Tecumseh asked Elizabeth for a vision, and after several days pass, she tells him of a man who will come to their village in friendship. No one is more surprised than Elizabeth when the man appears with the morning sun just as she envisioned. But evil lurks even in the most tranquil of settings and Tecumseh's brother accuses 'the man of her vision' Will Douglas, of being the devil.
To defend his honor and hers, Will must run the gauntlet. His life or death will decide her own. Governor Harrison of the Indiana Territory intends to expand the frontier. The Shawnee and other Indian tribes are to give up their land or suffer the consequences. The Shawnee, Tecumseh's tribe, have already given all they can. Tecumseh wishes for a united Indian Nation where they can live just as their ancestors had for generations.
The British in Detroit have long guns and cannon aimed at the Americans. It is only a matter of time before war breaks out.
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Tecumseh tells Elizabeth he sees Will's death as easily as he sees his own. Despite her pleas, Will picks up his war club to defend the people he loves. His decision could well destroy them both. Enjoy recipes for corn broth soup, chocolate-chocolate chip cookies, and pumpkin pie thumbprint kolackies along with these fantastic fall romance stories. Three people, united in passion and purpose, are torn apart by the destruction of war. Domination over wilderness beyond the frontier threatens all they believe in. For Elizabeth Kincaid, her innocence as well as her ignorance of frontier ways spells danger when she is captured by a band of savages and taken into the wilds of the Ohio Territory.
Except one of these savages, the leader named Tecumseh is not the heathen she thought he was, especially when she realizes they share a common gift, visions of things to come. Promises to Keep. Promises My Love.
Memories Trail: Part 1. Memories Trail: Part 2. A Wicked Appetite. Each ant tends to take the same trail day after day to the same tree. During the long winter , the ants huddle together under the snow.
An ant colony has memories that its individual members don’t have
F oraging in a harvester ant colony requires some individual ant memory. The ants search for scattered seeds and do not use pheromone signals; if an ant finds a seed, there is no point recruiting others because there are not likely to be other seeds nearby. The foragers travel a trail that can extend up to 20 metres from the nest. Each ant leaves the trail and goes off on its own to search for food. It searches until it finds a seed, then goes back to the trail, maybe using the angle of the sunlight as a guide, to return to the nest, following the stream of outgoing foragers.
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Once back at the nest, a forager drops off its seed, and is stimulated to leave the nest by the rate at which it meets other foragers returning with food. On its next trip, it leaves the trail at about the same place to search again. The result is in effect a wave that reaches further as the day progresses.
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Gradually the wave recedes, as the ants making short trips to sites near the nest seem to be the last to give up. I conducted a series of perturbation experiments. I put out toothpicks that the workers had to move away, or blocked the trails so that foragers had to work harder, or created a disturbance that the patrollers tried to repel.
Author, Northern Illinois | DL Larson
Each experiment affected only one group of workers directly, but the activity of other groups of workers changed, because workers of one task decide whether to be active depending on their rate of brief encounters with workers of other tasks. After just a few days repeating the experiment, the colonies continued to behave as they did while they were disturbed, even after the perturbations stopped. Ants had switched tasks and positions in the nest, and so the patterns of encounter took a while to shift back to the undisturbed state.
No individual ant remembered anything but, in some sense, the colony did. Colonies live for years, the lifetime of the single queen who produces all the ants, but individual ants live at most a year. In response to perturbations, the behaviour of older, larger colonies is more stable than that of younger ones. It is also more homeostatic: the larger the magnitude of the disturbance, the more likely older colonies were to focus on foraging than on responding to the hassles I had created ; while, the worse it got, the more the younger colonies reacted. In short, older, larger colonies grow up to act more wisely than younger smaller ones, even though the older colony does not have older, wiser ants.
Ants use the rate at which they meet and smell other ants, or the chemicals deposited by other ants, to decide what to do next. A neuron uses the rate at which it is stimulated by other neurons to decide whether to fire. In both cases, memory arises from changes in how ants or neurons connect and stimulate each other. It is likely that colony behaviour matures because colony size changes the rates of interaction among ants. In an older, larger colony, each ant has more ants to meet than in a younger, smaller one, and the outcome is a more stable dynamic.
Perhaps colonies remember a past disturbance because it shifted the location of ants, leading to new patterns of interaction, which might even reinforce the new behaviour overnight while the colony is inactive, just as our own memories are consolidated during sleep. Changes in colony behaviour due to past events are not the simple sum of ant memories, just as changes in what we remember, and what we say or do, are not a simple set of transformations, neuron by neuron.
Jason Josephson Storm. Become a Friend of Aeon to save articles and enjoy other exclusive benefits Make a donation. Public domain. Aeon for Friends Find out more. Biology Neuroscience Evolution. Get Aeon straight to your inbox. Aeon is not-for-profit and free for everyone.