His commentary is augmented by seventeen consecutive pages of comic strips and other caricatures shown in black-and-white, and by five other full-page and four smaller black-and-white illustrations. I was particularly attracted to Ma's eighth and last chapter, "Kazuo Ishiguro's Persistent Dream for Postethnicity: Performance in Whiteface" pages Ishiguro is not an Asian American. He is British by way of migrating to the United Kingdom with his parents when a boy, and later naturalizing. Ma, of course, knows this. Why, then, wrap his thesis that "Asian American" identity has embraced "orientalism" with a look at a British writer he claims to be of "Anglo-Japanese" ethnicity?
Ma has argued that "Asian Americans" will never be "Americans" because they themselves are embracing "ethnicity" rather than "postethnicity" as a way to defend themselves against orientalism. Ishiguro, Ma correctly claims, broke into writing on the strength of two "Japanese" novels -- A Pale View of Hills and An Artist of the Floating World -- contrived to go along with his Japanese name at a time when "ethnic" fiction was very marketable. This is precisely what "Asian American" writers continue to do -- whether one is a Maxine Hong Kingston who Frank Chin calls "fake" or a Frank Chin who thinks himself "authentic".
Ma views Remains of the Day and The Unconsoled as efforts on Ishiguro's part to escape the "ethnicity" imposed on him by his birth and upbringing and name. But Ma believes such efforts transcend his "Anglo-Japanese" self are merely a "Subversive Whiteface Reacting against Orientalism" and a "Reactionary Whiteface Subsuming Differences" -- as Ma states in the chapter's only two subtitles. This is how Ma summarizes what he considers Ishiguro's failure achieve a white orbit around the pull of his ethnicity -- my expression for what Ma would call "passing" pages Ishiguro's shift to English characters and postethnicity may suggest problematics much more troubling than a minority's reaction against identity politics by pigeonholing him as nothing but an Anglo-Japanese.
Ethnic writers can conceivably imagine ways to become more, not less, ethnic. Why does ethnicity have to make way for postethnicity, an illegitimate heir that is probably one's own, yet alarmingly white? Why should the ethnic community accept one writer's flirtations with postethnicity, perhaps a code word for "whiteness"?
The novelist inhabiting that hyphen has emerged in many roles, but rarely as an Asian minority living in the West, or, to put in unabashedly essentialist terms, in a subject position similar to his own. Ishiguro's dream of postethnicity turns out to be a veiling and an intensification of his minority complex. What, I would ask, is freedom for a writer -- if not to be able to choose what and who to write about? Ishiguro only began to write truly well and authentically when he realized he was British and not Japanese.
Ishiguro, for his part, has diplomatically reminded every racialist interviewer who has found it amazing that a "Japanese" should be able to write a work of English fiction like Remains of the Day -- that he is British. Ma says that Remains of the Day "appears almost Conradian in its being more English than the English" page Ma himself cannot accept that Ishiguro might very well be English.
He insists on treating Ishiguro like a piece of fruit: If doesn't look an apple, he shouldn't be trying to taste like one. It is people like Ma who, in judging Ishiguro by his birth and name, create the racialist climate in which not a few writers feel the pressure to "perform" an "ethnicity" that is not really theirs. The novel, set mostly in Shanghai, is about a famous London detective who returns to Shanghai, where he was born, only to find himself caught up in the Sino-Japanese War and his own memories.
Why should anyone read any novel, except as an interesting or not so interesting story? Why should browsers pick up a novel by someone named "Kazuo Ishiguro" -- and return it to the shelf, disappointed because it lacks "Anglo-Japanese ethnicity"? In this work, too, he contends that "Asian Americans" who attempt to empower themselves by practicing an "ethnicity" that defines itself in opposition to orientalism are never able to liberate themselves from is power.
It seems to me that Ishiguro is far more liberated than the likes of any North American or British writer today who happens to be, by sheer accident, of racially "Asian" descent. For more examples of the sort of racialism that hounds Ishiguro as an "Anglo-Japanese" writer, see my Yosha Research article on Kazuo Ishiguro.
Edward W. Orientalism was published in the deconstructionist soil of Third World Studies, which had spread on campuses throughout the United States in the s, after the radicalization of academia that had started flared during the s. The purpose of introducing it here is to qualify its usefulness as an approach to Steamy East fiction.
Two points need to be made: 1 Said's "Orient" does not extend east of the "Middle East", hence don't expect to find very much about China or Japan, and not a lot more about India; and 2 his assumptions about the human condition are much too political and ideological to facilitate a truly dynamic both critical and sympathetic understanding of Steamy East fiction. John M. Though "yellow peril" plots can be found in some Steamy East fiction, the fear some white people have at times expressed about being someday dominated by yellow people is not, in fact, a very likely theme.
If anything, Steamy East fiction is anti-yellow peril in that most writers are apprehensive about evil, not race. It just so happens that, if someone writes a thriller from the perspective the United States and an American good guy, about a fictional enemy in China, say, the good guy is likely to be white, and the bad guy is likely to be yellow.
