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While athletes are judged by their statistical production, that production is often, and perhaps inevitably, distorted by the image that the player constructs and maintains. He won the award over LeBron James, whose team lost the finals, but who averaged Amongst all these statistics, however, the most important remains wins. And to earn those, a team needs numbers—points, goals, assists, rebounds, etc. These, in turn, may be attributed to advanced stats like the aforementioned net rating and true shooting. Much of this is common knowledge, yet it is often overlooked by fans who are, for various reasons, biased against certain players—case in point, the support for the decision to pick Iguodala over James.

Their situations stand in opposition to a player like Alvaro Morata, who was traded out of Real Madrid to Juventus though eventually brought back and is now one of the most consistent strikers in European football, but does not yet have the same high-profile image as the footballers listed above. Other strikers like Alvaro Negredo or Roberto Soldado, both Spanish internationals, were traded from Real Madrid before even getting a chance at the team in order for the club to bring in bigger names.

Real Madrid is notorious for buying superstars and selling its youth academy graduates almost annually, as thirty-four of the players developed in La Fabrica play in top five European football leagues. Real Madrid has the third best football academy in the world, yet it prefers to rely on well-known players bought from other teams Shergold.

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Exhibiting the same approach, teams like Manchester City, Manchester United, or Bayern Munich, introduce young players, but still buy stars in order to maintain the interest of the casual fan. It is the economy that dictates the rules of the market, not the other way around. The sports market requires the most recognizable teams to buy the most recognizable players in order to uphold their special position among fans.

This keeps up interest in the teams. Only recently has the Spanish Primera Division managed to introduce pay equality concerning TV rights—whereas, before, every club was supposed to sell its own rights, broadening the already immense gap between Real Madrid, FC Barcelona, and the rest of the league McMahon. What I mean by artificial here is that the league is in no way connected to the official league system of India—there is no relegation, and the team that wins the league is not allowed to represent India in international competitions.

Instead of contributing to the development of the Hero I League, the creators decided to fashion an entirely new product. In the second season of the ISL, almost all marquee players lacked fitness — Roberto Carlos appeared in three games, Marchena in just one, and Nicolas Anelka in six, but he failed to score a single goal. Without such big names, it is doubtful that the league would have generated any type of interest outside of Asia. Surprisingly, the league actually benefited from the insignificant on-field impact of its marquee players, and the second season turned out to be even more interesting than the first Sharma.

That the sponsors decided to create a new league in a country criticized for its social inequality explains the overwhelming influence of the spectacle both as a predominant worldview and as a tool of modern capitalism.

Defining Sport

ISL players who signed marquee deals were, consciously or not, contributing to the increasing gap between the richest and the poorest in the country. Of course, they were not doing anything different throughout their careers—getting compensated for presenting their extraordinary talents. The sports economy allows players to sign large deals, and given the opportunity, they usually do. They take advantage of the aforementioned reliance on individuals and image in team sports.

In the s, NBA commissioner David Stern decided that the league should market stars rather than teams. Because of him, owners, general managers, and coaches across the league believed that the best scorer can actually lead his team to championships, something that has happened only once since the end of the Michael Jordan-era onwards. His athleticism and scoring ability lured fans into arenas, as they flocked to see arguably the best basketball player in history perform magnificent feats.

Jordan used commercials to simulate a closer relationship to his fans. In other words, his appearance was what mattered most. In this way, Jordan helped to reinforce the spectacular nature of modern sports, in which the end result is just an element of the show that can be overshadowed by an exceptional individual performance or even a single play. He inspired a whole generation of basketball players like Tracy McGrady and Allen Iverson—great scorers, who never managed to win a championship.

Just like Jordan, who famously refrained from controversies during his career, Beckham and his wife, Victoria, are largely known for presenting themselves as a regular family, spending time at home with their children. This, combined with their good looks, makes them successful at marketing various products. Their everyday life is subordinate to and dependent upon the spectacle.

For example, one of the first decisions Steve McClaren made after becoming the manager of the English national team was to drop Beckham from the squad, even though he was only thirty-one years old and the team captain. After having scored just two goals in six matches in his absence, it became obvious that the team needed him.

