Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Community Reviews. Showing Rating details. More filters. Sort order. Dec 19, Carol Sandberg rated it really liked it. A very interesting read, clarifying for me the early days of the Salvation Army in America, and the relations of the various key players.
I appreciate the research the author did for those of us interested in this chapter of American history. Randolph Parrish rated it really liked it May 27, Matthew Stowers marked it as to-read Oct 06, There are no discussion topics on this book yet. About Lillian Taiz. Lillian Taiz. Little knots of people all over the place talking the topic of the day over and over and over again. Some on one side and some on the other[,] almost all had taken sides some way. As described in the newspaper, this criticism had two elements, one class-based and the other relating to centralization of authority.
The couple had left the six-week-old baby boy in England in the care of a nurse; sadly, the child died while they were in transit to the United States. In she married Frederick Tucker and went with him to India to continue his Salvation Army missionary work in that country. They both spoke fine grand. Moreover, unlike settlement houses Salvation Army efforts aimed at temporary material amelioration not long-term goals of social reform. Similarly, sociology professor Charles R. The soul degrades the body more than the body degrades the soul, and to suppose that the betterment of the mere physical part of man will effect his reformation is viewing the matter in the wrong light.
Edwin R. First, the Salvation Army placed too much responsibility on society and not the individual for causing poverty; as a result, its work did nothing to improve character. For example, he tapped into American fears of class warfare made real by the violent confrontations between authorities and workers during the last two decades. Finally, in his explanation of the cause of urban poverty and his adaptation of the social scheme to the United States, Booth-Tucker emphasized a rural romanticism that appealed to Americans. Booth-Tucker went on, however, to add a third policy which is unique to the American program, City Garden Allot a new message of temporal salvation ments or Potato Patches.
In addition to framing the scheme in peculiarly American terms, the Booth-Tuckers went on tour to vigorously promote the social scheme to the public. In the s, Americans knew the Salvation Army exclusively as a working-class religious organization. By the s, however, the Army and its social services became synonymous. Historically in the Army, service as a sign of true faith meant advertising salvation through inventive religious rituals designed to convert sinners. Many members felt unconvinced that both kinds of service were equally valuable.
In a revealing letter, William Booth articulated his own complex feelings about the direction in which he had taken the group thirteen years earlier. Let us employ them and make the world pay for it.
What I object to is using the time and ability of men and women for Social Work who are required for the Spiritual and using money after the same fashion. Emma and Frederick Booth-Tucker brought this complex mix of sentiments with them to the United States. The group, said Rev. Henry R. In addition to supplying personnel, overseeing expansion of its religious activities, and coordinating funding for National Headquarters, the organization now sought to establish and operate an elaborate nationwide network of social institutions. First, they implemented cost-saving mechanisms by centralizing Salvation Army printing and merchandising functions in the Reliance Trading Company that took over the ownership and publication of The War Cry.
Reliance not only provided printing services for other departments but also sold a variety of Salvation Army merchandise, including uniforms. At the same time, William Booth still vigorously opposed any strategies that placed organizational authority in the hands of a board of trustees over which he had no control. Some of these directives attempted to bring uniformity to religious services and discourage local innovation. Divisions, they said, must stop printing and selling their own songbooks. Furthermore, to ensure that corps and divisions released cadets from local duties and possibly to help build individual loyalty to the national organization, the consul and commander gave orders that nhq rather than the divisions were to pay the training home expenses.
Salvage must not be collected, or any operation of a Social character be commenced. They also would be entitled to 10 percent of the sales income from Salvation Army publications like The War Cry, The Young Soldier, Harbor Lights, and Social News, as well as 10 percent of the gross income from the social institutions in each district. Resentments over centralization sometimes expressed themselves in Anglophobic terms. Booth and the Booth-Tuckers since the advent of the latter in the U.
Americans seem to be backseated. Following the message of their leaders, cdos treated the social work as an appropriate assignment for men and women who, they felt, failed at spiritual work. The district commanders, he said, regarded the social institutions as cash-cows. Initially the national social secretary of the City Colony wielded little power over the operations of the Social Wing.
To make matters worse, in nhq issued orders that gave priority to the Social Wing regarding outside fund-raising. In Chicago, for example, the number of corps had grown steadily until Over the next few years, however, as the social programs expanded, the number of regular corps declined from 35 to In Chicago I settled things on the spot and what I said when the P. Here decisions are passed on to me and all matters are referred to C.
Or Comdr. I cannot express too heartily my sorrow. Taking the hint, she sent him, instead, to command the Atlantic Coast Province. The Army seems to have particularly focused on expanding social services for men. The Industrial Homes, for example, hired men to sort through the waste paper, lumber, furniture, rags, or clothing collected by the Salvage Brigades and bundle or prepare the materials for sale in Salvation Army Junk Stores. Similarly, in some cities the Salvation Army opened woodyards that compensated the men for collecting, sawing, and delivering wood.
As early as , the National Social Secretary reported that the twenty Industrial Homes operating in the United States gave work to as many as men per day. The gendering of Salvation Army social work was not its only difference with the spiritual wing. However, traditional forms of Salvation Army religious culture played little or no role in social institutions. While Salvationists often participated in six religious services per week at their local corps, social institutions reported holding only one service weekly. Moreover, religion in social ina new message of temporal salvation stitutions rarely featured boisterous services, rowdy street marches, or inventive special meetings.
