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Looks similar to Granite. Marble may be foliated. Geologists use the term "marble" to refer to metamorphosed limestone; however, stonemasons use the term more broadly to encompass un-metamorphosed limestone. Fossilized materials along with it's original carbonate minerals, recrystallized and formed large, coarse grains of calcite. Impurities present in the limestone during the recrystallization affected the mineral composition of the marble. The carbonate minerals calcite, When sedimentary and diagenetic limestones undergo metamorphism, the calcite is frequently recrystallized and tends to become coarsely crystalline.

Much of the complexity in classifying carbonate rocks stems partly from The mineral was first described by, and then named after, the French mineralogist and geologist Deodat de Dolomieu — Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite. Metamorphism causes variable recrystallization of the original carbonate mineral grains. The image "Marble is a metamorphic rock that may be foliated or non-foliated, composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite.

Our rock shop features polished rock vases from all over the world. Polished Vases. This highly polished rock vase has a good color mix of Greys, Greens with lighter accents and various Yellows and Cream in a nice design. Fossilized materials along with it's original carbonate minerals, recrystallized and The image "Mineral stone - marble. Marble is a non-foliated metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite.

Learn in which dark And light silie minerals are rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, Marble Look Porcelain Tiles Mineral Tiles Marble as generally known as a type of natural stone, is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite. Overall, rocks at Kansanshi underwent widespread Mg-metasomatism and localized Na-Ca alteration, with the most pervasive alteration occurring in the deepest rocks. Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate Download royalty free Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals stock photo from Shutterstock's library of millions of high Marble is composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite.

Heat and pressure over time cause the carbonate minerals to recrystallize into an interlocking mosaic of crystals, the different colours due to the various mineral impurities such as clay, silt and sand. Meet The Countertops Materials. Marlbe is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite. In geology, the term "marble" refers to metamorphosed limestone, but its use in stonemasonry more broadly encompasses unmetamorphosed limestone.

Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite and may be foliated. Our marbles can be applied in exteriors and interiors, from flooring to table tops. Geologists use the term "marble" to refer to metamorphosed limestone; however, stonemasons use the term more broadly to …. In geology the term "marble" refers to metamorphosed limestone, but its use in stonemasonry more broadly encompasses unmetamorphosed limestone.

Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate CaCO 3. The Mohs scale of mineral hardness, based on scratch hardness comparison, defines value 3 as "calcite". Other polymorphs of calcium carbonate are the minerals aragonite and vaterite. Because carbonate minerals in general are soluble in slightly acidic waters, they often have high porosity and permeability, making them ideal reservoirs for petroleum.

For this reason they are well studied. But, again this becomes recrystallized to a microspar 5 to …. It is a high grade metamorphic rock in which mineral grains recrystallized under intense heat and pressure. Marble is a non foliated metamorphic rock which is composed of recrystallized carbonate which is formed when limestone is exposed to high temperatures and pressures over a long time. Sedimentary rocks are usually formed in water. Streams and rivers carry sediments in their current.

When the current slows around a bend or the river empties into a lake, or ocean, or another river the sediments fall out because of gravity. The larger sediments fall out first and the lightest sediments fall out last. The diagram above shows layers of sediment that were laid down in a lake. In the spring the lake receives an influx of water from the mountain snow melt. This snow melt carries with it a large amount of sediment that becomes suspended in the lake water. As the sediment settles out during the summer and especially in the winter, if the lake becomes frozen over, the sediments come to rest on the bottom.

The heaviest and largest particles settle out first and the lightest sediments such as silts and clays settle out last. The number 1 shows sediment that would have been laid down during , number 2 in , and number 3 would have been laid down in The gray area above the 3 would be the latest layer being laid down at the present time.

This laying down of rock-forming material by a natural agent is called deposition. Natural agents of deposition are water, ice, gravity, and wind. Sediment is deposited in flat, horizontal layers with the oldest layers on the bottom and the younger layers laying on and over the older layers. Geologists use this knowledge to read layers of sedimentary rock like the pages in a book. They can date layers by the fossils that are found in them.

