For broader coverage of this topic, see Red. Main article: Pink. Main article: Light red. Main article: Coral color. Main article: Salmon color. Main article: Scarlet color. Main article: Indian red color. Main article: Carmine color. Main article: Ruby color. Main article: Crimson. Main article: Fire engine red. Main article: Cardinal color. Main article: Maroon color.
Main article: Turkey red. Main article: Cinnabar. Main article: Blood red. Bruno, Paris D. CRC Press, Retrieved 2 October February Retrieved on 16 September May Guide to Colorations Madrid: H. Retrieved 1 January Natural Product Communications, 11 1 , Columbia University Press. Life of Colour. Shades of red. A typical sample is shown for each name; a range of color-variations is commonly associated with each color-name. Shades of magenta. Shades of pink. Shades of orange. Shades of brown. Web colors.
The Meanings of Red
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Chocolate Cosmos. Electric crimson. Fire brick. Hollywood cerise. Persian rose. Shocking pink. Tea rose. Terra cotta. Amaranth pink. Amaranth purple. Dark Magenta. Fairy Tale. French rose. Hot magenta.
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Tea Rose. Thulian pink.
Atomic tangerine. Burnt orange. Carrot orange. Dark salmon. One of the most famous works of Chinese literature, A Dream of Red Mansions by Cao Xueqin —63 , was about the lives of noble women who passed their lives out of public sight within the walls of such mansions. In later dynasties red was reserved for the walls of temples and imperial residences. When the Manchu rulers of the Qing Dynasty conquered the Ming and took over the Forbidden City and Imperial Palace in Beijing, all the walls, gates, beams and pillars were painted in red and gold.
Red is not often used in traditional Chinese paintings, which are usually black ink on white paper with a little green sometimes added for trees or plants; but the round or square seals which contain the name of the artist are traditionally red. Walls, columns, windows and gates of palaces and temples were traditionally painted red. A red lacquerware tray with engraved gold foil decoration 12—13th century , from the Song dynasty.
The red coach of the Ming dynasty 's Xuande Emperor — , pulled by elephants. Dancer of the Tang dynasty , from the Astana Tombs. In Renaissance painting, red was used to draw the attention of the viewer; it was often used as the color of the cloak or costume of Christ , the Virgin Mary , or another central figure. In Venice , Titian was the master of fine reds, particularly vermilion ; he used many layers of pigment mixed with a semi-transparent glaze, which let the light pass through, to create a more luminous color.
During the Renaissance trade routes were opened to the New World, to Asia and the Middle East, and new varieties of red pigment and dye were imported into Europe, usually through Venice , Genoa or Seville , and Marseille. Venice was the major depot importing and manufacturing pigments for artists and dyers from the end of the 15th century; the catalog of a Venetian Vendecolori , or pigment seller, from included vermilion and kermes. There were guilds of dyers who specialized in red in Venice and other large Europeans cities.
The Rubia plant was used to make the most common dye; it produced an orange-red or brick red color used to dye the clothes of merchants and artisans.
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For the wealthy, the dye used was kermes, made from a tiny scale insect which fed on the branches and leaves of the oak tree. For those with even more money there was Polish Cochineal ; also known as Kermes vermilio or "Blood of Saint John", which was made from a related insect, the Margodes polonicus. It made a more vivid red than ordinary Kermes. The finest and most expensive variety of red made from insects was the "Kermes" of Armenia Armenian cochineal , also known as Persian kirmiz , made by collecting and crushing Porphyophora hamelii , an insect which lived on the roots and stems of certain grasses.
The pigment and dye merchants of Venice imported and sold all of these products and also manufactured their own color, called Venetian red , which was considered the most expensive and finest red in Europe. Its secret ingredient was arsenic , which brightened the color. But early in the 16th century, a brilliant new red appeared in Europe.
The cochineal in Mexico was closely related to the Kermes varieties of Europe, but unlike European Kermes, it could be harvested several times a year, and it was ten times stronger than the Kermes of Poland. It worked particularly well on silk, satin and other luxury textiles.
In Cortes sent the first shipment to Spain.
Shades of red
Soon cochineal began to arrive in European ports aboard convoys of Spanish galleons. At first the guilds of dyers in Venice and other cities banned cochineal to protect their local products, but the superior quality of cochineal dye made it impossible to resist. By the beginning of the 17th century it was the preferred luxury red for the clothing of cardinals, bankers, courtesans and aristocrats.
