In these years, Sherman was outspoken in his belief that Indian policy should be set by the army, and that the aim of Indian policy should be to place the various tribes on reservations and force them to stay there. He once declared that all Indians not on reservations "are hostile and will remain so until killed off. Sherman became general commander of the United States Army in , and in this position directed a series of campaigns that finally crushed Indian resistance across the plains.
He perceived clearly the devastating effectiveness of striking at the economic basis of the Plains Indians' lives, once commenting to General Philip Sheridan that "it would be wise to invite all the sportsmen of England and America With Sheridan as his field commander, Sherman moved first against the Kiowas and Comanches of the southern Plains, then against the Lakota and Cheyenne of the north. By the late s, these and the other once free-roaming warrior tribes of the plains had been forced onto reservations. Sherman retired from the army in and famously refused to become a candidate for president, saying "If nominated I will not run; if elected I will not serve.
Sherman stepped down as commanding general on November 1, , and retired from the army on February 8, He lived most of the rest of his life in New York City. He was devoted to the theater and to amateur painting and was much in demand as a colorful speaker at dinners and banquets, in which he indulged a fondness for quoting Shakespeare.
General Sherman Facts
Sherman was proposed as a Republican candidate for the presidential election of , but declined as emphatically as possible, saying, "I will not accept if nominated and will not serve if elected. In he joined the newly formed Boone and Crockett Club , a wildlife conservation organization founded by Theodore Roosevelt and George Bird Grinnell. President Benjamin Harrison sent a telegram to General Sherman's family and ordered all national flags to be flown at half mast.
Harrison, in a message to the Senate and the House of Representatives, wrote that:. He was an ideal soldier, and shared to the fullest the esprit du corps of the army, but he cherished the civil institutions organized under the Constitution, and was only a soldier that these might be perpetuated in undiminished usefulness and honor. Sherman's birth family was Presbyterian and he was originally baptized as such.
His foster family, including his future wife Ellen, were devout Catholics, and Sherman was re-baptized and later married in the Catholic rite.
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According to his son Thomas, who became a Catholic priest, Sherman attended the Catholic Church until the outbreak of the Civil War, but not thereafter. I am not and cannot be. On 19 February, a funeral service was held at his home, followed by a military procession.
General Joseph E. Johnston , the Confederate officer who had commanded the resistance to Sherman's troops in Georgia and the Carolinas, served as a pallbearer in New York City. It was a bitterly cold day and a friend of Johnston, fearing that the general might become ill, asked him to put on his hat. Johnston famously replied: "If I were in [Sherman's] place, and he were standing in mine, he would not put on his hat.
General Sherman's body was then transported to St.
Louis, where another service was conducted on 21 February at a local Catholic church. His son, Thomas Ewing Sherman , a Jesuit priest, presided over his father's funeral mass. Sherman is buried in Calvary Cemetery in St. In the years immediately after the war, Sherman's conservative politics was attractive to white Southerners.
By the s, however, Southern " Lost Cause " writers began to demonize Sherman for his attacks on civilians in the "March". The magazine Confederate Veteran , based in Nashville, gave Sherman more attention than anyone else, in part to enhance the visibility of the western theater. His devastation of railroads and plantations mattered less than the March's insult to southern dignity, especially its unprotected womanhood.
John F. Fuller, and especially Capt. Basil H. Liddell Hart, who built up Sherman's reputation by exaggerating his "atrocities" and filtering his actions through their ideas about modern warfare. By contrast Sherman was a popular hero in the North and well regarded by his soldiers. Military historians have paid special attention to his Atlanta campaign and the March to the Sea, generally giving him high marks as an innovative strategist and quick-witted tactician. Around , Sherman began to write a "private" recollection for his children about his life before the Civil War, identified now as his unpublished "Autobiography, —".
This manuscript is held by the Ohio Historical Society. Much of the material in it would eventually be incorporated in revised form in his memoirs. In , ten years after the end of the Civil War, Sherman became one of the first Civil War generals to publish a memoir. By Himself , published by D.
The memoirs were controversial, and sparked complaints from many quarters. In , after the publication of Grant's memoirs, Sherman produced a "second edition, revised and corrected" of his memoirs with Appleton. The new edition added a second preface, a chapter about his life up to , a chapter concerning the post-war period ending with his retirement from the army , several appendices, portraits, improved maps, and an index edition: Volume I , Volume II.
For the most part, Sherman refused to revise his original text on the ground that "I disclaim the character of historian, but assume to be a witness on the stand before the great tribunal of history" and "any witness who may disagree with me should publish his own version of [the] facts in the truthful narration of which he is interested.
Subsequently, Sherman shifted to the publishing house of Charles L. The new publishing house brought out a "third edition, revised and corrected" in This difficult-to-find edition was substantively identical to the second except for the probable omission of Sherman's short and prefaces. After Sherman died in , there were dueling new editions of his memoirs. His first publisher, Appleton, reissued the original edition with two new chapters about Sherman's later years added by the journalist W.
Meanwhile, Charles L. Blaine who was related to Sherman's wife. This was designated as a "second edition, revised and corrected". This edition contains Sherman's two prefaces, his text, and the materials added in the Blaine edition. Thus, this virtually invisible edition of Sherman's memoirs is actually the most comprehensive version. There are many modern editions of Sherman's memoirs. The edition most useful for research purposes is the Library of America version, edited by Charles Royster.