McClaren called Beckham back and the midfielder proved his worth, leading the team to four wins in six games and qualification for EURO When at Manchester United, Beckham scored 85 goals and had assists in games. In Primera Division, he racked up 33 assists in games. During his career he assisted on one goal per three matches, which confirms he was a very reliable passer. His skills were, therefore, confirmed by stats—something that most Beckham fans were not primarily concerned about.

Still, it must be argued that without his signature good looks and celebrity he would not be as famous or be considered as great as he is today.

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In this sense, Beckham and Jordan demonstrate that modern day sports stardom is as much the result of skill as of other attributes. It is due to their skills that athletes become part of the spectacle. And, once they reach that point, their images are often enough to keep them in the spotlight for the rest of their careers. It designates those no longer interested in watching or able to dedicate their time to whole games, but rather only to the highlights. This trend, continuing from onwards, is another element of the spectacle. The highlights present the most exciting plays by the most exciting players; hence, they manipulate the images of sports stars to the point that their play seems almost flawless.

A single play is supposed to illustrate the impact he or she had on that particular game. Because this effect can be easily fabricated through montage, the individuals most aligned with the principles of the spectacle are often foregrounded. Hence, teams from smaller markets, who do not share the same name recognition as those from bigger cities, do not generate as much revenue because they are not as present in the media [2].

They can appear in commercials, mixes, and montages prepared by the league in order to promote itself. Although it is the product of an individual player, or of a small group of players, the highlight comes to represent the entire league, and becomes in a way its property. Thus, it is assimilated into the sports spectacle.

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Debord originally refers to workers who are separated from their work once it is over, but the quote can also be attributed to players, whose exceptional plays are products of individual genius. These highlights exist without context and with the sole purpose of impressing fans—old ones by reminding them about a particular image and new ones by urging them to follow games or rather more highlights in order to create their own memories—a cycle that reinforces the philosophy of the spectacle.

Serving a whole range of functions, from nostalgia to excitement, highlights become independent of their true origins: the players themselves. Only then does a particular play get its proper context and meaning. Only then does it become significant from a competitive standpoint. Goals or points are the most important statistics in sports. And, while some may dispute their privileged position, teams inarguably win by margins measured in these terms, underlying the relevance of scorers in sports.

Players such as Tim Duncan rarely made spectacular plays, but their statistics proved their true value to their teams. It must be added, however, that his importance to the San Antonio Spurs, in the form of coachability, unselfishness, and willingness to take pay cuts in order for the team to stay competitive cannot be reduced to numbers. Simultaneously, opting for substance and consistency over style, Duncan was a player that teammates and fans could rely on. LAN parties are often held in large-scale events conducted in public spaces and have a great number of participants who might not usually socialise.

The Everquest Fan Faires for instance, provide weekends of socializing and playing, at a large gathering an event of several thousands of dedicated game fans. Shapiro also stresses the possibility of "Using technology to enhance one's social life", [9] as friendships no longer have to be structured by physical proximity e.

Shapiro states that "the net Online Gaming Communities gives individuals the opportunity to extend their social network in a novel way, to communicate and share life experiences with people regardless of where they live and form online relationships". Online gaming has drastically increased the scope and size of gaming culture. Online gaming grew out of games on bulletin board systems and on college mainframes from the s and s.

MUDs offered multiplayer competition and cooperation but on a scope more geographically limited than on the internet. With the advent of Cloud Gaming high-performance games can now be played from low-end client systems and even TVs. One of the most groundbreaking titles in the history of online gaming is Quake , which offered the ability to play with sixteen, and eventually up to thirty-two players simultaneously in a 3D world. Gamers quickly began to establish their own organized groups, called clans. Clans established their own identities, their own marketing, their own form of internal organization, and even their own looks.

Some clans had friendly or hostile rivalries, and there were often clans who were allied with other clans. Clan interaction took place on both professionally set competition events, and during normal casual playing where several members of one clan would play on a public server. Clans would often do their recruiting this way; by noticing the best players on a particular server, they would send invitations for that player to either try out or accept membership in the clan.

Gamers of all ages play online games, with the average age being 31 years old. Many clans and guilds also have active fan-bases, which, when combined with the 'tournament' aspect, contribute in turning clan-based gaming into a semi-professional sport. Clans also allow players to assist each other in simulated combat and quests in game advancement, as well as providing an online family for friendly socialising.