Women attached to hospitals or health facilities dressed in white like nurses, while those in the slum service wore work clothes adopted originally by the Slum Sisters in the late s. Their administration, which began with the death of their infant son, ended in October with another tragedy. Her death was widely reported in the press, and funeral services in both Chicago and New York drew thousands of mourners. Although he tried to continue leading the American forces on his own, by November General Booth permitted Frederick St.
George de Lautour Booth-Tucker to return with his family to Britain. In spite of the authority her father bestowed upon her, she initially had to contend with a problematic change in the American administrative structure. Dividing the United States at Chicago, the general created a territorial position to administer the western half of the country, leaving Evangeline Booth in charge of the East as well as national policies. Army historians suggest that William Booth decided that the unmarried Evangeline Booth needed an administrative, albeit junior, partner to help her run Army operations in the United States.
She surrounded herself with trusted supporters, many of whom she worked with in Canada and London. Over the course of her thirty-year administration — , she built upon the foundation laid by her sister, expanding work that was religiously inspired but not directly evangelical in nature. In the aftermath of a new message of temporal salvation Portrait of Evangeline Booth, National Commander of the United States, — In France the Salvationists distributed toilet articles, writing materials and, especially, doughnuts to soldiers.
The Salvation Army Doughnut Girl became a popular symbol of this ministry that made an important contribution to its public relations in the early twentieth century. The successful Home Service Campaign allowed the Salvation Army to limit fund-raising for this work to once a year. The Army organized the Home League hoping to increase the participation of families in its religious activities.
Centralization of the bureaucracy shifted power upward although Salvationists still struggled to maintain some individual and local autonomy. Meanwhile, internal divisions developed which increasingly separated Salvationists engaged in spiritual work from those performing social service. As we will see in chapter 5, in the early twentieth century the spiritual wing of the Salvation Army would have to adjust to these and other changed circumstances.
Moore and Ballington Booth. By the s, however, the myth of hierarchical authority more closely resembled reality in the Salvation Army. Ironically, the outcome also facilitated decentralization in the United States and left the authority of national headquarters irreparably weakened.
After relations between Britain and the United States settled into a relative peace; William Booth apparently trusted his daughters Emma and Evangeline a great deal more than his son Ballington. Moreover, in contrast to Ballington, Evangeline seems to have been particularly effective in persuading her father to overrule orders issued by his second in command, her brother Bramwell Booth. On one occasion, for example, someone gave Evangeline an automobile as a gift. She asked Bramwell for permission to keep it but he refused.
Undeterred, Evangeline Booth appealed directly to her father. With her father no longer alive to intervene on her behalf, relations between the new general and his sister Evangeline quickly deteriorated, exacerbating long simmering hostilities between Britain and the United States. As chief of the staff, a new message of temporal salvation the eldest Booth sibling handled the bureaucratic operations of the international organization leaving his father free to do what he did best, preach to the masses and inspire the troops. Bramwell and Evangeline had not always been at odds; early letters reveal a close and loving relationship.
It seems so sad that I cannot see you. Are you soon coming home? I really truly specially personally want to have an hours chat with you and a smal[? The American public, however, which had come to identify Evangeline with the Army and the Army with its very popular social service, emergency relief, and war work, protested vigorously. Marshall, William G.
High-ranking appointments would have to be approved by the general himself. I must confess that I do not think that the objection to McMillan. It is simply that she wishes to be in opposition and delay and hinder what we do. In contrast to his father, Bramwell Booth had never supported solutions that emphasized amelioration of material conditions. England had, by , established a system of social insurance including old-age pensions and workers compensation. Commander Evangeline apparently misjudged her own popularity.
In June, Bramwell Booth died. Furthermore, rather than allowing the general to serve as sole trustee of Salvation Army property in England and northern Ireland, a board, not unlike that in the United States, now played that role. While she served in this country she fought tirelessly for American autonomy and the supreme authority of the national commander. As general, however, she accomplished exactly what her brother had tried to do; she gutted the position of national commander and decentralized the American command by making the territories virtually autonomous answering only to ihq.
Indeed, the position of national commander never recovered its stature after she became general. Today both the positions of general and national commander are largely ceremonial and spiritual. Furthermore, every territory associated with the Worldwide Salvation Army operates almost autonomously with the greatest authority in the hands of the individual Territorial Commanders.
Get the chair in position. His book provided a basic primer on open-air evangelism. The R. The L. Administrative reorganization discouraged democracy and local autonomy, and the new mission of temporal salvation segmented the group in separate and at times contentious social and spiritual wings.
As the training-school curriculum demonstrates, at the beginning of the century the Army started to ritualize its expressive and spontaneous street meetings by institutionalizing them and creating carefully scripted performances. By mid-century even these ritualized exhibitions disappeared. Colonel Rader, who encouraged a renaissance of religious street performance, could imagine only a highly controlled version of the spontaneous and expressive camp-meeting-style demonstrations of the late nineteenth century.
The urban landscape of which the Salvation Army had become a part changed radically during the nineteenth century. Industrialization, urbanization, and immigration transformed the nature of city life, making it more diverse and culturally confusing. Alarmed by, but also attracted to, all that was new and exciting in the cities, urban elites and the emerging middle class sought to limit or gain some control over urban cultural life. According to this standard, physical behavior in public as well as private must be guided, above all, by an effort to remain inconspicuous.
Similarly, genteel men and women exerted control over all displays of emotion from anger to joy. Resisting these standards of public and private behavior, according to Kasson, created a dilemma for the working classes. In addition, a second generation that no longer needed the alternative world provided by the Army and who were less willing to accept outsider status joined these Salvationists.