But the bad guy is typically bad because he is evil, not because he is yellow. He is a despot or psychopath or communist or some combination, who has fanatical, personal, or ideological reasons to want to set off a nuclear bomb in the middle of Manhattan, whatever. But the same sense of "peril" can be found in most fiction that draws a line between friend and foe. The foe is rarely an entire nation or race or religion or whatever, but an evil leader or clan or government or the like.
So "peril" exists whenever there are chronic or acute fears of domination or destruction by an individual or collective embodiment of evil, as we shall see in the varieties of peril found in Steamy East and related fiction. Fear usually stems from real or imagined threats of domination by another people by any means -- from religious, ideological, cultural, economic, or demographic influence, intrusion, or invasion -- or through direct military invasion, conquest, and occupation.
The fear is easily racialized as friction and other forms of conflict between two states increase the potential for war. And once war comes, neighbors of the same nationality can suddenly become racialized enemies -- as happened in the case of westcoat Americans of Japanese ancestry. The internment of Japanese Americans was not motivated by "yellow peril" so much as by war instilled fears of the "Jap enemy". Chinese immigrants and their American descendants, once racialized as threats to white domination in parts of California, had to be differentiated from Japanese immigrants and their American descendants, since China was an ally against Japan.
Since the Japanese enemy was racialized, however, the perception of the "Jap enemy" was expanded to include Americans who just happened to be "Japs". Of course, such racism did not just pop out of thin air. It exploded out of a fertile soil of racialism that included "yellow peril" sentiments. Pearl Harbor simply reduced the civil barriers that had, until then, kept most racialist paranoia in check. Still popular in Japan today is the argument that Japan's intentions in China and the rest of Asia and the Pacific were partly motivated by a desire to drive the "white peril" out of Greater East Asia if not all of the Eurasian hemisphere including the west Pacific.
This argument cannot be simply dismissed as Yamatoist conceipt. The great irony of Japan's adventures in Asia and the Pacific is that Yamato supremicism replaced the white peril with the Yamato peril. The Yamato peril swept China and steeled Chinese resistance to Japan's efforts to totally occupy and control the country. Chinese nationalists and communists called a truce to their civil war to drive out the common Japanese enemy. Japan, though, insisted it had a right to involve itself as it had in China's internal affairs.
And this peril, more than a "yellow peril", led to the injustices committed by westcoast states and the federal government against citizens of Japanese ancestry. The Yamato peril ended with Japan's defeat. But it was immediately replaced by the "red peril" in China as Chinese nationalists and communists resumed their civil war on a massive scale. The Vietnam War began when Japan left Vietnamese it has "liberated" from French colonialism to resist the return of the "white peril" in the country.
Because that resistance was "red", the United States backed the southern "nationalists" who opposed the "red peril" in the north. Today the worlds major perils are "materialism" and "corporatization" and "McDonaldization" and "Americanization" and "regionalization" and even "globalization". Many states also contend with "cultural imperialism" -- France its fear of English, Korea its fear of Japanese popular culture, China its fear of the Internet -- almost everyone's fear of Hollywood.
Nationalism infolves a lot of chest beating and flag waving and other expressions of extreme pride in nation, or the spread of a nation through colonialization whether by conquest or other means. Typically it is driven by racial or cultural supremacism, and by religious and other forms of ideological fanaticism. Supremacism is at the heart of nationalism. Not all nationalists are ultrasupremacists, but most nationalists inevitable believe in the relative supremacy of their nation. A nation is usually regarded as superior for reasons of "race" nature and "culture" nurture -- "race" being the collective natural or biological traits of nationals, and "culture" being their collective way of life reflecting the superior values they acquired from having been nurtured in a superior society.
Stories that feature conflict resulting from religious or friction will be treated here. Most such fiction reveals the "Christian peril" -- the conspiracy between Christianity and Euroamerican imperialism to bring Christ and industrial civilization to Asia. Some stories deal with perceptions of the "Jewish peril" while others concern the "Islamic peril". Some states and private organizations have forced communisim, capitalism, democracy, and other economic and political ideologies upon countries or peoples they wish to change and control. Stories touching upon such ideological perils will be covered here.
Stories which feature "culture shock" or "cultural misunderstanding" or "cultural imperialism" will be covered here. Many people have fallen into the habit of wanting to explain nations and even individuals in terms of a shared "culture" that governs collective and personal behavior. They are taught to say "my" and "our" culture and "your" and "their" culture -- and "nationalism" and "culture" are sometimes seen as two faces of the same "ethnic nation" or "race" of people.
Many writers of Steamy East and related fiction motivate their characters as though were cultural cyborgs. A typical Steamy East novel is full of anthropological and sociological asides about the Asian countries and peoples featured in the story. Asian characters are apt to be portrayed not as personalities, but as culturally programmed robots. Its fashionability owes a lot to the impulse to explain people in terms of "their culture". In the United States today, thanks to the spread of multiculturalism, "culture" has become a code word for "ethnicity" and even "race".
However, "culture" is almost always a thought-terminator when used to explain human behavior. It is blamed for all kinds of things it cannot possibly account for -- such as an individual's "culture shock" personal inability to accommodate and adjust to an unfamiliar situation or "cultural misunderstanding" personal ignorance.