The painters of the early Renaissance used two traditional lake pigments, made from mixing dye with either chalk or alum , kermes lake, made from kermes insects, and madder lake , made from the rubia tinctorum plant. With the arrival of cochineal, they had a third, carmine , which made a very fine crimson, though it had a tendency to change color if not used carefully. Later it was used by Thomas Gainsborough , Seurat and J. The Assumption , by Titian — The figures of God, the Virgin Mary and two apostles are highlighted by their vermilion red costumes.
The young Queen Elizabeth I here in about liked to wear bright reds, before she adopted the more sober image of the "Virgin Queen". Her satin gown was probably dyed with kermes. In Renaissance Flanders , people of all social classes wore red at celebrations. The dye came from the root of the madder plant, which tended toward orange. Woman with a wine glass , by Johannes Vermeer — Vermeer used different shades and tints of vermilion to paint the red skirt, then glazed it with madder lake to make a more luminous color.
Dyed feather headdress from the Aztec people of Mexico and Central America. For red they used cochineal , a brilliant scarlet dye made from insects. A native of Central America collecting cochineal insects from a cactus to make red dye From the 16th until the 19th century, it was a highly profitable export from Spanish Mexico to Europe. Rembrandt used carmine lake, made of cochineal , to paint the skirt of the bride in the painting known as The Jewish bride — During the French Revolution , the Jacobins and other more radical parties adopted the red flag; it was taken from red flags hoisted by the French government to declare a state of siege or emergency.
Many of them wore a red Phrygian cap , or liberty cap, modeled after the caps worn by freed slaves in Ancient Rome. During the height of the Reign of Terror , Women wearing red caps gathered around the guillotine to celebrate each execution. They were called the "Furies of the guillotine". The guillotines used during the Reign of Terror in and were painted red, or made of red wood. During the Reign of Terror a statue of a woman titled liberty, painted red, was placed in the square in front of the guillotine. After the end of the Reign of Terror, France went back to the blue, white and red tricolor, whose red was taken from the red and blue colors of the city of Paris, and was the traditional color of Saint Denis , the Christian martyr and patron saint of Paris.
In the midth century, red became the color of a new political and social movement, socialism. It became the most common banner of the worker's movement, of the French Revolution of , of the Paris Commune in , and of socialist parties across Europe. As the Industrial Revolution spread across Europe, chemists and manufacturers sought new red dyes that could be used for large-scale manufacture of textiles. One popular color imported into Europe from Turkey and India in the 18th and early 19th century was Turkey red , known in France as rouge d'Adrinople.
Beginning in the s, this bright red color was used to dye or print cotton textiles in England, the Netherlands and France. Turkey red used madder as the colorant, but the process was longer and more complicated, involving multiple soaking of the fabrics in lye, olive oil, sheep's dung, and other ingredients. The fabric was more expensive but resulted in a fine bright and lasting red, similar to carmine , perfectly suited to cotton. In 19th-century America, it was widely used in making the traditional patchwork quilt.
In , the French chemist Pierre-Jean Robiquet discovered the organic compound alizarin , the powerful coloring ingredient of the madder root, the most popular red dye of the time. In , German chemists Carl Graebe and Liebermann were able to synthesize alizarin, and to produce it from coal tar. The synthetic red was cheaper and more lasting than the natural dye, and the plantation of madder in Europe and import of cochineal from Latin America soon almost completely ceased.
The 19th century also saw the use of red in art to create specific emotions, not just to imitate nature. These studies were avidly followed by artists such as Vincent van Gogh. Describing his painting, The Night Cafe , to his brother Theo in , Van Gogh wrote: "I sought to express with red and green the terrible human passions. The hall is blood red and pale yellow, with a green billiard table in the center, and four lamps of lemon yellow, with rays of orange and green.
Everywhere it is a battle and antithesis of the most different reds and greens. A Phrygian cap , or liberty cap, was worn by the supporters of the French Revolution of During the Reign of Terror during the later French Revolution, the "Furies of the Guillotine" cheered on each execution. The Night Cafe , , by Vincent van Gogh , used red and green to express what Van Gogh called "the terrible human passions. In the 20th century, red was the color of Revolution; it was the color of the Bolshevik Revolution in and of the Chinese Revolution of , and later of the Cultural Revolution.