Not all Salvationists supported these transformations, and many veterans expressed their discontent by resigning. Alarmed by the losses, American leaders sought to maintain and cultivate the loyalty of existing Salvationist families. During the early twentieth century the Salvation Army ceased to be a working-class-dominated religious organization devoted to advertising salvation to others like themselves with lively and boisterous expressions of spirituality.
Instead, the organization served an increasingly segmented constituency; its social institutions offered temporal salvation to the poor while its spiritual work ministered to upwardly mobile second and third generations of previously working-class Salvationist families. In contrast to the blood-washed warriors of the nineteenth century, Salvationists in the twentieth century generally regarded themselves as members of a church that sponsored professionalized Christian social services to the downtrodden. As an auxiliary member, one could support the goals of the Salvation Army without participating in its religious performances.
Tuesday to around a. Prosecution testimony revealed public perceptions that the organization encouraged blatant violations of genteel behavioral standards and highlighted the importance of providing a different picture of Salvation Army religious practice. The trial began in May Both men heard the Salvation Army from their homes and went into the hall to observe the proceedings. He seems to have felt that Salvationists tried to legitimate their behavior by wearing costumes that resembled Union Army uniforms. There is a law against that too. Instead, the attorney suggested that whatever sounds the group made must be understood both within their urban context and as a historically legitimate style of worship.
Targeting Phineas Smith particularly, Hall accused him of failing to control his feelings and lying on the stand. While the People portrayed the meetings as noisy and out-of-control physically and emotionally, each Salvation Army witness suggested that order, self-control, and decorum characterized the gatherings.
Throughout the late nineteenth century, Salvationists argued that open-air marches provided the most effective means to advertise salvation to working-class men and women. The weather is getting so now, the people stay on the st. Lizzie Franks and her squad of twenty-one hardy Salvation Army soldiers as they marched through the streets of Portland, Maine. Courtesy of the Salvation Army National Archives citizens to march in the streets. Please answer immediately. Ferris had worked as an attorney for Tammeny Hall.
Although nhq apparently declined to send Joe, he showed up in Wilkes-Barre anyway. In addition to the long-term impact of arrests on relations with the community, cost-conscious Army bureaucrats also expressed alarm at the expense associated with appeals. These venues had been designed, not for the typical Salvation Army crowd, but for a predominantly middle-class family audience. The instrumental music was planned to add its powerful appeal. Ad hoc efforts in the s and early s gave way in to more organized campaigns.
These men and women, who shared so many characteristics with southern plain folk, created an alternative world in which they accomplished things that would otherwise have been impossible from their marginalized position in secular society. In contrast to their parents, second-generation Salvationists moved from the margins to the middle of American society. Instead, Salvationism began to resemble the more respectable Methodist holiness camp meetings of the late nineteenth century. Like second-generation Salvationists, many latenineteenth-century Methodists had secured their place in the ranks of the middle class.
At the same time, their religious services had become more structured and formal. Indeed, according to Charles H. We will be playing National Airs and old familiar hymns. Indeed, participation in the Rose Parade marks an especially important milestone in the remodeling of Salvation Army street performance. The Pasadena elite, who served on the Tournament of Roses committee, rigorously screened applications to participate in the parade; by the Salvation Army apparently met their exacting standards of respectability.
Even the venerable William Booth had sought ways to exert discipline over the audience. Evangelical Christians have increasingly co-opted rock music. Furthermore, there is little evidence that contact with Salvation Army social programs led men and women to join the organization. While Salvation Army membership increased by 1, soldiers per year between and , in the sixteen years between and membership increased by only persons each year, a 73 percent decline.
My enthusiasm was at fever heat in those happy blessed years. I think I felt at the time that the Army had been leaving me. As a result, the group reconceptualized its religious market and increasingly focused its spiritual energies inward, toward preserving its own membership, rather than outward, advertising salvation to the masses.
The goals of its new spiritual mission are to bring holiness to already converted Salvationists and to sustain their children by nurturing them in the faith. These upwardly mobile children, in contrast to their workingclass parents, do not see themselves as the vanguard of the millennium. First, could the free-and-easy, spontaneous, democratic Salvation Army religious culture of the nineteenth century have competed successfully with new forms of commercial entertainment in the early twentieth century? The decline of other forms of spectacular public display, notably political parades, owed much to its inability to compete with the emerging leisure and consumer culture, according to Michael McGerr.
Although the group never displaced working-class forms of popular entertainment, they did successfully attract thousands of Americans to their meetings through the years. By the turn of the century the Salvation Army was no longer a working-class-dominated vanguard of the millennium.
A ring around a London lamppost expands until it encircles the world. It is a romance numerically. William and Catherine Booth. But above all it is a romance spiritually. The young man, our founder, standing on the slum curb telling the wretched. In the late nineteenth century, working-class men and women created an autonomous, democratic, heterosocial alternative world in which they could express and share their spirituality using the vernacular culture of the northern urban working class.
By the twentieth century, the Army lost many of the qualities that made it a vibrant working-class-dominated institution. It had become, instead, a highly centralized organization with a complex bureaucracy. In place of its inventive alternative world, the Army had become a stable church complete with ritualized religious culture. Whether barely literate working-class men and women in the nineteenth century or collegeeducated middle-class men and women in the twentieth, Salvationists share an identity that continues to make them unique. The decision to implement a broad program of social services required extensive reorganization in order to satisfy modern institutional standards.
