold each others warm gaze] The final stage of task resolution is meaning creation and this facilitates acceptance with self-agency and marks the ending of therapy. For example, Therapist: And how do you feel about your Dad just now? Conclusion This paper has presented a developing EFT group therapy method for working with multiple layers of emotional processing and interpersonal relatedness difficulties for clients with autistic process. Mindblindness: An essay on autism and theory of mind. The intersection of disability and child abuse in England and the United States.
Child Welfare. Dissociation of cognitive and emotional empathy in adults with Asperger syndrome using the multifaceted empathy test MET Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. The self and autobiographical memory: Correspondence and coherence. Social Cognition. Person-centered-experiential psychotherapy for anxiety difficulties: Theory, research and practice. Person-Centered and Experiential Psychotherapies.
Research on humanistic-experiential psychotherapies. Lambert Ed.
New York. Learning emotion-focused therapy: The process-experiential approach. Emotional processing theory: An update. In: Rothbaum BO, editor. Pathological anxiety: Emotional processing in etiology and treatment. New York: Guilford Press; A Real Person: Life on the Outside. London: Souvenir Press; The Emanuel Miller Memorial Lecture Autism and autistic like conditions: Subclasses among disorders of empathy.
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. Case formulation in emotion-focused therapy: Co-creating clinical maps for change. Emotion-focused therapy for depression. A guide to conducting a task analysis of psychotherapeutic change. Psychotherapy Research. Emotion-focused therapy.
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Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. A multimodal approach to emotion recognition ability in autism spectrum disorders. Traumatic childhood events and autism spectrum disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. The role of emotion regulation in autism spectrum disorder. A developmental psychopathology perspective on autobiographical memory in autism spectrum disorder. Developmental Review. Transforming emotion schemes in emotion focused therapy: A case study investigation. Autism: Recognition, referral, diagnosis and management of adults on the autism spectrum.
NICE clinical guideline , Emotion-focused therapy for complex trauma: An integrative approach. Developments in task analysis: New methods to study change. An essay on wisdom: Towards organismic processes that make it possible. In: Steinberg RJ, editor. Wisdom: Its nature, origins, and development.
New York: Cambridge University Press; Crime victims with developmental disabilities: A review essay.
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Criminal Justice and Behavior. National crime victimization survey; Crime against people with disabilities, Washington, DC: U. Department of Justice; Emotion - focused therapy for ASD: A sequential model for trauma. Robinson A, Elliott R.
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Brief report: An observational measure of empathy for autism spectrum: A preliminary study of the development and reliability of the client emotional processing scale. Emotion-focused therapy for clients with autistic process. Emotion-focused therapy for the treatment of social anxiety: An overview of the model and a case description. Being autistic together. Disability Studies Quarterly, Accessed 28 Oct Cognitive behavior therapy for adults with autism spectrum disorders and psychiatric co-morbidity: A review.
Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders. Violence exposure among children with disabilities. Emotion-focused therapy for generalized anxiety disorder: An overview of the model. New developments for case conceptualization in emotion-focused therapy. Behavior problems at 5 years of age and maternal mental health in autism and intellectual disability. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy with people who have autistic spectrum disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
It is interesting to note that in this study, couples continued to significantly improve from the end of therapy to follow-up. Greenberg, L. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 14, Lebow, J. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 38 1 , Furrow, B.
Johnson Eds. New York: Brunner Routledge.
Weissman, N. In preparation. Shaver Eds. New York: Guilford Press. Journal of Systemic Therapies, 26, Caldwell, B. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 33 3 , Sexton, G.