If a layer has a fossil in it that is known to be 50 million years old the layer itself must be at least 50 million years old and the layers below it have to be older than 50 million years. The size of sediment is defined by the size of the particles that make up the sediment. The largest sediment size is called a boulder. Boulders have a diameter that is larger than millimeters about 10 inches. Cobbles are the next largest sediment, they are 64 - mm in diameter about inches.

Sedimentary rocks are formed in three ways from these different sized sediments. A sedimentary rock is a layered rock that is formed from the compaction, cementation, and the recrystallization of sediments. Compaction is the squeezing together of layers of sediment due to the great weight of overlying layers of rock.

This squeezing of the layer results in reducing the thickness of the original layer. When the layers are reduced in thickness the pore spaces around the sediments are also reduced, which leads to a tighter packing of the layers. Cementation is the changing of sediment into rock by filling spaces around the sediments with chemical precipitates of minerals. Calcite and silica are common minerals that cement the sediments together. Recrystallization is the third way that sedimentary rocks are formed. Recrystallization is the formation of new mineral grains that are larger than the original grains.

As the sediments recrystallize they arrange themselves in a series of interlocking crystals that connect the other grains together into a solid rock. The photo above shows layers of sedimentary rocks that were deposited in flat horizontal layers. These layers were then uplifted and bent by mountain building. Sedimentary rocks form a thin layer of rock over 75 per cent of the Earth's surface. They are the site of very important resources such as ground water, coal, oil, and soil. Shale, sandstone, and limestone are the most common types of sedimentary rocks.

They are formed by the most common mineral that is found on or near the surface of the Earth. The mineral that forms these sedimentary rocks is feldspar. Running water, such as the mountain stream above, sorts and transports more sediment than any other agent of deposition. Clastic sedimentary rocks are made of pieces of rock or mineral grains that have been broken from preexisting rock.

These particles and grains have become solid rock by the processes of compaction or cementation of sediments. Some clastic rocks are conglomerate, shale, breccia, gray and red sandstone, siltstone, and graywacke. Non-clastic sedimentary rocks form from the precipitation Precipitation is the separating of a solid from a solution of minerals from ocean water or from the breakdown of the shells and bones of sea creatures. Sea animals such as coral produce calcium carbonate solutions that harden to form rock.

As the chemicals, that comes from the mineral or biological precipitation, mix with sediments on the floor of the ocean or lake they crystallize and grow in the spaces around the sediment. When these crystals grow large enough to fill the spaces they harden and form a solid rock. Some non-clastic rocks are limestone, chert, dolostone, gypsum, halite rock salt , diatomite, and chalk. Organic sedimentary rocks form from the build up and decay of plant and animal material. This usually forms in swamp regions in which there is an abundant supply of growing vegetation and low amounts of oxygen.

The vegetation builds so quickly that new layers of vegetation bury the dead and decaying material very quickly. The bacteria that decay the vegetation need oxygen to survive. Because these decaying layers are buried so fast the bacteria use up what oxygen there is available and can not finish the decomposition of the vegetation. The overlaying layers become so heavy that they squeeze out the water and other compounds that aid in decay. This compressed vegetation forms coal.

The longer and deeper that coal is buried makes it of higher quality. Peat is the first stage of coal formation. Lignite is the next grade of coal followed by bituminous and the highest grade, anthracite. Anthracite is actually a metamorphic rock. It forms during mountain building when compaction and friction are extremely high. This form of coal burns very hot and almost smokeless. It is used in the production of high grade steel. Shale is one of the most common sedimentary rocks. It is composed of silt or clay that has been compacted or squeezed together to form a solid rock.

Shale is usually found in thin layers. The silt or clay that composes shale is made of very small pieces of weathered rock. The color of a sample of shale is that of the clay or silt that it was formed from. Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock that forms from the cementing together of sand sized grains forming a solid rock. Quartz is the most abundant mineral that forms sandstone. Calcium carbonate, silica, or iron has been added to the water that is in contact with the sand grains. These minerals grow crystals in the spaces around the sand grains.