The process of bureaucratization and decline of democracy in the Salvation Army at the turn of the century foreshadowed what other emphatically working-class organizations like industrial unions would forfeit by the s. Together with a small number of college-educated men and women, the group built a sacred community in which its members found moral authority as well as opportunities for usefulness and leadership. Moreover, in contrast to the male-centered culture of the saloon and workshop, Salvation Army religious culture included both men and women; and, unlike the male-dominated middle-class public sphere, the Army accepted the spiritual and administrative authority of women.
Fi conclusion nally, Salvationists set themselves apart from both the working and middle class by wearing the uniform and performing distinctive rituals of membership. The children of working-class Salvationists found opportunities in the expanding American economy and moved into the ranks of the middle class.
While the Army began to conform to middle-class standards in some ways, by the twentieth century American society also changed, making the group appear less unique. This is particularly noticeable in relation to gender equality and heterosociality. By the turn of the century entrepreneurs of mass culture worked diligently to attract a mixed audience of middle-class men and women and turned commercial leisure, from amusement parks to vaudeville theaters, into a heterosocial experience.
Moreover, as the twentieth century proceeded, more and more jobs and career opportunities opened to women. Although the Salvation Army and middle-class American society became more alike, twentieth-century Salvationists still set themselves apart from others of their class in a number of ways. First, they rejected the enthusiastic consumerism and materialism integral to the middle-class experience. From gold watches to automobiles, the Army has been selective in its relationship to consumer goods, rejecting them unless useful to the work.
Although it has grown more like middle-class American society, now as they did in the beginning, Salvationists stand apart. For new industrial unions, argued James R. As Madison Ferris pointed out, no good could come from local corps initiatives that antagonized private business donors or political authorities that could provide public money. For industrial unions, as for the Salvation Army, the exercise of greater centralized control created internal tensions that facilitated the decline of democracy and local autonomy in both of these working-class organizations. Most of them entered training between and , , and were the peak years.
Of the cases for which there was any occupational data, 95 percent appeared in the later period. Of the cases for which there was any occupational data, 64 percent appeared in the later period. Summary, Ivy House, RG Clarke A. While I do not know about all of the territorial museums, the Western Territorial Museum is not set up to accommodate researchers. They have now added a computerized database. On my most recent research trip, I mentioned that my daughter was born at Booth Memorial Hospital in Philadelphia. I chose not to include information from the U.
Census of Religious Bodies, since these data rely on reports gathered from the religious institutions themselves and there is evidence that Salvationists, like so many other groups, regularly exaggerated their numbers. See, for example, unpublished letter from Captain Geo. Smith to Major R. Holz, Syracuse, N. Holz Papers, RG These works include: Aaron I. An important exception to the inattention to working-class religion is the excellent work of Robert A.
American Historical Review 97 : , n. Mark C. Edward H. While the work on the Salvation Army in the United States is very limited, there has been some excellent research on the organization in both Canada and Great Britain. Pamela J. Walker has studied the organization in Britain.
Hallelujah Lads and Lasses: Remaking the Salvation Army in America, 1880-1930
As I show in chapter 2, the class differences in conversion narratives are even more pronounced than gender differences. The nature of agency also demonstrated class differences. Chapter One 1. During his tenure as editor of the Atlantic Monthly, Howells published stories by many authors who also used dialect in their stories. Thanks to Carol Siegel for the above ideas on cockney accents provided in an e-mail message on 27 June The working-class background of Salvationists will be addressed in chapter 2.
Sydney E. Boyer, Urban Masses and Moral Order, — Norman H. Bruce C. Quoted in Richard P. Boyer, Urban Masses and Moral Order, Among the denominations were the Congregationalists, Methodists, Baptists, and Presbyterians. The Presbyterian Board of Home Missions distinguished between home missions i. Jones argues that the home mission experience proved instrumental in the eventual institutionalization of Holiness and Pentecostal churches. Boyer, ibid. In his recent book, R. John Milsaps Diary, Vol.
George M. Virginia Lieson Brereton. Phoebe Palmer took her evangelical message to Europe between and It was during that time that Catherine and William Booth came in contact with her particular interpretation of holiness. See also Timothy L. Dieter, Holiness Revival, 36, 42 quotation on p.
Jones, Perfectionist Persuasion, 85— Robert C. Daniel E. Fellers of Wheeling, Va. Marsden, Fundamentalism, 38, Marsden, Fundamentalism, As we will see in ensuing chapters, the Army used the concept of corporate holiness in a number of different ways to justify behaviors that frequently offended mainstream Christians. Their only other son, Henry, died when he was two years old. Their daughters were Ann, Emma, and Mary, none of whom seem to have been associated with the Salvation Army.
Indeed, there is no indication that Booth felt a very strong connection to any members of his natal family. He resigned from the latter group in when the New Connexion conference assigned him for a second time to regular pastoral work instead of itinerancy, which he preferred. Catherine Mumford wrote a letter to the minister of a Congregationalist church she was attending to explain her position on the intellectual capacities of women. Ideas about the importance of meaningful education for women were not unique to Catherine Booth. Carol H. Poston New York: W.
Norton, , For an excellent discussion of Catherine Booth, see Pamela J. A sixth child would be born in There would be eight Booth children in all. The council complained that Booth failed to consult them before taking on projects that created large debts. Between and , the group would call itself the Christian Mission. Quoted in ibid. David G.
Among the Disciples of Christ between and , male leaders took a strong stand against expressions of female spiritual and moral authority. Although they allowed women to exhort or lecture in public, they condemned women preaching. John Bodner Princeton, N. For a more extensive discussion, see T. Stuart McConnell associates interest in the military to expressions of patriotism in the late nineteenth century.