The idea that there is "communication between two cultures" or "intercultural communication" is an even greater semantic travesty -- since cultures don't exist in forms that permit them to "communicate" in any sense of the word. Only individuals can communicate or fail to communicate. And no individual, or accoundable group of individuals, can mediate "a culture": they can only mediate those molecules of the vast, rare, and ill-defined cultural air they inhale in the course of their life.
One country can dominate another in many ways. Military conquest does not itself result in domination. In fact, some vanquished peoples have been able to co-opt the victors, who end up assimilating into the conquered population. Military invasion and occupation is the greatest fear of every nation with a history of wars with neighboring countries.
The age of intercontinental ballistic missiles, and Star Wars style attack satellites, has spawned fears of annihilation by frist-striking enemies on the other side of the globe. Science fiction commonly features alien invasions of earth, and wars between civilizations in differently parts of the universe. Nations are known to fear being over run by foreigners through gradual or mass immigration.
Mass migrations can be triggered by wars or natural disasters that set huge numbers of refugees in motion toward a new homeland. Here we will look at stories that feature trade wars, sabotage of financial institutions, industrial espionage, and other such conflicts of an economic rather than ideological or military nature. Industrial espionage related to military domination will be under military. Stories featuring threats or acts of terrorism by any means will be covered here.
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Stories with plots involving nuclear or biological terrorism will under these headings. Not yet in fiction but probably not long in coming -- now on only the wackier fringes of the Internet -- is "weather terrorism". Since Aum Shinrikyo bad guys are in prison, the operations are being continued by the yakuza, who are said to be leasing giant scalar interferometers from Russia. Most stories involving biological terrorism are about threats or attempts to expose a city to a deadly microorganism, to force a government to capitulate to some evil man's demands.
Nuclear terrorism typically involves threats to annihilate a city, possibly the capital of a country, if the government doesn't submit to the terrorits' demands. Japanese bad guys who resort to "nuclear blackmail" are often motivated by a desire to avenge Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Sidney L. Revell Company, pages, hardcover. At last we have a studied, rational view of the mis-interpreted motives of the Japanese rulers of the early 20th century.
The author, Sidney L. Gulick, who must have been one of the very earliest members of Mothers Against Drunk Drivers ! Indeed, as is evidenced by the horrific visage on the cover of this brand new reprint, it is the despicable white race that bears watching. This book is an essential addition to any contrarian's library. On the 8th of February, , Japan crossed swords with a European people.
And from the destruction of the Variag on that day until the fall of Port Arthur on the 1st of January, , nothing but failure has been Russia's fate, nothing but success Japan's fortune. For the first time in history has an Asiatic people successfully faced a white foe. The Russo-Japanese war marks an era, therefore, in the history of the Far East, and of the world, for now begins a readjustment of the balance of power among the nations, a readjustment which promises o halt the territorial expansion of white races and to check their racial pride.
To appreciate the significance of this war as one act in the tragedy of the white peril we must understand Japan. How has she attained the power, material and temperamental, which is enabling her to face the white man and to conquer him? This question we study in our earlier chapters. In those that follow we study the significance of the war, and the problems of the Far East in their world-setting. We are not concerned with dates and battles, with armies and heroes.
Rather shall we consider movements and tendencies, national ambitions and international relations. Emphasis is laid on the peril to the Far East of the white man's ambitions and methods. Justice to white races, however, demands recognition also of the blessings they confer upon those lands. In a real sense the white peril is becoming the white blessing of the Orient. Yet the aim of the present work in these pages precludes adequate emphasis of this point.
Certain graceful writers, masters of imaginative style, have described Japan as ideal in every direction, a view widely popularized to-day by Japan's brilliant military record. But of course no thoughtful man will be misled, for national as well as individual perfection is impossible. Highly admiring Japan as I do, absence of criticism in the following pages does not signify acceptance of the popular unbalanced admiration.
Gulick was not the only writer to view the outcome of the Russo-Japanese War as a watershed of race relations in Asia and even the world at large. Though Gulick had dedicated his life to the spread of Christianity, he appears to have acknowledged, to some extent, "the failure of Christianity to conquer the evils of Christendom" page Gulick seems to have realized that, whatever "blessings" western civilization might confer on some non-western societies, it could not fulfill its humanitarian promise so long as it was mediated by Christians who saw nothing wrong with white supremicism.
In my words, rather his, the Church was incapable of abluting its own sins because, institutionally, it had swallowed the apple of racist imperial ambition, worms and all. The Great War of also suggested that something was lacking in western civilization. In Der Untergang des Abendlandes [The twilight of the eveninglands], translated as The Decline of the West , the German philosopher-historian Oswald Spengler espoused a cyclical theory of the rise and decline of civilizations and argued that Europe may have reached its peak.
Spengler began the two-volume work, first published in and revised in , before the war, so its scope goes far beyond Germany's defeat. Most observers of Japan, though, did not share Gulick's optimism that Japan was no threat to others. Koreans at the time had good reason to think of Japan as a peril, since both the Sino-Japanese War of and the Russo-Japanese War of had begun in Korea.
