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In our context, the contamination of the other organs not directly exposed to the initial fallout or which grew after the fallout i.

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It is therefore possible than Cs redistribution in cedar trees through internal transfers is not yet stabilised. As already observed in other monitoring studies for Japanese cedar 17 , 18 both heartwood and sapwood compartments are contaminated. This positive gradient of concentration from sapwood to the pith was previously observed for potassium and caesium for Japanese cedar 38 , 39 , 40 and their accumulation in heartwood was associated with the formation of these tissues This peculiarity was not observed in post-Chernobyl studies on pine trees or birches, however, for which the reverse trend gradient prevailed 6 , 41 , i.

The similar Cs root concentrations found in the stands, but different Cs vertical distributions in the soil profile, and the Cs inner bark concentrations suggest a potential Cs downward flow following foliar uptake through phloemic pathways. This assumption was corroborated by the fact that root Cs concentration is very similar at the two sites, even though Cs vertical distribution is different.

Although the activities are in the same order of magnitude, dead needles is less contaminated than the litter, suggesting that litter with a higher activity than dead needles is present in the litter layer. However, a significant difference was observed between the two plots. Kato et al. They observed that contamination of the forest floor a few months after the accident July was two times higher for MC than YC. This observation might be explained by a higher initial interception of fallout in the YC stand characterised by a higher LAI value Table 1. Not including the dead material i.

These values are consistent with those obtained in by Kajimoto et al. Differences between stands are mostly due to respective Cs concentrations vs. It can be explained by a higher crown biomass and LAI Table 1 in the YC stand in parallel with its tree density, recent canopy closure and related growth dynamic.

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Yoshida and Hijii 28 , and references therein, reported that for Japanese cedar the turnover of crown dead material varied within a range of 1 order of magnitude from 0. They also reported that although needle lifespan physiologically reaches 6 years for Japanese cedar, the dynamic of litterfall was mostly affected by physical factors snow, wind.


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Litterfall dynamics is a sensitive parameter for modeling Cs redistribution during the early post-accident phase, and its inter-annual variability, especially for Japanese cedar stands, remains an issue that should be addressed, at least until foliage renewal becomes effective. When comparing our Cs inventory data with that obtained by Kajimoto et al. This result is consistent with a higher Cs initial deposit on the MC forest floor 22 and a thinner organic layer for the MC plot 1.

The difference in organic layer thickness between the two plots generates a lower Cs residence time in the MC plot, either resulting from organic material degradation or leaching, as has already been mentioned In the next decade, the importance of forest floor thickness is expected to play a key role in further Cs migration and resulting vertical distribution as evidenced in post-Chernobyl studies 7 , 51 , These results correlate with those obtained by Fujii et al.

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As shown in Fig. In forest soils Cs can be highly concentrated in organic layers, or immobilised in the first surface soil layers 46 , However, a small fraction of Cs is highly mobile and could quickly migrate to deeper mineral layers. These last authors concluded that the high content of organic matter vs. This higher availability in organic soils has also already been observed 55 , However, the impact of organic matter content on Cs behaviour depends on the concentration and nature of the clay mineral.

In our soils, only kaolinite was found in the mineral layers Table 1 , a clay mineral known to sorb caesium to a lesser degree than illite or vermiculite This observation corresponds with the high mobility of part of the Cs in our forest soils. Even if a difference was observed between the two plots, the Cs remains concentrated in the organic layer or the upper mineral soil layer.

Higher levels of Cs contamination in the organic layer compared with the mineral layers were also observed after the Chernobyl disaster, even a long time after the accident 9 , This monitoring, carried out three vegetation periods after the FDNPP accident, produced a detailed dataset on Cs concentrations and inventories in forests trees and soil components.

The sampling strategy 9 trees and 7 forest floor locations was implemented to integrate the spatial variability occurring in two forest stands of different ages. These results suggest that a delay in vertical Cs migration in YC forest soil occurred due to 1 a higher initial interception and therefore a lower initial deposit on the forest floor and 2 a thicker organic layer.

That fraction, which can be a higher range of estimation due to uncertainty biomass, is expected to greatly vary according to local forest conditions and management. The compartments directly exposed to the fallout remain the most contaminated and a potential source of further Cs transfer into the soil in the next vegetation periods.

As scheduled in the scientific project running up until , only plot monitoring over a period of years will make it possible to characterise the transition to the apparent steady state phase, where root uptake is expected to become the main process for tree contamination. In order to gain a good understanding and allow better modelling of the Cs dynamics in Japanese cedar forests, it is also crucial to integrate biomass dynamics, translocation phenomenon and bioavailability of Cs in the soil as a whole.

How to cite this article : Coppin, F. Steinhauser, G. Comparison of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: A review of the environmental impacts. Science of the Total Environment — , — Yoshihara, T. Radiocesium contaminations of 20 wood species and the corresponding gamma-ray dose rates around the canopies at 5 months after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity , 60—68 International Atomic Energy Agency. Calmon, P. Transfer parameter values in temperate forest ecosystems: A review. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity , — Shaw, G.

In Radioactivity in the Environment Vol. Shaw — Thiry, Y. The true distribution and accumulation of radiocaesium in stem of Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 58 , — Kruyts, N. Soil organic horizons as a major source for radiocesium biorecycling in forest ecosystems. Respective horizon contributions to cesium soil-to-plant transfer: A pot experiment approach. Journal of Environmental Quality 29 , — Behaviour of radiocaesium in forest multilayered soils. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 18 , — Myttenaere, C.