Over the years there has been a considerable number of changes in the titles used and the authority they confer. Brother J. Many organizations in the late nineteenth century co-opted military jargon. Lears, No Place of Grace, Most histories of the Salvation Army in the United States do not focus much attention on the early efforts of Jermy or the Shirleys, who came to this country in Little is known about the preacher for this congregation, James Fackler. There is some speculation that he was associated with the African Methodist Episcopal Church and may have been African American.
Furthermore, when illness forced him to abandon the work in Cleveland, he returned home to the South. Among these were Reverend James E. Billups, who had at one time been a member of the Booth household. Herbert A. Wisbey Jr. McKinley, Marching to Glory, 5. The Peniel Mission in Los Angeles used some of the same methods as the Salvation Army, including street-corner meetings followed by parades back to the mission hall. Jones, Perfectionist Persuasion, 75— LWC, 31 January , 1. McKinley, Marching to Glory, 9.
AWC, 9 July , 1. The following year the number of corps dropped into the six hundred range and remained there for some time. At the turn of the century a state might have only one or two corps, as in the case of Colorado, or as many as thirty-two, as did Ohio. It provided a not entirely reliable list of the locations and personnel attached to each Salvation Army location in the United States. While the Army opened many new corps, quite a few of these did not last very long. Wisbey, Soldiers Without Swords, After the turn of the century, that growth slowed considerably.
By , the number of soldiers had only grown by 6, to 31, Four thousand people paid admission to see the celebration of the third anniversary of Cmdr. When Gen. William Booth visited the United States in , he addressed more than , people in the course of hours of preaching. In , Booth held meetings where he spoke to , people.
Wisbey, Jr. Similarly, there were corps reported in but only 17 in Another boom period, , showed Salvation Army corps followed by a sharp drop in to corps. For more on these schisms, see McKinley, Marching to Glory, 27—31, 74— George De Lautour Booth-Tucker daughter and son-in-law , and Evangeline Booth daughter , who headed the Army in the United States from to , after which she became general of the entire international organization.
Disposition of Forces. The experience of women in the Salvation Army will be addressed at length in chapter 2. In , workers in New York held a peaceful labor demonstration at which they demanded that the city provide public-works jobs to desperate workers hit hard by the depression that began in In a desire to protect themselves, middle-class residents called on city authorities to break up this demonstration and prevent others.
At Thompkins Square, police stepped in and violence ensued. He left behind Capt. Emma Westbrook to carry on the thankless work in New York City. By the end of the summer the resourceful captain had found a new hall with a porch on which to hold open-air meetings. John D. Waldron, ed. McKinley, Marching to Glory, Philadelphia apparently had a very large appetite for city missions, and its streets must have been crowded with preachers.
LWC, 4 April , 4. LWC, 29 May , 4. Moore spent eight years in the United States while he was in his twenties; later, leaving his wife and family in London, he returned for three more years. God is putting the seal of His approval upon the preaching of Mrs. AWC, 13 October , 1. In the late s and the s, various Holiness Associations also published their own periodicals. Jones, Perfectionist Persuasion, Mainline Protestant denominations also had their own periodicals such as the Presbyterian New York Evangelist.
Emphasis in original. Initially The War Cry sold for two cents. Wisbey, Soldiers Without Swords, — In contrast, before wealthy audiences, neither slum-wear nor standardissue Army attire would do. In addition to William and Catherine Booth, there were seven brothers and sisters active in the organization. Eyes Front! See also McKinley, Marching to Glory, The two groups would be reunited in McKinley, Marching to Glory, 25— AWC, quoted in T. As indicated, Moore had moved his headquarters to Brooklyn. Smith, meanwhile, set up shop in New York City. John Bodner Princeton, N.
For a more extensive discussion, see T. Stuart McConnell associates interest in the military to expressions of patriotism in the late nineteenth century. Over the years there has been a considerable number of changes in the titles used and the authority they confer. Brother J. Many organizations in the late nineteenth century co-opted military jargon.
Lears, No Place of Grace, Most histories of the Salvation Army in the United States do not focus much attention on the early efforts of Jermy or the Shirleys, who came to this country in Little is known about the preacher for this congregation, James Fackler. There is some speculation that he was associated with the African Methodist Episcopal Church and may have been African American.
Furthermore, when illness forced him to abandon the work in Cleveland, he returned home to the South. Among these were Reverend James E. Billups, who had at one time been a member of the Booth household. Herbert A. Wisbey Jr. McKinley, Marching to Glory, 5. The Peniel Mission in Los Angeles used some of the same methods as the Salvation Army, including street-corner meetings followed by parades back to the mission hall.
Jones, Perfectionist Persuasion, 75— LWC, 31 January , 1. McKinley, Marching to Glory, 9. AWC, 9 July , 1. The following year the number of corps dropped into the six hundred range and remained there for some time. At the turn of the century a state might have only one or two corps, as in the case of Colorado, or as many as thirty-two, as did Ohio.
It provided a not entirely reliable list of the locations and personnel attached to each Salvation Army location in the United States. While the Army opened many new corps, quite a few of these did not last very long. Wisbey, Soldiers Without Swords, After the turn of the century, that growth slowed considerably. By , the number of soldiers had only grown by 6, to 31, Four thousand people paid admission to see the celebration of the third anniversary of Cmdr. When Gen. William Booth visited the United States in , he addressed more than , people in the course of hours of preaching.