And Japan annexed the Korea in By the early s, the "Japanese peril" had spread in earnest to the Chinese continent, already having reached Taiwan in And the rest is history. Well, not quite. So, too, is the "Pacific War" of That Japan's military actions in Asia during the s and s were partly based on intentions to liberate Asia and the Pacific of Euro-American colonialism cannot be denited.
The operational word is "partly". Partly, not entirely, since Japan clearly had its own imperialist designs on the region. But "partly" is enough to require that the "white peril" in Asia be taken into account in any revision of regional history. Gulick, D. The "D. In Chapter IX -- Criticisms Criticized -- Gulick presents one of the most cogent, for its time, arguments for ending racism in US immigration and naturalization laws pages Let it be clearly understood, then, that the proposals of this volume have nothing to do with free Asiatic immigration.
What we do urge will all possible emphasis is that those whom we do admit, and sho are to stay here permanently, whatever their race may be, should be urged and helped to learn our language and our ways and to enter thus into wholesome relations with our government and our people. American-born children are citizens, whatever their race. The withholding of citizenship from Asiatic parents will not have the slightest effect upon the chance that their American-born boys and girls may intermarry with girls and boys of long American ancestry, if they are mutually attractive.
Gulick, to be sure, is a racialist, since he believes race exists, and finds no problem in labeling individuals and populations racially according to their putative "race". Nor is he advocating interracial marriage. He is simply not against such marriages if individuals of different races happen to be attracted to each other.
What is important is that Gulick advocated raceless citizenship at a time when such an idea was unpopular in the land of the free and the home of the brace. He had been criticized for his advocacy of raceless citizenship, and even snubbed during an appearance before the Senate Committee on Immigration in -- hence the title of this chapter. Gulick is one of the few writers of his time to understand Kipling. On the second page of Chapter IX he takes to task those who misquote Kipling to defend their racism. The ultimate consequences are pictured in lurid colors.
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Asiatics, they insist, could not possibly take real part in maintaining a democracy, for they believe in despotism, not only in the government, but also in the family; democratic principles are intrinsically unacceptable tot hem and even unintelligible. Those who present these assertions commonly claim that an unbridgeable chasm separates the Caucasian from the Asiatic mind.
They glibly quote the lines from Kipling:. The alleged unbridgeable chasm between the East and the West is in fact non-existent. The minds and hearts of men are essentially the same, whatever the race. In spite of all their admitted differences, the East and the West have far more in common than appears to the casual traveller and the superficial student. Those who quote Kipling are hardly fair to him when they stop with the lines that correspond to their a prior opinions and fail to quote the lines that controvert them.
Immediately following the four lines quoted above, Kipling adds:. Sidney Lewis Gulick was born in the Marshall Islands to missionary parents. His father was born in the Sandwich Islands Hawaii to missionary parents. Sidney's paternal grandparents died in Kobe, Japan, where they had gone live with another of their sons, a younger brother of Sidney's father. Sidney Gulick was himself ordained in the Congregational Church in For twenty-five years between and , he served in with the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions.
During his last seven years he was a professor of theology at a university in Kyoto and a lecturer at another. Back in the United States, Gulick campaigned against anti-Asian legislation in California and elsewhere in the country. His efforts failed to halt the Immigration Act of , which all but closed the door to Asian immigration and continued to deny Asian immigrants access to US citizenship. Gulick threw himself into the formation and running of the Committee on World Friendship Among Children. He originated its doll exchange program, under which American children sent dolls to children in Japan.
Beginning in , thousands of "Friendship Dolls" were sent to schools in Japan during the Hinamatsuri doll festival each spring. Though many of the dolls did not have blue eyes, they came to known in Japan, and are mostly known today, as Aoime no ningyo in Japanese or American Blue-eyed dolls in English.
In racialist contexts, "aoime" [blue-eyed] is the Japanese equivalent of "slant" or "sland-eyed" in English. It reflexively substitutes for "foreigner" or "westener" or "American" -- and for other terms that also signify "white" in racialist parlance. During the war, many of the dolls were destroyed because of their association with the American enemy. Today they are proudly displayed in schools that have managed to save them, and there are numerous websites devoted to dolls, which have also come to be prized by collectors. Gulick himself was suspected of being a spy for Japan. According to a grandson, he wrote, regarding his efforts to improve US-Japan relations by revising US immigration laws -- in America, "I am as truly a missionary working for Japan as if I were in Japan.
Its mission, according to its website at www. The publication under review commemorates the Archivist of the "Yellow Peril" exibit held at the institute from 3 February to 31 July The artifacts in the visual part of the essay are from the collection. The running text was written by Dylan Yeats, who the colophon lists as the editor.
The book shows only part of the blow-up doll. The on-line exhibition shows all her charms. Tchen, a cultural historians, "can affirm this is an important item to collect" -- but wonders if he would have gone into a sex shop and bought one himsel. Someone has to wonder what such sex toys mean -- "How do the allures and fears of sexuality and race interlink? One problem everyone faces is what to keep and what to toss. Every person who gathers anything for whatever reason, or who inherits anything, has to do a triage. Somethings are saved.