From Quake, gaming grew beyond first-person shooters and has impacted every genre. Real-time strategy , racing games , card games , sports games can all be played online. Online gaming has spread from its initial computer roots to console gaming as well. Today, every major video game console available offers degrees of online gaming, some limited by particular titles, some even offer up entire virtual communities. As in other cultures, the community has developed a gamut of slang words or phrases that can be used for communication in or outside of games.

Due to their growing online nature, modern video game slang overlaps heavily with internet slang , as well as Leetspeak , with many words such "pwn", as well as "noob", being direct carry-overs from Leetspeak. There are terms to describe gaming events, games genres, gamer demographics, strategies, specific events, situations, and more. It is especially common among online games to encourage the use of neologisms for convenience in communication. While most games have specific terms that the dedicated player bases use, some of the most prevalent phrases across all communities include abbreviations such as "lol," meaning "laughing out loud" as well as "noob," which is a derogatory term for a new or unskillful player.

Another popular term that stemmed from the gaming community is the abbreviation "AFK," meaning "away from keyboard," to refer to people who are not at the computer or paying attention. Another common abbreviations include "GL HF," which stands for "good luck, have fun," which is often said at the beginning of a match to show good sportmanship.

Likewise, at the end of a game, "GG" or "GG WP" may be said to congratulate the opponent, win or loss, on a "good game, well played. While much of gaming lingo uses abbreviations for convenience, a lot of jargon is used for cyberbullying. In cases of online games with text or voice chat channels, it is not uncommon for players to blame or insult one another using such jargon. Some additional examples of slang and terminology include "rekt" slang for 'wrecked' is often used to point out the obvious when a player or entity is destroyed.

Less commonly, "own", "ownage", "owned" or "pwned" is used in a similar fashion. The shift from console-based or "shrink-wrap" gaming to online games [12] has allowed online games and massively-multiplayer online gaming today to develop highly advanced and comprehensive communication networks. With the freedom of the Internet's architecture, users can become producers of the technology and shapers of the growing networks. Gamers can often develop sub communities in game clans and may use third party VOIP programs to communicate while playing games such as Skype , Ventrillo , Teamspeak or Discord.

These gaming communities may have nothing in common, or instead designed for dedicated, skilled players, or even clans made for those with shared commonalities such as personality, ethnicity, heritage, language or gender. Another key component of many gaming networks is the connection between the player base and the game developers. Many game developers have outlets either through official website forums or social media where gamers can communicate with and provide feedback to the game developers. Some of the most advanced networks take place with massively-multiplayer online gaming where servers of tens of thousands can be present simultaneously in the same instance or environment.

In major titles such as World of Warcraft and Dota 2 , the player base is in the millions. With so many people, many of these communities may develop virtual economies that may use a barter system or currency system. In some games, the interest in the virtual economies may be so great players will spend real money through auction sites like eBay for virtual property and items, commonly known as RMT Real Market Trading. Some game developers may ban RMT in their games, especially when it interferes with the equity of the game.

That being said, other game developers embrace it with one game, Second Life, with its entire focus on the usage of real-life currency for everything in the game world. Since smartphones became commonplace around , mobile gaming has seen rapid increases in popularity. Because games such as Clash of Clans offer in-game bonuses for referring new players to the game, mobile gamers have turned to social media sites to recruit their friends and family. Some games even offer integrated social media support to provide players with in-game chat or "friends" features for communicating and competing with other players.

Popular gaming publications, like Ars Technica and TouchArcade are even beginning to give significant coverage to mobile games. There has been much debate among media theorists as to whether video gaming is an inherently social or anti-social activity. Terry Flew argues that digital games are "increasingly social, a trend that works against the mainstream media's portrayal of players as isolated, usually adolescent boys hidden away in darkened bedrooms, failing to engage with the social world".

David Marshall argues against the rich source of "effects" based research, finding that games are "deliberating and anti-social forms of behaviour". Exemplifying ' The Sims Online ', he states "has built up entire political and social structures in given communities' that provide an elaborate game life for participants". The games are not only massive; they are also "intimate and social".

He states that the game relied upon an "unprecedented level of corroboration and collective intelligence to solve the game". Hans Geser further rejects the mainstream media view that video gaming is an anti-social activity, asserting "there is considerable empirical evidence that Second Life serves mainly to widen the life experience of individuals who have already a rich 'First Life', not as a compensating device for marginal loners.