In the late 19th and early 20th century, the German chemical industry invented two new synthetic red pigments: cadmium red , which was the color of natural vermilion, and mars red, which was a synthetic red ochre, the color of the very first natural red pigment. The French painter Henri Matisse — was one of the first prominent painters to use the new cadmium red. He even tried, without success, to persuade the older and more traditional Renoir , his neighbor in the south of France, to switch from vermilion to cadmium red. Matisse was also one of the first 20th-century artists to make color the central element of the painting, chosen to evoke emotions.
He wrote, "My choice of colors is not based on scientific theory; it is based on observation, upon feelings, upon the real nature of each experience I just try to find a color which corresponds to my feelings. Later in the century, the American artist Mark Rothko —70 also used red, in even simpler form, in blocks of dark, somber color on large canvases, to inspire deep emotions. Rothko observed that color was "only an instrument;" his interest was "in expressing human emotions tragedy, ecstasy, doom, and so on.
Rothko also began using the new synthetic pigments, but not always with happy results. In he donated to Harvard University a series of large murals of the Passion of Christ whose predominant colors were dark pink and deep crimson. He mixed mostly traditional colors to make the pink and crimson; synthetic ultramarine, cerulean blue, and titanium white, but he also used two new organic reds, Naphtol and Lithol. The Naphtol did well, but the Lithol slowly changed color when exposed to light. Within five years the deep pinks and reds had begun to turn light blue, and by the paintings were ruined and had to be taken down.
Bathing of a Red Horse , by the Russian symbolist painter Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin , used a bright red horse to surprise and shock viewers. It provoked a furious discussion among Russian critics. Four Darks in Red by Mark Rothko The somber dark reds were chosen to inspire deep human emotions. Surveys show that red is the color most associated with courage.
The banner of the Christian soldiers in the First Crusade was a red cross on a white field, the St. George's Cross. According to Christian tradition, Saint George was a Roman soldier who was a member of the guards of the Emperor Diocletian , who refused to renounce his Christian faith and was martyred. In , Mary, Queen of Scots , accused of treason against Queen Elizabeth I , wore a red shirt at her execution, to proclaim that she was an innocent martyr.
It was widely reported in the British press as an example of courage in the face of overwhelming odds and became a British military legend. In the 19th-century novel The Red Badge of Courage by Stephen Crane , a story about the American Civil War , the red badge was the blood from a wound, by which a soldier could prove his courage. Saint Julia wears red, the traditional color of Christian martyrs. Roman Catholic Popes wear red as the symbol of the blood of Christ.
Saint George and the Dragon , by Paolo Uccello — He wears the Saint George's Cross as a cape, which was also the banner of Milan. The name was given by the British press as a symbol of courage against the odds. The red poppy flower is worn on Remembrance Day in Commonwealth countries to honor soldiers who died in the First World War. Red is the color most commonly associated with love, followed at a great distance by pink.
Both the Greeks and the Hebrews considered red a symbol of love as well as sacrifice. The Roman de la Rose , the Romance of the Rose, a thirteenth-century French poem, was one of the most popular works of literature of the Middle Ages. It was the allegorical search by the author for a red rose in an enclosed garden, symbolizing the woman he loved, and was a description of love in all of its aspects. Saint Valentine , a Roman Catholic Bishop or priest who was martyred in about AD, seems to have had no known connection with romantic love, but the day of his martyrdom on the Roman Catholic calendar, Saint Valentine's Day February 14 , became, in the 14th century, an occasion for lovers to send messages to each other.
In recent years the celebration of Saint Valentine' s day has spread beyond Christian countries to Japan and China and other parts of the world. In Saudi Arabia , in and , religious police banned the sale of all Valentine's Day items, telling shop workers to remove any red items, as the day is considered a Christian holiday. The Codex Manesse , a 14th-century collection of love songs.
Red roses were symbol of courtly love. Fifteenth-century Illustration from the Roman de la Rose , a thirteenth-century French poem about a search for a red rose symbolizing the poet's love. A valentine from The tradition of sending messages of love on February 14, Valentine's Day , dates back to the 14th century. God Speed! Red is the color most commonly associated with joy and well being. A red carpet is often used to welcome distinguished guests. Red is also the traditional color of seats in opera houses and theaters.