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As the crystals fill the gaps the individual sand grains are now transformed into a solid rock. Limestone is the most abundant of the non-clastic sedimentary rocks. Limestone is produced from the mineral calcite calcium carbonate and sediment. The main source of limestone is the limy ooze formed in the ocean. The calcium carbonate can be precipitated from ocean water or it can be formed from sea creatures that secrete lime such as algae and coral.

Chalk is another type of limestone that is made up of very small single-celled organisms. Chalk is usually white or gray in color. Limestone can easily be dissolved by acids. If you drop vinegar on limestone it will fizz. Put a limestone rock into a plastic jar and cover it with vinegar.

Cover the jar and watch the bubbling of the calcium carbonate and also the disintegration of the rock over a few days. Limestone caves are an interesting geological feature. They form because the limestone deposits located under the ground are chemically dissolved by moving ground water. The ground water contains minerals that make the water slightly acidic.

When an acid comes into contact with a rock that is composed of calcium carbonate a chemical reaction takes place. The acid "eats" the limestone. The calcium carbonate then goes into the ground water which moves down farther into the cave. The water will find its way into small crack and crevasses.

Minerals, Rocks & Rock Forming Processes

The dripping water will create formations called stalactites and stalagmites. Stalactites they grow from the ceiling and stalagmites they grow from the floor are not technically limestone. They form in caves because as the limestone is dissolved calcium carbonate is put into solution in the ground water. This solution drips through crack and slowly forms stalactites and stalagmites. Conglomerate is a clastic sedimentary rock that forms the cementing of rounded cobble and pebble sized rock fragments.

Conglomerate is formed by river movement or ocean wave action. The cementing agents that fill the spaces to form the solid rock conglomerate are silica, calcite, or iron oxides. Notice in the photo above the rounded rock particles in the conglomerate. These rounded particles make conglomerate different from the next rock you are about to study, breccia. Breccia is formed in a very similar fashion to conglomerate. The difference between the two rocks is that breccia's rock fragments are very sharp and angular.

These rock fragments have not been transported by water, wind, or glaciers long enough to be rounded and smoothed like in the conglomerate. The cementing agents silica, calcite CaCO3 , and iron oxides are the same as in conglomerate. In your own words describe the process of weathering. What is deposition? What are the three ways that a sedimentary rock forms? How does a limestone cave form? Rocks are formed on Earth as igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic rocks. Igneous rocks form when rocks are heated to the melting point which forms magma.

Sedimentary rocks are formed from the cementing together of sediments, or from the compaction squeezing together of sediments, or from the recrystallization of new mineral grains which are larger than the original crystals. Metamorphic rocks form from heat and pressure changing the original or parent rock into a completely new rock. The parent rock can be either sedimentary, igneous, or even another metamorphic rock.

The word "metamorphic" comes from Greek and means "To Change Form". The diagram above shows you how the rocks on Earth have been changed continually over time from one rock type to another. This changing of rock types is called the "Rock Cycle". Solid rock can be changed into a new rock by stresses that cause an increase in heat and pressure. There are 3 main agents that cause metamorphism. Factors that cause an increase in Temperature, Pressure, and Chemical changes are the three agents that we are going to study. Temperature increases can be caused by layers of sediments being buried deeper and deeper under the surface of the Earth.

As we descend into the earth the temperature increases about 25 degrees Celsius for every kilometer that we descend.


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The deeper the layers are buried the hotter the temperatures become. The great weight of these layers also causes an increase in pressure, which in turn, causes an increase in temperature.


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The descending of rock layers at subduction zones causes metamorphism in two ways; the shearing effect of the plates sliding past each other causes the rocks coming in contact with the descending rocks to change. Some of the descending rock will melt because of this friction. When rock melts it is then considered igneous not metamorphic, but the rock next to the melted rock can be changed by the heat and become a metamorphic rock. There are 3 factors that cause an increase in pressure which also causes the formation of metamorphic rocks. These factors are;. The huge weight of overlying layers of sediments.