Other things are thrown, dumped, burned, or buried. On a personal level, tossing all my accumulated stuff is not a big deal. But on a societal level, collecting and tossing, remembering and forgetting is of monumental importance. Prevailing norms govern. Taboos kick in. Does "We the People" mean "Meat vs. Rice" as labor's founding father and immigrant Samuel Gompers believed? This pamphlet Yellow Peril: Collecting Xenophobia is a sharp reminder of what's been tossed out and forgotten.
Hopefully, Yellow Peril and all the other imagined racial terrors can be left behind as a curious historical artifact. Time will tell. But, I for one, am not going to bet on it. Now, more than ever, understanding the ignored past can help us avoid the same dangerous mistakes today. In his foreword, Tchen pursues the "imperative of collecting" theme in terms of the "categories" that librarians and other archivists have placed materials -- "Yellow Peril" -- "Orient".
Eventually, categories such as "Japanese in the U. Tchen does not say why, for example, "Japanese American" is better than "Japanese in the U. He probably assumes that most of his readers will understand that -- in the minds of not a few people -- "Japanese in the U. Tchen does not appear to understand that such racialism -- such conflation of nationality with putative race -- is a problem everywhere.
The problem with Tchen's own reductionism -- his conflation of "Japanese in the U. For this would be the legal sense of the term -- reflecting usage in both US and Japanese government statistics which report the number of Japanese nationals who in the United States. One is not entirely sure -- from Tchen's usage of "Japanese Americans" -- what he means by "Japanese" and "Americans". Presumably "Americans" is a nationality. Presumably "Japanese" is a national ancestry. If so, then "Japanese American" would have to include all people who are Americans by nationality and who, in their personal histories, have some family or other connection with Japan or Japanese nationality -- regardless of their racial ancestry -- since, under Japanese law, Japanese nationality is a raceless civil status.
One gets the impression, though, that Tchen is merely swapping one racialist label for another. His inclusion of "Japanaese in the U. In , Japanese Americans were assumed to be security threats and imprisoned in concentration camps on U. The rhetoric -- "imprisoned" and "concentration camps" -- though not without foundation -- is not entirely accurate. Historical understanding is not achieved merely by replacing government and other euphemisms with what I would call "critically correct" terminology.
The main problem in the above citation, though, is the characterization of the "prisoners" as " American citizens. It is simply not true. In the April census, there were roughly , people in the United States of Japanese ancestry. Of these, about 47, had been born in Japan, and practically all of the Japan-born were Japanese nationals. Of the roughly , people of Japanese ancestry who were living on the West Coast, about 70, were Americans and the rest were Japanese. Elsewhere in the United States -- unrelated to West Coast exclusions -- Japanese officials and other a number of other Japanese were taken into custody as enemy aliens.
In some cases, Americans including Americans of Japanese ancestry accompanied their enemy alien spouse or parents into detention. Most of these detainees were repatriated to Japan within a year or two of their detention through civilian exchange agreements between the United States and Japan. Various local Civilian Exclusion Orders provided that "all persons of Japanese ancestry, both alien and non-alien" be "evacuated" from the West Coast military zone.
In this implicity racial definition of "Japanese", the term "aliens" -- because there were no grounds to include "non-aliens" except as a racist metalegal afterthought. The "exclusions" and "evacuations" were based on Executive Order No. The order cited, as its authority, the same , , and acts cited in Executive Order No. The number of people who were excluded from the West Coast, by internment in one of the several "relocation centers" or camps established for "persons of Japanese ancestry", is commonly pegged at , Apart from the accuracy of this figure, about one-third of the internees were in fact "Japanese in the U.
The Japanese internees included mostly settled immigrants. Very few of this "first generation" chose to be "repatriated". Some of the "second generation" were dual nationals, and some of these dual nationals had been partly educated in Japan. I, too, am a collector who both piles and files.
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And this website is dedicated to the task of publicizing parts of my own and other collections of "Steamy East" fiction and related materials. My collection embraces all manner of perils -- yellow peril, white peril, red peril, Japan peril, Jewish peril, Christian peril. And like many other such collections, mine is in peril of someday being tossed to the lowest bidding waste disposer simply because institutions that might, in the past, have welcomed it are now too pressed for space or funds, or already have their own ample collections. But I don't just collect.
I read. And my impressions of some of the stories I have read are often different from what other reviewers have claimed. The book's image of the cover of the Diversey edition of the novel shown to the right in a scan of my copy bears the following caption page 9. Though Gloria Leadler "could have had a dozen men at her feet for the asking, it was a solitary Oriental that made her heart beat fast. She poses as an innocent victim to manipulate rival gang members into killing each other. After a private investigator confronts Leadler about the truth, she breaks down in tears about the debased and dangerous consequences of falling in love with a man like Chang.
Neither the book nor the exhibit claim that their purpose is to give an exhaustive history of exhibited items. Nor do they claim to faithfully represent the items as artifacts of popular culture generally. The entire object of the "Yellow Peril" project is to press the items into the service of "bringing theory into practice". Formulating theory, and putting it into practice, is apparently the work of scholars, artists, and others who are concerned about the lingering effects of racial and other stereotypes which -- like the "yellow peril" -- may have reached their peak but have not yet vanished.
