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Fences, auditory and visual defences, guard dogs and even guard llamas can be used in order to deter wolves from attacking livestock. Wolves might even be able to help us in fixing some of the damage that we have inflicted on the earth, by restoring the ecological balance in areas where deer, unchecked in number by a lack of natural predators, have decimated the native plant life. Before that happens though, we need to put the Big Bad Wolf to bed.

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While the human-wolf war rages on, perhaps we should consider the possibility that the Big Bad Wolf does not exist, but the Big Bad Human is alive and well. A tunnel to the beginning of time: a lecture on particle physics and the large hadron collider — Egham, Surrey. Edition: Available editions United Kingdom. WWF also works with local communities to curb retaliatory kills by providing innovative solutions to mitigate human-snow leopard conflict. Learn more about snow leopards.

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  7. Washington, DC Search Search w. Business Policy Partnerships Science. WWF Toggle Nav v k. Where do snow leopards live? And nine other snow leopard facts. What do snow leopards look like? How many snow leopards are left in the wild? How big are snow leopard litters? Can snow leopards roar? What do snow leopards eat? What are the biggest threats to snow leopards? Why are snow leopards important? And with three daughters in need of dowry for their imminent marriages, he would toil for months, even years, before recovering financially.

    The loss had been a blow, yet leaning back in his plastic chair, clothed in a fresh white dhoti and T-shirt, Vishal seemed to take the damage in his stride. This would ease his struggle, Vishal said thoughtfully.

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    Vishal had done all that a villager could do, short of what the law forbids: defend his life and livelihood by killing a tiger. That a few hungry tigers—only 1, remain in India—can cause such prolific damage without being attacked in vendetta is astounding. While farmers in other parts of the world poison, shoot, and dynamite countless carnivores, Indians demonstrate a distinctive tolerance.

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    Although these rare incidences portray the violent reactions of a mere minority, they generate a reputation of retribution for livestock owners as a whole. My degree depended on it, for the American grant agency funding my expedition expected me to reduce human-carnivore conflict in an effort to protect tigers. Considering that adult cattle in Kanha are worth Rs. Yet, 10 months and dead livestock later, after a thousand hours of sweating in the jungle alongside livestock owners and forest guards, I finally realised that my search for the elusive tiger killers was futile.

    The secret to saving tigers could not be found in the few men in India who sought vengeance against them. The answer lay in the men who forgave the tigers. Extending five kilometres outwards from the national park in all directions stretches a patchwork of protected forests and villages where restrictions on tree cutting and agriculture buffer the park from degradation. This design supports a rich ecosystem with impressive wildlife such as the endangered tiger and swamp deer, which annually attract , tourists and nearly Rs.

    While the Forest Department channels most of this revenue into park programmes such as anti-poaching patrols, wildlife monitoring and habitat management, the agency also distributes 20 per cent to village communities to boost education, medical support and economic growth.

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    Of the Rs. They sell cow milk and goat meat, pull carts and plough fields with oxen, and trade animals to pay dowries or pay off debt. Livestock dung fuels cooking fires, insulates home walls and floors, and fertilizes vegetable gardens and rice fields. As a result, people often treat animals like members of the family, hand-feeding and washing young calves and sheltering animals on grass beds inside the main house.

    The result is carnage: big cats kill more than one animal every day throughout the park, totalling roughly livestock each year. Three out of every four families in Kanha have lost livestock to tigers or leopards.

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    Such strong reverence for nature, both its gifts and risks, is an intrinsic value of the Hindu and Islam faiths followed by the majority of people in central India. This deep-rooted respect is another reason why most people permit the loss of the occasional animal to their carnivorous neighbours without seeking revenge. But those who do—about 60 per cent of the families that lose livestock—receive rewarding returns: the Forest Department awarded compensation for 90 per cent of the livestock losses that I surveyed, and paid the amount within a month of the attack.

    For a family whose livelihood consists of its livestock, quick compensation may mean the difference between being able to feeding itself and killing a tiger. Since the park transitioned to a tiger reserve in , the Forest Department has moved 28 villages from the core, angering residents and inflaming activists in an ethical debate over conservation versus human rights.

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    The livestock compensation programme during this period suffered from poor funding and inefficiency, further instigating mistrust among villagers. In an attempt to preserve its threatened wildlife populations and ecotourism industry, the Madhya Pradesh State Forest Department restructured its livestock compensation programme to reimburse owners within a month of their loss.

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    Less than a decade later, renewed warmth is apparent between many forest guards and villagers, who now turn to the local guards for help on matters ranging from property disputes to marriage advice. Yet while quick compensation is easing livestock losses and saving tigers, the programme comes with ominous trade-offs, requiring villagers to sacrifice time, effort, and even physical safety. Three men paced in line before me through the dim bamboo jungle, my research assistant and a guard walking close behind me.

    We crept quietly along the narrow earthen footpath, our swinging arms softly brushing walls of vegetation, our ears straining to detect what our eyes could not. A branch cracked in the jungle ahead and crows cackled in response. My heart raced as we turned two blind corners, my mind struggling to rehearse how to fight off kilograms of charging tigress. When we reached the site where two cows lay dead from an attack early that morning, oozing entrails confirmed that the tigress had fed until moments before our arrival.

    With several men standing watch around us, the two livestock owners enacted their version of the attack using clues from the jungle: the tigress stalked in this bush see the pug marks , then sprang to the throat of this grazing cow see the hoof scuffs in the dirt and leapt to strangle the second see the hair tufts on the branches. With eyes scanning the bushes for a flash of orange, the men urged me to finish my survey so that the tigress could return to her meal and, satiated, allow them a few days of safe grazing.

    Besides the danger of stumbling onto a feeding tiger, livestock owners must take other risks in order to claim compensation for their livestock.

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    The odds of finding a livestock carcass in a dense jungle of impenetrable thorns and rugged terrain are poor at best. As I accompanied villagers on these pursuits, my thick boots plodding over the tracks of their flimsy flip-flops, I often found myself wondering in astonishment, how did these men find their animals in this dark jungle?

    Livestock was rarely killed near the village, and we often stumbled through several kilometres of treacherous terrain, tripping over veiled vines, dodging prickly palms, and wading through winding streams. We climbed a crumbling hillside mined with thistles to reach a pig from Attariya devoured by a leopard amidst scattered dog skulls.