The fantasy sport industry : games within games

Bray and Konsynski also argue the ability of the technology "to enrich their lives", as most Millennials report: "No difference between friendships developed in the real world vs. The advent of video games gave an innovative media technology, that allowed consumers to archive, annotate, appropriate and recirculate media content.

The community aspect to videogaming has also had implications for the social interactions and collective behaviours of consumers involved in the activity. Contemporary investigations have found that there is a prevailing social framework in place during gatherings of gaming enthusiasts or 'gamers'.

The commensal consumption of energy dense low nutrient foods is considered to be appropriated during long stretches of gameplay to contribute to the community and hedonistic aspects of social gaming. The presence of rituals, shared discourse, collective action and even a liminal food culture among gaming communities gives credence to the concept of these cohorts existing as self defining sub-units within mainstream culture. However, due to the ephemeral and transient nature of their rituals, and also the possibility of virtual interaction through online participation, these cohorts should be considered 'postmodern subcultures'.

Gaming communities have social elements beyond physical interaction and have come to a stage where online and offline spaces can be seen as 'merged' rather than separate. Terry Flew p. He notes that ' This is what he calls "identity tourism", a form of hopping from one person to another, for which there usually is a stereotypical discourse associated with the protagonist. Ownership of video game entities is a major issue in video game culture. Violent content in video game are often a source of criticism, which according to Terry Flew is related to the subject of ' moral panic '.

He says that the assumption behind such research, cause-effect behaviorist models of communication, is a flawed one. Several studies show a correlation between violent content conveyed through media including videogames and violent or aggressive behavior, while others Vastag consider that the evidence for such conclusions is thin and highly contestable.

Fox News reported that Montreal shooting case in Canada was carried out by the criminal Kimveer Gill, [26] who is a player of Super Columbine Massacre , whose narrative attaches with strong violence sense. On the other hand, some people who hold social determinism theory assert technology is neutral, [27] but it is the way that humans manipulate technology which brings about its social impact.

In conjunction with the changing demographics of video game creators and players, issues related to women and video games , including sexism in video gaming and gender representation in video games , have received increased attention by academia, the media, the games industry and by gamers themselves.

The Gamergate controversy of , which involves issues of sexism, misogyny, and journalistic ethics , is an example of this. He further argues that this lack of representation of alternate identities in video games has caused gamers who divert from the dominant demographic are often relegated to the margins of the culture. This process is thus seen perpetuates the stereotypical image of the geeky, heterosexual male gamer as the ruler of the gaming world.

Contrarily to popular belief, there are a multitude of communities within video game culture that do not fulfill the typical gamer stereotype. The problem is that they lack visibility. One reason for this is that many people do not want to reveal their association with gaming culture out of fear of stigmatization. Past research has shown this to be the case for the female gamer. Because women in gaming are often ostracized by their male gamer counterparts, the female gamer are frequently forced to conceal their genders, only participating in gaming when they have the ability to remain anonymous.

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Second, DCA was selected over other types of qualitative content analyses e. The use of DCA also had implications for the development of thematic codes, and the coding process, which are addressed in the following section. In summary, the use of DCA not only made sense given the nature of the media being analyzed, but crucially it made more sense than using a quantitative coding process that would only provide frequency of advertisement components.

Those results would be less instructive, and thus provide little to the study of advertised incentives for DFS consumers. Per Potter and Levine-Donnerstein , the a priori framing of the research context enabled us to identify some key concepts and variables that were used as coding categories. Operational definitions were assigned to each code to ensure a common understanding between coders.

First, the authors watched the commercials independently, making notes about the audiovisual content of each.

After this initial round of analysis, the authors met to discuss their observations and establish level of agreement. Following the initial round of discussion, the authors also addressed additional themes that had arisen from their analyses. In each instance, an operational definition was developed for the prospective code, and this was compared to existing codes to avoid dupliciation. The authors then watched the commercials independently again, before meeting to discuss their observations and analyses in light of the new coding categories.