Works of William Tecumseh Sherman
It contains the entire text of Sherman's edition, together with annotations, a note on the text, and a detailed chronology of Sherman's life. Missing from this edition is the useful biographical material contained in the Johnson and Blaine editions. Many of Sherman's official war-time letters and other items appear in the Official Records of the War of the Rebellion. Some of these letters are rather personal in nature, rather than relating directly to operational activities of the army.
There also are at least five published collections of Sherman correspondence:. Doctorow 's novel The March. Sherman is one of the few generals to have appeared on several different US postage stamp issues. The first stamp issue to honor him was released on March 21, , a little more than two years after his death. The engraving was modeled after a photograph taken by Napoleon Sarony in The Post Office released a second and third Sherman issue of , both almost identical to the first issue, with slight changes in the framework design and color.
Sherman appeared again in the US Army issue of , a commemorative postage stamp jointly honoring Generals Sherman, Grant and Sheridan. The last stamp issue to honor Sherman was released in and was a cent stamp. With five different issues to his name, Sherman has featured more prominently in US postage than most US presidents.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. US Army general, businessman, educator, and author. For other uses, see General Sherman disambiguation. Main article: Sherman's March to the Sea. Main article: Carolinas Campaign. See also: Sherman's March to the Sea. American Civil War portal. Knopf, , For a very critical study of Sherman, see John B.
William Tecumseh Sherman - Biography, Civil War & Accomplishments - HISTORY
Simpson and Jean V. Sherman Chapel Hill: Univ. James T. For details about Sherman's banking career, see Dwight L. The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 6, Retrieved February 5, Sherman and Prof. David F. Boyd, December 24, F , mss. Fleming, Nashville, Tenn.
Sherman: Fighting Prophet. U of Nebraska Press. Retrieved Archived from the original on Sherman to Gov. Thomas O. Moore, January 18, Quoted in Sherman, Memoirs , p. Bowman and Richard B. He promised me this with promptness, making the jocular remark that his chief trouble was to find places for the too many generals who wanted to be at the head of affairs, to command armies, etc.
McClellan, November 4, , in Stephen W. Sears, ed. Stanton objected, telling Lincoln that any "expedition Kennett, pp. Grant n; see Smith, pp. Sherman's operations were supposed to be coordinated with an advance on Vicksburg by Grant from another direction. Unbeknownst to Sherman, Grant abandoned his advance. It should be noted, however, that Sherman had targeted Arkansas Post independently and considered the operation there worthwhile. See Marszalek, pp. Smith, pp. The nomination was not submitted to the Senate until December.
Eicher, p. Sherman to Gen. Grant, October 9, , reproduced in Sherman's Civil War , p. Grant, November 1, , reproduced in Sherman's Civil War , pp. Sherman, January 1, , quoted in Grimsley, p. Sherman, Memoirs , p. Sherman," in Steven E. Woodworth, ed. Cox, Military Reminiscences of the Civil War , vol. Cox, The March to the Sea , p. This meeting was memorialized in G. Chase, January 11, ". In Simpson, Brooks D. Sherman's Civil War. University of North Carolina Press. Liddell Hart Sherman to John Sherman, August ".
Sherman: Soldier, Realist, American. New York: Dodd, Mead and Co. II, p. See also McPherson, pp. XXII, p. Quoted in Wilson, p. William T. This letter was to James E. Yeatman, May 21, , and is excerpted more extensively and with slight variations in Bowman and Irwin, pp. Grant, Vol. New York: W. Grant In War and Peace , p. Shapiro and Joseph Epstein, eds. Kirkendall, ed. At the time of Sherman's death, his son Thomas, a Jesuit, reportedly said: "My father was baptized in the Catholic Church, married in the Catholic Church, and attended the Catholic Church until the outbreak of the civil war.
Since that time he has not been a communicant of any church. Fletcher, Life and Reminiscences of General Wm. Woodward Co. James G. Blaine," North American Review , no. Goode's The Ellipse area". In , Henry V. Boynton published a critical book-length review of Sherman's memoirs "based upon compilations from the records of the war office". This led to the publication of a defense of Sherman by C. In one amusing change to his text, Sherman dropped the assertion that John Sutter , of gold-rush fame, had become "very 'tight'" at a Fourth of July celebration in and stated instead that Sutter "was enthusiastic".
Sherman, Memoirs Library of America ed.
Brands, The Age of Gold Doubleday, , p. Athearn, Robert G. Bonds, Russell S. Bowman, Samuel M. Brockett, L. Richardson, Clarke, Dwight L. Daniel, Larry J. Detzler, Jack J. Eicher, John H. Hanson, Victor D. Hirshson, Stanley P. Isenberg, Andrew C. Fletcher Johnson, Life of Wm.
Tecumseh Sherman, Late General, U. Liddell Hart, B. Marszalek, John F. McPherson, James M. Moody, Wesley. O'Connell, Robert L. Schenker, Carl R. Sherman,— , eds. Brooks D. Simpson and J. Sherman , William Tecumseh Personal memoirs of Gen. Sherman, Vol I. Sherman, Vol II. II , p. Warner, Ezra J.
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Reprinted by W. Woodward, C. Woodworth, Steven E. Knopf, George H. Thomas played a significant role in shaping the war beyond the Appalachian Mountains. Kennesaw Mountain. Fearing envelopment northwest of Atlanta, Bull Run. On July 16, , the new Union volunteer army The Battle of Bentonville. Historian and author Mark Moore describes the Battle of Bentonville which was fought between March , This page details the Battle of Chattanooga fought from November 23 to 25, This crucial Union victory opened up the Deep South for a Union invasion.
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