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To be useable, knowledge—particularly for complex issues—must make sense. Organizing knowledge into narratives creates a shared understanding and motivates action. The process of creating, controlling, using, and distributing frames and narratives, including negotiations over which actors, knowledge, and expertise are valid and relevant, is often hotly contested and debated.

Science plays a central role in determining the probability and magnitude of the environmental risk and in measuring the benefits and costs of various options to reduce that risk. However, significant uncertainties are associated with the complex environmental risks investigated, with ongoing debates on the sources of valid and relevant knowledge e. Each case study illustrates different ways of handling scientific uncertainties and competing knowledge claims and approaches to making knowledge more policy relevant.

The difference between a Hazard and a Risk - Risk Management

Each also illustrates challenges to the view that scientific agreement on the dimensions of risk and possible responses is independent of policy. During regulation processes, regulatory entities are identified and empowered, narrative frames constructed, actors and their identities shaped, and expertise negotiated and established.

The authors provide concise summaries of the framing of an issue by different actors and their negotiating strategies over the character, causes, and responses for that issue. They point out that in all case studies, regulatory discussions were restricted to downstream risks thus excluding concerns over technical, economic, and scientific development and questions about the purpose and need for certain activities at an early stage of the process.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Environ Health Perspect v. Environ Health Perspect.

Transboundary Risk Governance

Reviewed by Kristie L. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Kristie L. Ebi, of the Carnegie Institution for Science, has been conducting research on the impacts of and adaptation to climate change for 15 years. For Scaffolds of the Society, the tissue of the ranging tissue for Biomaterials Research depends mentioned by the Society, and no further strategy is young.

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Scientific advances, technological development, and changes in risk consciousness have led to stronger demands on society to manage and control various kinds of risks. Risks should be assessed, prevented, controlled, and communicated in order to prevent negative impacts. Risks related to the environment and health are probably some of the most research-dependent examples. It is primarily scientific experts that provide knowledge to authorities, organizations, and citizens about environmental and health risks and thus exert considerable influence on the understanding and management of risk.

At the same time, there are actors in society—especially citizen and interest organizations—that question whether risk regulation is reliable and relevant. There are also demands that citizens should have more transparency and control over risk regulation. The current situation is characterized thus by a paradox: Issues relating to environment and health are seen as increasingly expert dependent while citizens simultaneously demand increased influence over them. This development is especially noticeable in the European Union, with its strong emphasis on the rights of citizen and consumers to have access to information about risk and also opportunities to influence their regulation.


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In response to this situation, risk governance has been put forward. It refers to a body of ideas for how to more responsibly and efficiently deal with complex risks issues, where there are different interests and standpoints about how to regulate them.

Fundamental ideas of risk governance are openness, transparency, participation, inclusion, deliberation, and reflexivity; that experts involved should be open to questioning the situation; should not conceal issues of uncertainty and pluralism that there exist different legitimate understandings, evaluations, and recommendations ; and should be receptive to the input and participation of other stakeholders.

This means that risk regulation should no longer be organized into three discrete activities: risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication aiming at a one-way transfer of knowledge from the regulators to the public.

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