Stresses caused by plates colliding in the process of mountain building. Stresses caused by plates sliding past each other, such as the shearing stresses at the San Andreas fault zone in California. Factors that cause chemical changes in rocks also contribute to the formation of metamorphic rocks. Very hot fluids and vapors can, because of extreme pressures, fill the pores of existing rocks. These fluids and vapors can cause chemical reactions to take place, that over time, can change the chemical makeup of the parent rock.

Metamorphism can be instantaneous as in the shearing of rocks at plate boundaries or can take millions of years as in the slow cooling of magma buried deep under the surface of the Earth. There are three ways that metamorphic rocks can form. The three types of metamorphism are Contact, Regional, and Dynamic metamorphism. Contact Metamorphism occurs when magma comes in contact with an already existing body of rock. When this happens the existing rocks temperature rises and also becomes infiltrated with fluid from the magma.

The area affected by the contact of magma is usually small, from 1 to 10 kilometers. Contact metamorphism produces non-foliated rocks without any cleavage rocks such as marble, quartzite, and hornfels. In the diagram above magma has pushed its way into layers of limestone, quartz sandstone and shale. The heat generated by the magma chamber has changed these sedimentary rocks into the metamorphic rocks marble, quartzite, an hornfels. Regional Metamorphism occurs over a much larger area. This metamorphism produces rocks such as gneiss and schist.

Regional metamorphism is caused by large geologic processes such as mountain-building. These rocks when exposed to the surface show the unbelievable pressure that cause the rocks to be bent and broken by the mountain building process. Regional metamorphism usually produces foliated rocks such as gneiss and schist. Dynamic Metamorphism also occurs because of mountain-building.

These huge forces of heat and pressure cause the rocks to be bent, folded, crushed, flattened, and sheared. Metamorphic rocks are almost always harder than sedimentary rocks. They are generally as hard and sometimes harder than igneous rocks. They form the roots of many mountain chains and are exposed to the surface after the softer outer layers of rocks are eroded away. Many metamorphic rocks are found in mountainous regions today and are a good indicator that ancient mountains were present in areas that are now low hill or even flat plains.

Metamorphic rocks are divided into two categories- Foliates and Non-foliates. Foliates are composed of large amounts of micas and chlorites. These minerals have very distinct cleavage. Foliated metamorphic rocks will split along cleavage lines that are parallel to the minerals that make up the rock. Slate, as an example, will split into thin sheets. Foliate comes from the Latin word that means sheets, as in the sheets of paper in a book. Silt and clay can become deposited and compressed into the sedimentary rock shale.

The layers of shale can become buried deeper and deeper by the process of deposition. Deposition is the laying down of rock forming material by any natural agent wind, water, glaciers over time. Because these layers are buried, temperatures and pressures become greater and greater until the shale is changed into slate.

Slate is a fine-grained metamorphic rock with perfect cleavage that allows it to split into thin sheets. Slate usually has a light to dark brown streak. Slate is produced by low grade metamorphism, which is caused by relatively low temperatures and pressures. Slate has been used by man in a variety of ways over the years. One use for slate was in the making of headstones or grave markers. Slate is not very hard and can be carved easily. The problem with slate though is its perfect cleavage. The slate headstones would crack and split along these cleavage planes as water would seep into the cracks and freeze which would lead to expansion.

This freeze-thaw, freeze-thaw over time would split the headstone. Today headstones are made of a variety of rocks, with granite and marble being two of the most widely used rocks. Slate was also used for chalk boards. The black color was good as a background and the rock cleaned easily with water. Today it is not very advantageous to use this rock because of its weight and the splitting and cracking over time. Schist is a medium grade metamorphic rock. This means that it has been subjected to more heat and pressure than slate, which is a low grade metamorphic rock.

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As you can see in the photo above schist is a more coarse grained rock. The individual grains of minerals can be seen by the naked eye.

Many of the original minerals have been altered into flakes. Because it has been squeezed harder than slate it is often found folded and crumpled.

Calcite (and Aragonite):

Schists are usually named by the main minerals that they are formed from. Bitotite mica schist, hornblende schist, garnet mica schist, and talc schist are some examples of this. Gneiss is a high grade metamorphic rock. This means that gneiss has been subjected to more heat and pressure than schist. Gneiss is coarser than schist and has distinct banding.