I have no complaints about the "ideology" behind the scholarly activism. It is not hidden. It is plain. One is free to embrace it or ignore it. I choose to do neither. My grievances are with some of the captions and commentary. Most people, unable to directly examine the exhibited artifacts, are at the mercy of the "tell" part of the "show". They can see only the cover of a book, and they can read only what the "Yellow Peril" activists want them to know or think about it. The novel was first published in as Twelve Chinks and a Woman.
In the s it was published as The Doll's Bad News. Come to think of it, "Chink" is conspciusouly missing from both the on-line exhibit and the book. But I can imagine project editors drawing a line between what they are willing to illuminate in print and on-line, and what they feel should stay in the shadows of their archives. The woman -- whose name is Glorie, not Gloria -- does break down. But her tears are in response to a realization of the consequences of her own character defects -- which the private detective has pointed out to her, ruthlessly and without mercy.
In his eyes, she deserves to continue to suffer the fate that awaits her. Her tears arguably reflect the full extent of her realization of what she has lost in losing Chang -- a man she loved, and who she knows loved her. From the very start of the story, it is clear that the detective is non-plussed that someone might like "Chinamen" since some people did. The detective does not appear to dislike Chinamen, even though he calls the one he finds dead in his office page 8 a "Chink" page If anything, he is sympathetic toward the man, who turns out to be Chang -- who, in the end, he views to have been a victim of the woman's debasement.
All in all, the "Yellow Peril" exhibit and book are par for the course, in that they constitute a better show than tell about the issues they presume to address. The exhibited items are genuine, but the stories told about them are sometimes misleading. The term "yellow peril" is practically dead outside the United States, where it is kept alive mostly by vestiges of the sort of social activism that spread during the civil rights movements between the s and s.
No doubt the "yellow peril" that began to blemish the faces of various countries in the late 19th century -- most conspicuously in the United States -- had become, by the early decades of the 20th century, an outbreak of ugly pimples. But the pimples -- political, legal, and social -- began to pop during the s and s, and by the s they were beginning to dry out. To be sure there are still some "yellow peril" scars, and even a few open lesions, in some sectors of American mass media and popular culture. Now and then, somewhere, a die-hard racialist stereotype will fester from a discoloration to a bump.
The odds, though, are that a proactive interest group will spot the zit and zap it before it errupts. Some teenzines advise that zits have to be treated with great care so as not to cause unwanted scarring. Were the British writer James Hadley Chase alive today -- and were he still inclined to write a novel of the kind he wrote seventy years ago -- I would like to think that he would be free do so so.
Chase's novel is not, in any event, a truely "yellow peril" story. The expression begins to lose its meaning, even as a metaphor, when scholars and critics apply it to a work that is not about racial invasion or racial dominance -- no matter what other faults it may be said to have within the conventions of its time, place, and genre. The penultimate chapter is obviously where this Man of God is coming from.
Revell, whose mission it was to spread Christianity. Gilbert concludes that Japan's mission was otherwise page Japan is waging, primarily, not a war of conquest but a religious war. Her aim is to destroy Christianity -- first in China, and then throughout the entire world. To accomplish this objective she must unify the yellow peoples of Asia, not only by means of her military program, but under the inspiration of her religious superstition.
It still specializes in Bibles and evangelical Christian tracts, and claims to be "the leading Christian communications company in the world". Today, though, its publications are mostly concerned with teen sex and whether the United States can be a Christian nation. Australians, particularly when travelling abroad, try desperatelyi to cultivate the idea that they are a tolerant, racially unprejudiced people.
The Chronicles of Corillium, Imperial Peril by Tristram Ross | | Booktopia
They have worked so hard at buildling up this image that most of them now believe it to be true, but in reality the average Australian is as xenophobic and racially prejudiced as the next man. That this is not immediately apparent to the brief visitor to these shores is only because colour problems do not exist in Australia on the massive scale they assume in some other parts of the world.
Wherever colour does intrude on the consciousness of the average Australian, the reaction is immediate -- and ugly. Racism in all forms will be eradicated only if it is dragged from its cesspit into the open and its exponents forced over and over again to justify in the cold light of day their prejudices and fears. The cold blasts of sunlight, and the logic of commonsense may eventually drive the evil from the planet earth, but that day is a long time in the future. This book is one of the most interesting publications to appear in , immediately after the suppression of the Boxer Rebellion, which some Euroamericans saw as evidence of what Kaiser Wilhelm II, following the Sino-Japanese War of , had called "gelbe Gefahr" or "Yellow Peril".
The book is particularly interesting because, though "The Yellow Peril" appears on the title page of the edition under review -- and though one chapter describes the "Two Months of Peril" faced by the foreign legations that were besieged by Boxers in -- its author did not, in fact, endorse a "yellow peril" thesis but, quite the opposite, he publicized the view of a prominent Chinese statesmen who advocated that China needed to defend itself against what amounted to a European peril and a Japanese peril. Yet another edition is supposed to have a navy blue cover.
Los Angeles , Earle Company Ltd. John , and Haskell Norwich. Miller introduces China historically and describes Chinese society as he observed it at the end of the 19th century. But the last 9 of his 28 chapters deal entirely with the Boxer disturbances that unfolded after the Sino-Japanese War of , broke out in open violence in , came to a head with the intervention of foreign military forces while Miller was in China, and was settled by the Boxer Protocol of , a year after Miller's book was published. What Miller called the Boxer "uprising" or "outbreak" is now most often dubbed a "rebellion".