Scarlet academic gowns are worn by new Doctors of Philosophy at degree ceremonies at Oxford University and other schools. In China, it is considered the color of good fortune and prosperity, and it is the color traditionally worn by brides. In Christian countries, it is the color traditionally worn at Christmas by Santa Claus , because in the 4th century the historic Saint Nicholas was the Greek Christian Bishop of Myra , in modern-day Turkey, and bishops then dressed in red. Scarlet academic gowns are worn by new Doctors of Philosophy at a degree ceremony at Oxford University. In China, red is the color of happiness and celebration.
The Lantern Festival in Shanghai. Santa Claus traditionally wears red, because the original Saint Nicholas was a bishop of the Greek Christian church in the 4th century. While red is the color most associated with love, it also the color most frequently associated with hatred, anger, aggression and war.
People who are angry are said to " see red. In ancient Rome , red was the color of Mars , the god of war —the planet Mars was named for him because of its red color. Red is the traditional color of warning and danger. In the Middle Ages, a red flag announced that the defenders of a town or castle would fight to defend it, and a red flag hoisted by a warship meant they would show no mercy to their enemy.
Several studies have indicated that red carries the strongest reaction of all the colors, with the level of reaction decreasing gradually with the colors orange, yellow, and white, respectively. In fact, teachers at a primary school in the UK have been told not to mark children's work in red ink because it encourages a "negative approach".
Red is the international color of stop signs and stop lights on highways and intersections. It was standardized as the international color at the Vienna Convention on Road Signs and Signals of It was chosen partly because red is the brightest color in daytime next to orange , though it is less visible at twilight, when green is the most visible color.
Red also stands out more clearly against a cool natural backdrop of blue sky, green trees or gray buildings. But it was mostly chosen as the color for stoplights and stop signs because of its universal association with danger and warning. The standard international stop sign, following the Vienna Convention on Road Signs and Signals of Red is the color of a severe terrorist threat level in the United States, under the Homeland Security Advisory System.
Red: Symbolic and Cultural Associations
Red is the color of a UK Railway "Home" signal; the white stripe helps recognition against dark backgrounds. Red is the color that most attracts attention. Surveys show it is the color most frequently associated with visibility, proximity, and extroverts. Red is used in modern fashion much as it was used in Medieval painting; to attract the eyes of the viewer to the person who is supposed to be the center of attention. People wearing red seem to be closer than those dressed in other colors, even if they are actually the same distance away.
It is also commonly worn by lifeguards and others whose job requires them to be easily found. Because red attracts attention, it is frequently used in advertising, though studies show that people are less likely to read something printed in red because they know it is advertising, and because it is more difficult visually to read than black and white text. Red by a large margin is the color most commonly associated with seduction, sexuality, eroticism and immorality, possibly because of its close connection with passion and with danger. Red was long seen as having a dark side, particularly in Christian theology.
It was associated with sexual passion, anger, sin, and the devil. In , Irving Berlin wrote a song, At the Devil's Ball , and the devil in red appeared more often in cartoons and movies than in religious art. In 17th-century New England, red was associated with adultery. In the novel by Nathaniel Hawthorne , The Scarlet Letter , set in a Puritan New England community, a woman is punished for adultery with ostracism, her sin represented by a red letter 'A' sewn onto her clothes.
Red is still commonly associated with prostitution. Prostitutes in many cities were required to wear red to announce their profession, and houses of prostitution displayed a red light. Beginning in the early 20th century, houses of prostitution were allowed only in certain specified neighborhoods, which became known as red-light districts. Large red-light districts are found today in Bangkok and Amsterdam.
In Roman Catholicism , red represents wrath, one of the seven deadly sins. In both Christian and Hebrew tradition, red is also sometimes associated with murder or guilt, with "having blood on one's hands", or "being caught red-handed. The Whore of Babylon , depicted in a 14th-century French illuminated manuscript.
The woman appears attractive, but is wearing red under her blue garment. The red-light district in Amsterdam Red lipstick has been worn by women as a cosmetic since ancient times. It carries a largely positive connotation, being associated with courage, loyalty, honor, success, fortune, fertility, happiness, passion, and summer. On the more negative side, obituaries are traditionally written in red ink, and to write someone's name in red signals either cutting them out of one's life, or that they have died.
In Japan, red is a traditional color for a heroic figure. In Central Africa, Ndembu warriors rub themselves with red paint during celebrations. Since their culture sees the color as a symbol of life and health, sick people are also painted with it. Like most Central African cultures, the Ndembu see red as ambivalent, better than black but not as good as white. The early Ottoman Turks led by the first Ottoman Sultan, Osman I , carried red banners symbolizing sovereignty, Ghazis and Sufism , until, according to legend, he saw a new red flag in his dream inlaid with a crescent. In Russian culture the color red plays a significant role since days of Old Russia.