This banding has alternating layers that are composed of different minerals. The minerals that compose gneiss are the same as granite. Feldspar is the most important mineral that makes up gneiss along with mica and quartz. Gneiss can be formed from a sedimentary rock such as sandstone or shale, or it can be formed from the metamorphism of the igneouse rock grantite.

Gneiss can be used by man as paving and building stone. Non-Foliates are metamorphic rocks that have no cleavage at all. Quartzite and marble are two examples of non-foliates that we are going to study. Quartzite is composed of sandstone that has been metamorphosed. Quartzite is much harder than the parent rock sandstone. It forms from sandstone that has come into contact with deeply buried magmas.

Quartzite looks similar to its parent rock. The best way to tell quartzite from sandstone is to break the rocks. Sandstone will shatter into many individual grains of sand while quartzite will break across the grains. Marble is metamorphosed limestone or dolomite. Both limestone and dolomite have a large concentration of calcium carbonate CaCO3.

Marble has many different sizes of crystals. Marble has many color variances due to the impurities present at formation. Some of the different colors of marble are white, red, black, mottled and banded, gray, pink, and green. Marble is much harder than its parent rock. This allows it to take a polish which makes it a good material for use as a building material, making sink tops, bathtubs, and a carving stone for artists. Today, headstones are made from marble and granite because both of these rocks weather very slowly and carve well with sharp edges.

Write a definition in your own words of what a metamorphic rock is. What are the three agents of metamorphism? What are the three types of metamorphism? In your own words write a definition of the rock cycle.

Mineral information is presented here; Pictures of minerals are found at the bottom of the page. Augite is a greenish-black mineral that is found in many igneous rocks. It is found in many basic and ultra-basic igneous rocks such as gabbro and basalt. Augite has a hardness of The chemical formula is silicon oxide SiO2. Galena is an lead sulfide and the main source of lead. Pyrite is also known as iron sulfide. It is one of the most common minerals on the Earth's surface. Many people call pyrite "Fools Gold" because the crystal resemble gold in color.

The composition of limestone

Pyrite is much harder than gold and it looses its glitter quickly when exposed to the air. In fact when it is rubbed on a streak plate the streak will be green to dark gray. Pyrite has a hardness of 6. Its cleavage is cubic or not distinct. Biotite mica is dark green to black in color because it contains iron and magnesium.

Feldspar can have glassy white, blue, green, or red crystals. Orthoclase has a chemical make up of KAlSi3O8. Orthoclase is usually pink but can be white, grey, green, and pink. Plagioclase is a form of feldspar that has a chemical make up of NaAlSi3O8. Plagioclase is usually white but can also be grey and greenish white. This mineral was abundant in the Moon rock samples. Pyroxene is one of the three main minerals that makes up basalt. The most common pyroxenes are magnesium, calcium, and iron silicates. A common pyroxene is augite which is very abundant in many igneous rocks such as basalt and gabbro.

Dolomite is both a mineral and a rock. Dolomite is a calcium-magnesium carbonate. It is very similar to calcite and limestone in its chemical make up. Dolomite is white or light pink in color. It has a hardness of 3. Dolomite is used as a building stone and as a source of magnesium. Graphite and diamond are both pure carbon. The difference is the amount of heat and pressure that has been put onto the two minerals. Diamond is the hardest natural element on Earth with a hardness of 10 which is the maximum on the Mohs hardness scale.

Graphite is a very soft mineral with a hardness between 1 and 2. Graphite has a black streak and was probably formed by the metamorphism of plant remains or by the crystallization of ancient magmas. Today graphite is used for "lead" in pencils. Lead is poisonous to humans and has not been used for many years in pencils.

Graphite is also used in the paint industry. Kaolinite is a clay mineral which is formed by the weathering of feldspar. It is one of the most common minerals on Earth. Kaolinite can be found in all parts of the Earth. It is very soft with a hardness of It has a color of white, pink or grey and a streak of white. Kaolinite is used in the ceramics industry for the production of clay products.