In , Booth held meetings where he spoke to , people. Wisbey, Jr. Similarly, there were corps reported in but only 17 in Another boom period, , showed Salvation Army corps followed by a sharp drop in to corps. For more on these schisms, see McKinley, Marching to Glory, 27—31, 74— George De Lautour Booth-Tucker daughter and son-in-law , and Evangeline Booth daughter , who headed the Army in the United States from to , after which she became general of the entire international organization.
Disposition of Forces. The experience of women in the Salvation Army will be addressed at length in chapter 2. In , workers in New York held a peaceful labor demonstration at which they demanded that the city provide public-works jobs to desperate workers hit hard by the depression that began in In a desire to protect themselves, middle-class residents called on city authorities to break up this demonstration and prevent others.
At Thompkins Square, police stepped in and violence ensued. He left behind Capt. Emma Westbrook to carry on the thankless work in New York City. By the end of the summer the resourceful captain had found a new hall with a porch on which to hold open-air meetings. John D. Waldron, ed. McKinley, Marching to Glory, Philadelphia apparently had a very large appetite for city missions, and its streets must have been crowded with preachers. LWC, 4 April , 4. LWC, 29 May , 4. Moore spent eight years in the United States while he was in his twenties; later, leaving his wife and family in London, he returned for three more years.
God is putting the seal of His approval upon the preaching of Mrs. AWC, 13 October , 1. In the late s and the s, various Holiness Associations also published their own periodicals. Jones, Perfectionist Persuasion, Mainline Protestant denominations also had their own periodicals such as the Presbyterian New York Evangelist. Emphasis in original. Initially The War Cry sold for two cents. Wisbey, Soldiers Without Swords, — In contrast, before wealthy audiences, neither slum-wear nor standardissue Army attire would do.
In addition to William and Catherine Booth, there were seven brothers and sisters active in the organization. Eyes Front! See also McKinley, Marching to Glory, The two groups would be reunited in McKinley, Marching to Glory, 25— AWC, quoted in T.
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As indicated, Moore had moved his headquarters to Brooklyn. Smith, meanwhile, set up shop in New York City. Moore, All About the Salvation Army. It seems to have been as much a description of Pugmire as a sign of regard. Smith, Salvation War, The numbers of corps Smith opened during his tenure is not absolutely clear. Some sources suggest that as many as new corps opened by As Smith himself reported, however, many of his corps opened and closed quickly. His son Herbert would visit two years later.
Booth would visit the United States again in William Booth gave all of his children special titles. Ballington and Maud would be replaced by Emma and Frederick St. George de Lautour Booth-Tucker. She held that position until , when she was selected to be general of the International Salvation Army. McKinley, Marching to Glory, 70— Wisbey, Soldiers Without Swords, 76— Many thanks to Pamela Walker for generously sharing chapter 5 of her manuscript with me.
Paul, San Diego, and Louisville. On the slum nursery, see McKinley, Marching to Glory, Booth has lately been reaching in her drawingroom meetings. Between and , prominent members of the clergy like Josiah Strong and Lyman Abbott became league members. Harry B. In , there were 6, auxiliaries; in , there were local corps.
The nature of the Social Scheme and its impact on the Salvation Army will be addressed in chapter 4. Chicago Tribune, 31 March , 6. See also in ibid. The couple went on to form the Volunteers of America, a movement very similar to the Salvation Army in organization and mission. Quote from Living Church, 29 February , Advance, 12 March , See also Chicago Tribune, 2 March , 6, and 15 March , Chicago Daily News, 4 February , 7.
Some of these Salvationists had only returned to the fold in , when Ballington Booth reconciled with the Salvation Army of America then under the leadership of Colonel Richard Holz. The reconciliation did not spell the end of the American Salvation Army. When he split with his father in and left notes to pages 43 — 47 the organization to start the Volunteers of America, he could have taken all Army property with him, but did not.
McKinley, Marching to Glory, 82, n. AWC, 14 March , Chapter Two 1. Susan Swift later quit the Army to join a Catholic order. Clarence W. Vernon Corps Roll, RG 9. Thomas, Virgin Islands, RG 4. Richard D. The data also do not permit me to determine with certainty the relative proportions of working- and middle-class women. None of the documents provided information on paternal occupation, and there is no way to be sure that the men and women for whom I have no occupation were never employed. Indeed, given the youth of the sample, it seems more likely that a larger number of the women had performed wage work at some time prior to joining the Salvation Army.
Winston, Red Hot and Righteous, 80, Of the 1, cases I had, were women. Of this number I had occupational data on Rosalyn Baxandall et al. However, in the early years, wages were taken out of the often meager monies collected locally, and Army policy dictated that all Corps bills be paid prior to any salaries. The dearth of self-employed Salvationists may also be a factor of age, since nearly 45 percent of male Salvationists were between the ages of 17 and 22 and therefore unlikely to have become self-employed.
Still, as their memoirs suggest, few of these men had any expectations of becoming proprietors. Evelyn Nakano Glenn and Roslyn L. Without information on paternal occupation, for the purposes of this discussion, I have adopted college education as a sign of middle-class status. Most had been members of the Methodist church, but some had been Episcopalians.
My sources reveal that several of their fathers or grandfathers had served in the Union army. Hall, ibid. For more on the Auxiliary League, see chapter 1. Most of the Scandinavian Salvationists were Swedish; smaller numbers were Norwegian. Damon Brief; Colonel and Mrs. AWC, 18 July , 1. George B. James E. Although the evidence is very sketchy, it seems that not all African Americans joined in segregated corps.