A list of thematic codes and operational definitions is provided in Appendix A. These themes were present across commercials in Samples A and B; however, some were emphasized considerably more heavily and often than others in the communication of benefits to consumers. The results are presented and discussed in three main sections: Sample A, Sample B, and a comparison between Samples A and B; each of which contains subheadings under which specific themes are discussed.

In doing so, we are able to clearly demarcate the communication of product benefits between the two time periods, and thus, provide insight into the consumer motives that DFS providers were attempting to tap. Finally, we discuss the implications of these results for various stakeholder groups; namely, DFS providers, consumers, and the state of the industry going forward.

Through our analysis of commercials in Sample A, we identified two salient themes which pertained to the promotion of financial incentives and the potential for anyone to win DFS contests irrespective of their skill or experience. These themes are discussed in detail below. Promotion of financial incentives. The commercials for both DFS providers in Sample A overwhelmingly promoted the financial incentives for participation, with cash prizes featured in 12 of the 14 DraftKings adverts, and all of those by FanDuel.

While the intention was not to conduct a quantitative analysis, this basic note on the prevalence of financial incentives speaks to the strategies employed by DFS companies in their advertising. Moreover, it is the combination of this prevalence with the nature of the promotion of financial incentives that is most interesting. The money is real. These examples place emphasis on financial incentives as the benefits of participation; yet, while we could reasonably infer a link to a corresponding consumer motive, it is not explicit.

As noted, the FSTA claims that fantasy participants have different e. Another key argument against classification of DFS as gambling has been its proposed classification alongside season-long fantasy sports contests FSTA b. This appears to be predicated upon two key assumptions: i that those classifications are mutually exclusive; and ii that DFS and season-long fantasy sports are fundamentally similar. While the first assumption has been discussed elsewhere at length by other authors see e. Edelman , the second assumption is questionable in light of promotional language used within the commercials.

The frequency of cash contests was another point of emphasis in a majority of commercials, with payout information e. Anyone can win. Fantasy sports leagues are games of skill. Managers must take into account a myriad of statistics, facts and game theory in order to be competitive. There are thousands of websites, magazines and other such publications that seek to synthesize the vast amounts of available fantasy sports information to keep their readers informed and competitive.

A manager must know more than simple depth charts and statistics to win; they also must to take into account injuries, coaching styles, weather patterns, prospects, home and away statistics, and many other pieces of information in order to be a successful fantasy sports manager FTSA, b. Social interaction. The first salient theme identified was that of social interaction, primarily between DFS consumers and their friends. In this vein, the social interactions depicted within the commercials in Sample B were strongly inflected with elements of competition, as opposed to camaraderie.

As such, we viewed the social interaction theme as distinct from the intrinsic competition theme, which pertained to challenging oneself through participation in DFS. A further example was provided in DK16, where a group of male friends were depicted watching a game together in what appeared to be one of their homes. This primarily manifested as enjoyment derived from playing in DFS contests, and was also demarcated from intrinsic competition, which was seen as being more dependent upon winning than participation.

For example, in FD15, an actor explains why he is not subject to issues that might affect his enjoyment of season-long fantasy sports contests e. Frequency of contests. One theme that was present in Sample A commercials, but was eminently more salient in those within Sample B was highlighting the frequency of DFS contests. This was particularly true of the FanDuel commercials FD15, FD16, and FD17 , all of which emphasized the fact that contests were available with great regularity. Although the frequency of DraftKings contests was less pronounced in Sample B than those of FanDuel, this information was present nonetheless.

The key difference between the two DFS providers, in this regard, was that messages related to the frequency of contests were delivered by the focal actors in FanDuel commercials, while DraftKings gave this information through a narrated summary occurring after the main body of the commercial. In addition, we discuss the changing advertising strategies of both providers, and their implications. This is no accident, and is likely a response to the scrutiny brought upon DraftKings and FanDuel after their aggressive television advertising campaigns in the build-up to the NFL season.

The new advertising campaigns in Sample B represented what appears to be a deliberate and concerted effort to emphasize the social aspects of DFS contests and place less emphasis on the financial incentive, as providers look to become more profitable while contending with legal fees and lobbying costs Berzon Indeed, both will still have to convince a number of state legislatures and individual lawmakers that their products are distinct from prohibited forms of gambling see Rodenberg The shift in messaging of the DFS companies as well as the adoption of consumer protection protocols should be viewed as a positive step from the industry.