Quartz is a common mineral that is found in many different types of rocks. The State of New Hampshire has the nickname "Granite State" because of the amount of granite in the mountains of that beautiful state. Dacite is an extrusive igneous rock. The principle minerals that make up dacite are plagioclase, quartz, pyroxene, or hornblende. The lava coo ls so quickly that no crystals can form. Gabbro is a dark-colored, coarse-grained intrusive igneous rock.

Gabbro is very similar to basalt in its mineral make up. It is composed mostly of the mineral plagioclase feldspar with smaller amounts of pyroxene and olivine. Rhyolite is an extrusive igneous rock having cooled much more rapidly than granite, giving it a glassy appearance. Conglomerate is a clastic sedimentary rock that forms from the cementing of rounded cobble and pebble sized rock fragments.

The cementing agents that fill the spaces to form the solid rock conglomerate are silica , calcite, or iron oxides. These rounded particles make conglomerate different from breccia. Chert is a very hard sedimentary rock that is usually found in nodules in limestone. Chert is light gray to dark gray in color. It probably formed from the remains of ancient sea sponges or other ocean animals that have been fossilized. Silica has replaced the tissue forming the sedimentary rock.

Flint is a very dark form of chert. It breaks like obsidian with conchoidal fractures making it widely used by ancient people to make arrowheads, spear heads, and knives. Halite is common table salt. It forms where brakish salty lakes or sea beds dry up. This evaporation of the water causes the salt to precipitate forming the salt crystals.

Halite frequently occurs in crystal form. It is usually colorless but can be reddish brown because of iron oxides in the water that it forms in. Halite has perfect cleavage and a hardness of 2. Slate is not very hard and can be engraved easily. The slate headstones would crack and split along these cleavage planes. This is not a desirable attribute for a head stone. Schists are usually named by the main mineral from which they are formed. Quartzite is much harder than the parent rock, sandstone.

Chapter 4 Copymaster includes tests and answers for students and teachers on material covered in Chapter 4. Rocks and Minerals. In the chapter "Rocks and Minerals" the students will have the opportunity to work with 30 minerals and rocks in a hands-on data collection center. Then the students will study the concepts and processes associated with those same minerals and rocks at the computer center. You will need to locate the following materials to allow your students to complete the lessons. A "Rocks and Minerals" lab kit which includes the following items;.

Plastic boxes to hold the lab materials and the rock and mineral specimen. The number of boxes will be determined by the number of groups that your class has. I would suggest no more than four students per group. Lesson 2-talc, galena, hematite, magnetite, calcite. Lesson 3- pumice , obsidian , basalt , gabbro, rhyolite. Lesson 4-conglomerate, limestone, shale, breccia, and gray sandstone.

Lab materials. You will need one each of the above testing materials for each group. Data collection sheets. Each student should receive data collection sheets which will cover all 30 rocks and minerals specimen. The students will perform 11 tests and collect the data from the different tests on each rock or mineral sample.

Color- The students will look at the sample and write down the color that they see in the sample. Streak -The students will scratch the specimen across the streak plate to determine the color of the streak. Luster - The students will determine if the mineral has a metallic or non-metallic luster. If the luster is non-metallic the student will determine if the sample is earthy, pearly, vitreous, or greasy. If a chemical reaction occurs with the dilute acid then the students are able to determine if any calcium carbonate is present.

Magnetism- The students will touch the specimen with a magnet to determine if the specimen is magnetic. Hardness Tests- The tests are used to determine the relative hardness of a rock or mineral. To determine the hardness the students will scratch the testing material ie: glass slide, penny etc. When the students are testing the hardness they can stop when their sample is found to be softer than the testing material.

Fingernail- The students will scratch the rock specimen with their thumbnail to determine if the sample is harder or softer than their nail. If the mineral scratches their nail then the sample is harder than the nail. The students can X the column under the fingernail and proceed to the next test. Penny- The students will scratch a copper penny to determine if the specimen is harder or softer than the penny. Iron Nail- The students will continue to test the samples hardness with the iron nail.