There is, of course, an extensive literature on the disruptive conditions caused by large-scale industrialization during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. See also David M. Since the data do not permit me to determine whether the native-born Americans in my sample are the children of native-born parents, it is possible I have overestimated the Yankeeness of my sample.
However, if some of the nativeborn Salvationists were actually second generation, they may also have felt dissatisfaction with their progress particularly relative to Yankees. In his home state of Texas, Milsaps had opened a small grocery store and then tried to operate a photography business. In he set out for the Black Hills of Dakota to prospect for gold, only to discover that the heyday of the individual gold miner had passed. By the late nineteenth century, only large corporations could command the capital equipment required to mine gold, and would-be prospectors usually ended up working for wages.
John Milsaps Diary, vol. Joseph F. George Cunningham to his parents, 3 February , RG Major Mrs. Henry L. Knopf, , ; Joanne J. Eva Thompson to Ensign E. Matthaei, An Economic History, chap. Meyerowitz, Women Adrift, Sara M. Aron, Ladies and Gentlemen, Quote from Kett, Rites of Passage, Curtis, A Consuming Faith, It is interesting to note that in , William Booth had become a hired preacher for a well-to-do boot manufacturer, Edward Rabbits.
Hall, Samuel Logan Brengle, There is a vast literature on women and the domestic sphere. Among the works are: Nancy F. Carnes and Clyde Griffen, eds. The expansion of the domestic sphere earlier in the century had drawn increasing numbers of young, single, middle-class women into college. Allen F. While 90 percent of late-nineteenth-century women married, only 63 percent of college-educated women married during the same period. Woloch, Women and the American Experience, — While the rejection of alcohol may appear to mimic the concerns of bourgeois evangelicals, as we will see in chapter 3, and although Salvationists rejected liquor and the violence and risky sexual behavior it encouraged, they did not reject the sociability, camaraderie, and mutuality of saloon culture.
Of 48 stories, 23 mentioned the impact of drink. Men also discussed the impact of drink in other terms. Married men or young men with drunken fathers considered the consequences of drinking in language similar to that of female temperance reformers; that is, they stressed the threat of alcohol to the family economy and the physical welfare of women. For a discussion of the ways in which women temperance reformers framed the debate about drinking, see Ruth Bordin, Women and Temperance: The Quest for Power and notes to pages 56 — 57 Liberty, — Philadelphia: Temple University Press, ; Barbara L.
Nellie Upham. Richard L. These feelings have also been found in young women during the revivals of the Second Great Awakening. Quotation in Epstein, The Politics of Domesticity, Henry F. As we will see in chapter 3, however, Salvationists created a religious culture and public religious performance that was far from decorous. The Salvation Army shared much in common with the Methodist and Baptist churches of the early nineteenth century, which Charles Sellers describes in his book The Market Revolution.
Notes n. Another theme is the obligation of drunken fathers to their children. Notes, McAbee Letters, 29 May , Orders and Regulations for Soldiers, It should be noted, however, that while there were pages of rules and directives regulating Salvation Army marriages, they were frequently observed in the breech. Damon Brief. Typically, working-class wives lacked the authority to question how much or on what a man spent what he considered his discretionary money.
If a man subtracted from his pay money for drink, tobacco, or gambling, his wife had to make do on what remained. Susan J. The General, Orders and Regulations, AWC, 27 December , 3; 18 July , 1. May Wright Sewall, ed. Holman, , The Army also frequently placed middle-class men with business experience in administrative positions at the district level immediately after training. McKinley, Marching to Glory, — Stansel, City of Women, Letter to Capt.
Lodge, RG Letters to Capt. Lodge to Hartelius, 9 August , RG Commissioner Richard E. Ironically, William Booth suffered from chronic dyspepsia and other physical complaints for most of his life. According to E. Later they became deeply involved in faith healing and would leave the Salvation Army.
Chicago Tribune, 28 August , 4. For more on the transformation of the Salvation Army at the turn of the century, see chapter 4. Chapter Three 1. For more on the early history of the Salvation Army in the United States, see chapter 1. James D. McCabe Jr. In basic nineteenth-century minstrel format, all of the performers sat on stage in a semicircle which formed the setting for the various jokes, dances, and serious and comic songs that the players would perform. Allen provides an excellent discussion of living pictures and other features of nineteenth-century burlesque.
Although Moore did not explore this dynamic within working-class religion, the Salvation Army provides an excellent opportunity to examine how a working-class evangelical Christian organization helped to develop new ways to be religious by notes to pages 71 — 74 employing working-class forms of popular culture. See also Jon M. Dickson D. Bruce Jr. See chapter 2 for more on violence and drink in the lives of Salvationists. As the Army became more bureaucratically centralized, training was shifted to three Territorial Training Colleges.
Charles H. Historians have also studied institutionalization of the late-nineteenth-century camp meeting into holiness and pentecostal churches. Smith of St. Paul 1, Minn. Ash-Barrel Jimmy, a. Murdoch and Howard F. Until the late nineteenth century, all minstrel-show performers were men. In the s, theatrical entrepreneurs created all-female minstrel shows that were quickly recognized as a separate form—burlesque. Allen, Horrible Prettiness, Herbert Gutman also noted that in their failed campaign against a lockout, potters in Trenton, N.
These special events brought in desperately needed funds which were shared between the national headquarters, divisions, and local corps. AWC, 25 April , 8. AWC, 18 January , 8. Few works have explored the transformation of the sex-segregated world of working-class leisure culture. Only Kathy Peiss has looked at the way in which working-class women adjusted to the emerging heterosocial world of commerical amusements. Davis and Mark H. Haller Philadelphia: Temple University Press, In the mayor of Newark, N.