Modelling of Cs cycling in forests: recent developments and research needed. Science of the Total Environment , , 77—91 Komatsu, M. Characteristics of initial deposition and behavior of radiocesium in forest ecosystems of different locations and species affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity , doi: Evrard, O. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity , 92— Koizumi, A. Environmental Science and Technology 47 , — Kanasashi, T. Radiocesium distribution in sugi Cryptomeria japonica in Eastern Japan: Translocation from needles to pollen. Hashimoto, S. The total amounts of radioactively contaminated materials in forests in Fukushima, Japan. Scientific Reports 2 , Kajimoto, T. Dynamics of radiocesium in forest ecosystems affected by the Fukushima daiichi nuclear power plant accident: Species-related transfer processes of radiocesium from tree crowns to ground floor during the first two years.

Kuroda, K. Radiocesium concentrations in the bark, sapwood and heartwood of three tree species collected at Fukushima forests half a year after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity , 37—42 Masumori, M. Radiocesium in stem, branch and leaf of Cryptomeria japonica and Pinus densiflora trees: Cases of forests in Minamisoma in and Kato, H. Interception of the Fukushima reactor accident-derived Cs, Cs and I by coniferous forest canopies.

Geophysical Research Letters 39 , L Loffredo, N. Equation to predict the Cs leaching dynamic from evergreen canopies after a radio-cesium deposit. Temporal changes in radiocesium deposition in various forest stands following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Modeling of leachable Cs in throughfall and stemflow for Japanese forest canopies after Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

Science of the Total Environment , — Vienna, Austria, Picard, N. Manual for building tree volume and biomass allometric equations: from field measurement to prediction. Fujimaki, R.

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Root development across a chronosequence in a Japanese cedar Cryptomeria japonica D. Don plantation. Journal of Forest Research 12 , 96— Lim, H. Biomass expansion factors and allometric equations in an age sequence for Japanese cedar Cryptomeria japonica in southern Korea.

Journal of Forest Research 18 , — Yoshida, T. Spatiotemporal distribution of aboveground litter in a Cryptomeria japonica plantation. Journal of Forest Research 11 , — Saito, H. Studies on the productivity and its estimation methodology in a young stand of Cryptomeria japonica D.


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Journal of Japanese Forestry Society 67 , 52—62 Tange, T. Differences in the amount of dead branche and leaf material in young Cryptomeria japonica stands in relation to spacing. The Japanese Journal of Ecology 39 , — Ferguson, R. River loads underestimated by rating curves Water Resources Research 22 , 74—76 Buesseler, K. Impacts of the Fukushima nuclear power plants on marine radioactivity. Environmental Science and Technology 45 , — Merz, S. Anthropogenic radionuclides in Japanese food: Environmental and legal implications.

Oehlert, G. A note on the delta method. American Statistician 46 , 27—29 Nishikiori, T. Uptake and translocation of radiocesium in cedar leaves following the Fukushima nuclear accident. Experimental quantification of radiocesium recycling in a coniferous tree after aerial contamination: Field loss dynamics, translocation and final partitioning.

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity , 42—50 Ogawa, H.

Changes in the distribution of radiocesium in the wood of Japanese cedar trees from to Chigira, M. Journal of Radiation Research 29 , — Momoshima, N. Distribution and chemical characteristics of cations in annual rings of Japanese cedar. Journal of Environmental Quality 24 , — Kohno, M. Distribution of environmental Cesium in tree rings. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 8 , 15—19 Soukhova, N. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 65 , 19—28 Tobler, L. Deposition of , Cs from Chernobyl fallout on Norway spruce and forest soil and its incorporation into spruce twigs.

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 6 , — Bunzl, K. As a result, you may be required to provide your individual number to an employer or another organization at some point, for reasons such as processing documents for things like national pension, unemployment insurance, medical insurance, public assistance, child allowances, welfare benefits, and tax procedures and returns, on your behalf. You should only give your individual number to trusted individuals and groups.

Treat it with the same reverence that you would give to your bank or credit card details. Specific examples of organizations which may be trusted with your individual number include:. The Cabinet Secretariat of the Cabinet Office of the Government of Japan states that "strict identification mechanisms will be employed to prevent imposters from using other's Individual Numbers, and measures to protect personal information will be in place for information management and sharing among organizations that possess Individual Numbers.

However, the Cabinet Office is intending to "study this topic" for possible future inclusion. The Cabinet Office claims that they will not repeat the mistakes that they believe other counties and other systems have made. However, this confidence remains a point of contention among critics of the system.

If you leave Japan for an extended duration of time and then return at a later date, you will continue to use the same "My Number" that you had before you left Japan. However, if your individual number is stolen or has been used improperly by another individual or organization, you can request that the number be changed to a different one. At the time writing this article, the Cabinet Office did not have an answer to this question.


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They stated:. The Cabinet Office plans to study, "around three years after the Number Use Act comes into effect", the idea of allowing the private-sector to use the "My Number" system, although details of how they intend to allow that to happen are currently scarce. There are several concerns regarding the "My Number" system that critics of the system have been vocal about. Here is a brief round-up of some of the issues:. Are you concerned about the privacy and identity theft risks that the "My Number" system presents?

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