Glass Slide- The glass slide is the last hardness test. If the sample is harder than the glass slide explain to the students that the sample is above 6 on the hardness scale and there are not many common minerals that are that hard. Quartz is the hardest of the common minerals at 7 on the hardness scale. Explain to the students that there is a difference between bands and layers.

Glossary of Terms

Have the students record what they see on their data collection chart. The first lesson " Rocks " works with the following specimen of rocks and minerals; Granite, biotite mica, quartz, feldspar, and hornblende. At the computer center the students will study the concepts and processes that form rocks. In the second lesson " Minerals " the students will work with the following minerals; Galena, magnetite, hematite, talc, and calcite.

The students will be exposed to the processes and concepts associated with the formation of minerals. The third lesson deals with igneous rocks. The students will become aware of the processes that cause the formation of igneous rocks. The students will work hands-on with the following rocks; pumice, obsidian, gabbro, basalt, and rhyolite.

The fourth lesson involves the students learning about the processes that form sedimentary rocks. They will work hands-on with the following rocks; conglomerate, breccia, limestone, gray sandstone, and shale. The fifth lesson in this series involves teaching about the concepts and processes involved in the formation of metamorphic rocks. The students will work hands-on with the following rock samples; slate, schist, gneiss, white marble, quartzite. The sixth lesson in this series involves teaching about the processes of coal and fossil formation.

The students will be working hands-on with the following samples of rocks and minerals; Anthracite coal , halite, pyrite, kaolinite, dolomite, and graphite. Lesson 10 Rocks. The age of the Earth-. How the layers cooled-. Rock Cycle-. The Earth is about 4. As the Earth cooled the heaviest and densest materials sank to the center, and the lightest materials rose to the top. The heaviest materials are the metals iron and nickel, which makes up the inner and outer cores. The lightest materials are rock and make up the crust and upper most region of the mantle.

Rocks are composed of two or more minerals. These minerals have been 1 cemented together 2 squeezed and heated together, or 3 melted and cooled together Rocks make up the vast majority of the Earth's crust. The two most common rocks on the crust are granite and basalts. A mineral is a solid that is composed of one substance that occurs naturally on Earth.

Soil is composed of very small, weathered fragments of rock along with organic decomposed or decomposing plant and animal material material. The rock cycle is the process in which igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks are changed over time. Igneous rocks are formed by volcanic activity. Metamorphic rocks are igneous, sedimentary, or other metamorphic rocks that have been changed by heat, pressure, chemical means, or a combination of all or some of the above.

Sedimentary rocks are formed from the weathering of all of the rock types and the cementing, compressing, or recrystallization of the sediments. Write a definition for the following terms. Igneous rocks-. Sedimentary rocks-. Metamorphic rocks-. Draw a diagram and describe the rock cycle-. Name the most common rock found on the surface of the. Name the four minerals that make up granite. Describe what the term, property of a mineral means. Match the following igneous terms with its corresponding definition. An intrusive igneous body that runs through an existing layer of rock.

A very large intrusive igneous body that is larger than square miles. A type of igneous rock that is. Molten rock under the surface of the Earth. Molten rock on the surface of the Earth. A type of igneous rock that is formed on the surface of the Earth. A small intrusive igneous body. An intrusive igneous body that runs parallel with existing rock layers. A test to determine the true color of a mineral. A property that describes how a mineral breaks into flat planes. A mineral that conducts electricity. A property of a mineral that is measured by the Mohs scale. A property of a mineral that measures how it reflects light.

A mineral that does not conduct electricity. What is the name of the most common rock on the surface of the Earth? In your own words give a definition of the term, ROCK. What are the four minerals that are usually found in granite? What is weathering? What are the three types of rocks? Draw a diagram and explain what happens in the rock cycle. Rocks are made of two or more different minerals that have been 1 cemented together, or 2 squeezed and heated together, or 3 melted and cooled together.

Mineral- A mineral is a solid material, made of one substance, that occurs naturally on Earth. The break down of rock by wind, water, or ice into smaller pieces. Igneous rocks- Igneous rocks start as magma.