See chapter 2. Hall, Samuel Logan Brengle, 81— For a painstakingly detailed account of this transition, see Norman H. AWC, 10 April , 1. With violent labor unrest still in recent memory, Rockefeller may have felt some reservations about the use to which the Salvation Army might put its authority over its working-class membership. Stan J. See chapter 1. Unpublished letter from Captain Geo. Louis, to Brooklyn, and back to New York City.
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Damon Diaries, 1 July , RG Nevertheless, since this and similar requests were published repeatedly in The War Cry, it does not appear that Moore was successful in getting full compliance. Captain Seely, Binghamton, N. Holz, 24 November , R. Lieutenant Mosher, Buffalo, N. McKinley, Marching to Glory, 12, By the late s, the Salvation Army found itself contending with growing numbers of phony armies.
Morher, Buffalo, N. Holz, 18 November , R.
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Chapter Four The remarks by General Booth in the epigraph are taken from an audiotape of a talk given by the General. James W. Michael H. For parades as democratic legitimization, see Michael E. The prominent role women played in the public and private world of the Salvation Army stands in sharp contrast to other parts of American society in this period. As Michael McGerr notes, political parades and rallies played a similar role in popular politics between the s and s. William Booth quoted in Norman H. Phillips, Kingdom on Earth, Paul, Smith had become involved in the early socialist movement.
Smith rejoined again in but resigned a second time a few years later and continued his secular political work, which culminated in his election as a Labor Party member of Parliament in Murdoch argues that Smith was able to help change the direction of the Salvation Army between and for several reasons. Bailey suggests that Stead introduced Booth to the works of W. Booth, In Darkest England, Booth, ibid. See also St.
Joan M. As early as , the British Salvation Army opened a food depot and the following year established three night shelters. See also Robert H. As indicated in chapter 1, during their leadership of the Salvation Army in the United States, Maud and Ballington Booth chose to focus their energies on social rescue work. Scholarly discussion of the Salvation Army has historically emphasized its social service work in the United States to the exclusion of most other aspects of the group.
Bremner, From the Depths, 28— See also Aaron I. Warren C. Damon Diaries, 24 and 25 February , RG Last quotation in Major John Milsaps Diary, vol. Emma Booth-Tucker died in a train wreck on October 28, Congress as representatives from the State of Virginia. Damon Diaries, 7 April , RG In a letter to his daughter Emma dated 22 April , William Booth commented on a report he had received about the welcome meeting. Although Mr.
We accept the nation, we are loyal to it, when we are on its ground we are true Americans, but we belong to God and the world.
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Damon Diaries, 8 April God bless him he is to have his old rank of Major again. William Booth to Emma Booth, 22 April Damon Diaries, 22, 25, and 26 June The report showed the following increases: Program Food and shelter depots Rescue homes Wood yards, etc. Salvage brigades Labor bureaus Slum posts Miscellaneous institutions Total social institutions 3 5 4 — — 13 3 28 30 12 10 5 5 16 7 85 See also Herbert A.
For more on settlement houses, see Allen F. Edwin D. Booth-Tucker apparently did not support the notion that the West was closing. Of the four elements of this program, the settlement of the West received the least elaboration and discussion. See letters of E. Porter R. Lee and Walter W. Commander Frederick Booth-Tucker to Lt. Colonel Holz, 18 January , RG Rose, B. At one point, the Reliance Trading Company even housed an insurance department through which Salvationists sold life insurance policies to members and friends for the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company.
The Army had become involved in selling insurance as early as but in transferred that department to the Reliance Trading Company.
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The Army created Reliance by offering 6 percent preferred stock. Industrial homes collected junk which was sorted for sale in Salvation Army Junk Stores. Moore incorporated the Salvation Army in America. While a portion of Thomas E. The Salvation Army was plagued by copycat organizations and, beginning with incorporation, maintained vigilance against organizations that encroached upon its symbols and methods.
They ultimately brought suit against the American Salvation Army and forced that group to change its name and uniforms. See also McKinley, Marching to Glory, 82— Lee and Pettit, Social Salvage, Fielding et al. Songbooks also apparently represented an important source of income for NHQ. It is interesting to note that a similar directive against local publication of songbooks appeared in National Headquarters, Minutes, No. As with songbooks, it appears that some local corps continued to operate ad hoc social services.
See Field Notes, passim. Frederick Booth-Tucker, Pauper Policy, Ironically, while the Associated Charities accused the Salvation Army of using funds raised for social services on behalf of their religious work, in the beginning just the opposite was the case. As noted above, between and the Army also relied on the Salvation Army Industrial Homes Company to provide capital to expand that part of the City Colony.
Emma Booth-Tucker to Lt. Memo from R. If a corps shared space with a shelter, they were admonished to make sure there was a separate entrance for people going to corps meetings. See also R. For salary cuts, see J. They also ruled that the purpose of the meeting must be publicly disclosed and that the appeal for funds may last one-half hour. Wilber Gale to R. Holz, 3 April ; R. Holz to Colonel Higgins, 3 October all in R. Holz, 9 March , R. McFee to Holz, 3 April , R. Higgins, 11 May Holz Correspondence, RG At various times the Salvation Army divided itself into districts, divisions, provinces, and territories.
Damon Diaries, 5 April , RG John Milsaps Diary, vols. Damon Diaries, 13 June , RG Francis P. Historically, the Salvation Army made very little headway in the South.