The regulation of gambling by individual states in the US has led to a somewhat problematic situation whereby the DFS companies have asserted that because they are not within a definition of gambling in some states they are not a form of gambling more broadly.

However, from a consumer protection and public health perspective it may be most effective to classify products based on the characteristics consumers exhibited, instead of assessing a contest based on the amount of skill contained therein and antiquated legal definitions. The gambling instinct test is subjective; it is concerned with neither skill nor chance, and has been used historically in the classification of pinball machines as gambling devices Cabot et al. Cabot et al. For instance, it may be beneficial if activities that result in negative externalities, such as those associated with problem gambling, are required to provide resources to customers without regard for the nuanced legal arguments the companies have made.

Indeed, the two primary DFS companies have begun to implement some of the checks and balances that other gambling industry companies offer e. The shift in not only content, but also in advertising spending between and is important because it demonstrated a shift away from motives associated with gambling to a message more associated with entertainment. But despite the shift in message, individuals are still reportedly exhibiting gambling-like problems, which raises the question of, how meaningful the legal definitions are if they fail to protect consumers?

The aforementioned rebranding efforts and the differing content year-over-year in the television commercials suggest that the companies are not immune to change, though numerous regulatory challenges remain. With small steps utilized by other gambling providers in Europe, Asia, and in US states that allow online gambling, DFS operators could provide greater protections to their consumers.

The absence of the deterrence effect of being perceived as illegal, may exacerbate the number of users who experience problems with DFS in comparison to illegal sports betting, because the activity is perceived as less risky because of its purported legality; the concept of increased access leading to increased incidence of problematic behavior has been documented in the context of other forms of online gambling Griffiths There remain additional obstacles for the companies to overcome moving forward, including addressing potential consumer lawsuits derived from the advertised incentives from the campaigns, the content of which has already been the subject of a settlement with the New York Attorney General Purdum DFS has reframed the American conversation around both fantasy sports and sports gambling using a strategy of rapid and repeated immersion, where consumers were bombarded with television and radio advertising at nearly every commercial break.

The advertising was effective in that both major companies saw their valuations increase exponentially in the first few weeks of the NFL season; however, with the increase in revenue came an increase in scrutiny. The advertising campaign that in the NFL season involved a softened tone in both volume, and also in content as the focus of advertising shifted from the opportunity to win large amounts of money easily and frequently to increased emphasis on the social aspects of the contests. The emergence of DFS has highlighted some of the shortcomings associated with applying different gambling definitions in different jurisdictions within the same country.

The sample of commercials showed that both DraftKings and FanDuel shifted the focus of the content of their messages so that the commercials followed more closely the motives for participating in fantasy sports that were articulated by the FSTA b as distinguishing fantasy sports from sports gambling.

The major DFS companies also implemented consumer protection protocols common in regulated gambling industries such as self-exclusion protocols. Despite the apparent incompatibility between the sample, the implementation of gambling related consumer protection measures and the application for gambling licenses in foreign jurisdictions and maintaining that their products are distinct for other forms of prohibited gambling, some consumers are displaying some of the negative externalities associated with other gambling products. This effect coupled with the advertising content may suggest that it would be beneficial from a public policy perspective to classify gambling activities based on the behaviours exhibited by consumers and on messages conveyed as opposed to subjective definitions of skill and luck.

By virtue of a statute only the state of Nevada is able to offer full-scale sportsbook-style sports betting. Sports betting is excluded from the definition of game of chance under the UK model. For a detailed comparative discussion, see Hsieh and Shannon Ballard, C Fantasy World. These three play. Your neighbor plays. Your boss plays. Everybody plays. Berzon, A Fantasy-sports sites curtail ad spending. Best, N Glut of fantasy sports site ads an annoying reality. Blain, G Bogdanich, W and Williams, J For addicts, fantasy sites can lead to ruinous path.

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Breslow, J M The Nevada Law Journal 4: — Drake Law Review — Caskey, R J The George Washington University. Motivation and Gambling Involvement. Dardashtian, A Di Fino, N DraftKings Drape, J and Williams, J Dwyer, B and Kim, Y Sport Marketing Quarterly 20 3 : — Edelman, M University of Illinois Law Review 1: — Ehrman, N J