An incredible amount of ink has been spilled in Chinese, Japanese, English, and other languages over the events surrounding August , when foreign troops invaded, occupied, and looted Beijing -- an incident which nationalists and communists alike look back on as the most humiliating in China's recent history. The Boxers disliked the unequal treaties the Qing court had been forced to sign with foreign powers over the years, including most recently Japan after the Sino-Japanese War of The killing of two missionaries in Shandong province in gave Germany the excuse to occupy the port of Qingdao in eastern Shandong Shantung in November.
The next month Russia occupied Lushunkou Port Arthur on the Liaodong Liao-tung peninsula in Liaoning province in northeast China and forced China to lease it the peninsula. Britain then snatched the seaport of Weihai Weihai Garrison to the east of Qingdao Tsingtao , and in France occupied the fishing port of Zhanjiang Fort Bayard in Guangdong province in southeast China. The Boxers -- as the "Yihetuan" or "Righteous and Harmonious Fists" were dubbed in English -- were inspired by beliefs in their religious invincibility, and by nativist resentment of foreign influence in China, to purge the country of foreigners, above all missionaries.
The group originally directed its discontent against the Qing court, of Manchu origin. But it was then coopted by the Empress Dowager Cixi, who also wanted to rid China of its foreign occupiers. The missions of Belgium, France, Japan, the Netherlands, Russia, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States were close enough together in Beijing that they were able to link their defenses and provide a refuge for foreigners in the city. But the German legation, in another part of the city, was over run, and the German envoy was taken captive and killed.
A number of navel and other military actions took place in June and July, but things came to head, and the Boxers were finally defeated, in August. The alliance was able to pool about 50 warships, 5, marines, and 50, soldiers. Japan contributed 18 warships and over 20, troops, nearly twice as many as either Russia or Great Britain. Some anti-Boxer Chinese soldiers also joined the action. Tianjin was captured on 14 July, and it was from there that the alliance mounted its 4 August attack on Beijing.
This is the subject "On the Peking" Chapter 22 in Miller's book. As Miller describes the action, the Japanese troops are well organized, out in front, not afraid to take the initiative, and admired for their bravery in battle. One is that Japan attempted to gain control of the Imperial Palace and protect it against destruction before contingents of other nations could attack and presumably destroy it.
Miller cites an unnamed "writer from the scene of conflict" page They were trying to protect the Purple city and establish communication with some one there who might be made to represent the Chinese government, so as to open the way for beginning negotiations for the settlement. Now they were sending a battalion of infantry to each of the main gates of the Imperial city to guard them and, if possible, prevent any violation of the palace.
However, the regiments of the other nations began mounting attacks against one gate or another. Eventually it became a free for all, and the looting began anew page , bold emphasis added. The looking is going on more easily and evenly than it did in Tientsin. Here there are not so many Chinese lying around watching for their chance. They are fewer and vastly more timid. In their own quarter the Americans are supposed to stop looting entirely and the report is that there are orders to shoot.
The British are going at the thing quietly and systematically, sending out their pack trains with a party in charge of each under command of an officer. All the loot goes into the big pile in the legation compound and will be put up at auction. Then, when it is all sold, Tommy will get his share of the prize money. It is a very comfortable and easy way and not liable to heart burnings like ours. They gather up what they like, and as far as they can they take it from the quarter of the city in which they happen to be.
Here more kinds of look came out than in Tientsin.
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The furs were much better. So with some of the silk, but there are bits of green stuff they call jade, and one hears of old plates and priceless vases and that sort of thing. And for sycee [coins], if the soldiers had a way to dispose of it, probably every one of them would be paid to his satisfaction for coming to Peking. Only the Japanese stand aloof, see it all, but take no part in it, and say it is all wrong. He gives an account of how the chancellor of the Japanese legation, "while riding a jinricksha outside the Yung Tung gate of the southern city, was assaulted and killed and his body was never recovered.
An imperial [Chinese] edict denounced the murderers, but its authors failed to perceive that this act was part of the harvest reaped from the dragon's teeth sown so freely by the Empress Dowager and her advisers" page In "Stories of Personal Experience" Chapter 25 , and especially in "Chronicles of Horror" Chapter 26 , Miller relates reports of butchery committed by Boxers, in order to convince the reader that foreigners and Chinese in the besieged legations had good reason to fear that they would be massacred should they be overrun.
He does not himself provide numbers of casualties, but other sources suggest that, by the time the fighting ended on 14 August , the Boxers had killed roughly 20, people, including about missionaries and hundreds of Chinese Christians, and thousands of insurgents, supporters, and bystanders. Miller's "Chronicles of Horror" runs 23 pages. The last 8 or 9 are devoted to stories of allied army atrocities, and begins like this page Not all of the atrocities, however, were committed by the Chinese.
The spirit of revenge seized upon the soldiers of the allied armies, and the Russians, French and Germans particularly displayed a cruelty even less excusable than that of the Chines, if the obligations of enlightenment be considered. Citing accounts by people who were there, Miller reports atrocities committed by Russian police and Cossacks against Chinese civilians in settlements along China's northeast border with Russia, and atrocities committed by French soldiers in the course of looting the city of Tongzhou Tungchau a few miles east of Beijing.
Regarding the latter, Miller cites the account of an American physician who had practiced in Beijing for many years and remarked that he "was one of the besieged in Peking and for sixty days expected nothing but death and torture at the hands of the Chinese" page He therefore dispatched Major Meur and an interpreter to Tungchau to inquire into the occurrences.
Before leaving Peking the belief as that Russians and Japanese were the principal offenders, but the investigation proved the Japanese to be entirely innocent, the Russians scarcely implicated at all, but the French to be the worst offenders. An appalling story is told in two letters sent from Peking by members of the expeditionary corps" page Miller cites only the first letter, and lets its gruesome account, and condemnation, stand without comment.
Miller ends the book on an interesting note. He expresses faith that "the Chinese mind" is perfectly capable of "grasping the western man's point of view" and cites. He cites at length words from a treatise written in Chinese by statesman and educational reformer Chang Chih-tung Zhang Zhidong, soon after China's war with Japan in Fleming H.
Woodbridge, introduced by Griffith John as Miller was writing his book. Miller assures his reader that "Who, after reading them [passages from Chang's book], can deny that the Chinaman, whatever his mental plane and point of view, may be thoroughly well aware of the meaning of the game of diplomacy as played by the more civilized powers? Miller has already quoted Chang to have said that Japan became prominent because of men who "visited foreign countries twenty years ago and learned a method by which to escape the coercion of Europe.
Miller goes on to cite more paragraphs from Chang's book, and the last one he cites reads like this page We would be in a position to redress our wrongs without the fear of staking all upon minor issues. Under these conditions Japan will side with China, Europe will retire and the far east will be at rest. Whatever other conclusions may be drawn, the viceroy's interesting volume affords a remarkable proof of the fact that the Chinese, when he does awaken, may be found with an unexpectedly clear perception of the problems which confront him.
Having crafted what is essentially a fairly objective account of China at the time of the Boxer Rebellion -- and having made it so clear that China was a victim of its own political ineptness and then prominently publicized Chang's hope for a strong, independent China that need no longer fear either Japan or Europe -- why "The Yellow Peril" on the title page? What is particularly fascinating about Chang's more than Miller's view of what China needed to do to stand on its own feet is that 1 China's inability to heed his advice left China open for further lose of its sovereignty to foreign powers, particularly Japan -- though Japan claimed it was only defending China against Russian and other foreign incursions, and 2 China is defending its sovereignty today as Chang advocated it should a century ago.
China is sprinkled with 47 full-page reproductions of photographs, many of which were "gathered" by the author during "a prolonged journey through the Chinese Empire in ". Miller is credited with another photograph from the times, showing "Seven white men in Manchu dress, with queues, stand talking together" in the words of Rolland Marchand, who teaches history at the University of California at Davis. The following is an extract from a letter written by Mr. Miller to a friend in New York:. For to the kialli, betrayal was a way of life, and every action was a means to gain greater power.
And as the Festival of the Moon approached, the demon kin began to prey upon those in the Tor Leonne. In the Empire, the armies were mobilizing for war. But before they carried the battle to the Dominion, Seer Jewel ATerafin would be forced to follow her own destiny. And so Jewel, with only Avander to guard her back, would abandon House Terafin on the eve of its greatest peril and journey into the darkness which was fast overshadowing the mortal lands….
And among the Voyani, the moment had come to make their final stand against Allasakar, Lord of the Hells, for they alone had kept to the old ways, guarding the ancient knowledge. But hounded by their enemies, and with one their greatest treasures hidden in the Tor Leonne, could they withstand the power of the Shining Court?
The Uncrowned King. And for Valedan, last survivor of the ruling family of the Dominion, it was a declaration of his right to claim the throne stolen from the Leonne clan by treachery and assassination. And the games of power were indeed being played—not only in the Empire and Dominion, but in the far more dangerous realm of the Lord of Night. As the time of the Challenge neared, Valedan and all those who guarded him would be hard-pressed to survive long enough for him to enter the competition.
For the demon kin had been set to hunt him down and destroy him. They had failed before though many innocents had paid for the price. They must not fail again, for slaying Valedan was but the opening gambit in a war that would free the Lord of Night to reign over all the mortal world…. The Broken Crown. The first novel of the acclaimed Sun Sword series introduces readers to a war-torn world of noble houses divided and demon lords unleashed… Tor Leonne—the heart of the Dominion of Annagar, where the games of state are about to become a matter of life and death—and where those who seek to seize the crown will be forced to league with a treacherously cunning ally….
Averalaan Aramarelas—that most ancient of civilized cities, the home of the Essalieyan Imperial court, has long been a center of magics both dark and bright. And though the Empire won its last war with the Dominion, and survived a devastating, magic-fueled battle with a far deadlier foe, both those victories were not without their cost…. But now the realm is on the brink of a far greater confrontation, faced with an unholy alliance that could spell the end of freedom for all mortalkind.