But even in the modern Russian language, the terms for red and beautiful are strongly connected linguistically and are omnipresent in everyday usage. The color is perceived in Russia as the color of beauty, good and something honorable. Many places in Russia are also associated with the color red, like for example the Red Square or the city Krasnodar. Red is a predominant color on Russian folk costumes like the Sarafan and handicrafts like the Rushnyk and Khokhloma.
Red roses appear on women's folk costumes, on men's hats during folk dances and on traditional Russian shawls. Red berries like the Viburnum opulus are an important component of Russian folk culture which occur in many Russian folk songs, while Kalinka is the most famous of them. Red is predominant in the Russian ritual textile Rushnyk.
Red berries are an important part of Hohloma painting. Russian red boots are worn by men during Russian dances . The original meaning of the Red Square was Beautiful Square. In many Asian countries, red is the traditional color for a wedding dress today, symbolizing joy and good fortune. The bride at a traditional Chinese wedding dresses in red, the color of happiness and good fortune. A red wedding kimono, or uchikake , from Japan. Brides in Japan can wear either a white kimono or bright colors. In India and Pakistan, brides traditionally have their hands and feet decorated with red henna.
A Shinto torii at Itsukushima , Japan. Buddhist monks in Tibet. In Hinduism , red is associated with Lakshmi , the goddess of wealth and embodiment of beauty. Red flags in a celebration of Muharram in Iran. The red military uniform was adopted by the English Parliament's New Model Army in , and was still worn as a dress uniform by the British Army until the outbreak of the First World War in August Ordinary soldiers wore red coats dyed with madder , while officers wore scarlet coats dyed with the more expensive cochineal.
In the modern British army, scarlet is still worn by the Foot Guards , the Life Guards , and by some regimental bands or drummers for ceremonial purposes. Officers and NCOs of those regiments which previously wore red retain scarlet as the color of their "mess" or formal evening jackets. The Royal Gibraltar Regiment has a scarlet tunic in its winter dress.
Scarlet is worn for some full dress, military band or mess uniforms in the modern armies of a number of the countries that made up the former British Empire. The musicians of the United States Marine Corps Band wear red, following an 18th-century military tradition that the uniforms of band members are the reverse of the uniforms of the other soldiers in their unit. Since the US Marine uniform is blue with red facings, the band wears the reverse.
The uniform was adapted from the tunic of the British Army. Cadets at the Royal Military College of Canada also wear red dress uniforms. The Brazilian Marine Corps wears a red dress uniform. The scarlet uniform of the National Guards Unit of Bulgaria. Officer of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Soldiers of the Rajput Regiment of the Indian Army.
The first known team sport to feature red uniforms was chariot racing during the late Roman Empire. The earliest races were between two chariots, one driver wearing red, the other white. Later, the number of teams was increased to four, including drivers in light green and sky blue.
Twenty-five races were run in a day, with a total of one hundred chariots participating. Today many sports teams throughout the world feature red on their uniforms. Along with blue , red is the most commonly used non-white color in sports. Numerous national sports teams wear red, often through association with their national flags.
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A few of these teams feature the color as part of their nickname such as Spain with their association football soccer national team nicknamed La Furia Roja or "The Red Fury" and Belgium whose football team bears the nickname Rode Duivels or "Red Devils". In club association football soccer , red is a commonly used color throughout the world.
A number of teams' nicknames feature the color. A red penalty card is issued to a player who commits a serious infraction: the player is immediately disqualified from further play and his team must continue with one less player for the game's duration. In rugby union , Ireland's Munster rugby , New Zealand's Canterbury provincial team and the Crusaders Super 14 rugby side wear red as a major color in their playing strips.
Rosso Corsa is the red international motor racing color of cars entered by teams from Italy. Since the s Italian race cars of Alfa Romeo , Maserati , Lancia , and later Ferrari and Abarth have been painted with a color known as rosso corsa "racing red". National colors were mostly replaced in Formula One by commercial sponsor liveries in , but unlike most other teams, Ferrari always kept the traditional red, although the shade of the color varies. The color is commonly used for professional sports teams in Canada and the United States with eleven Major League Baseball teams, eleven National Hockey League teams, seven National Football League teams and eleven National Basketball Association teams prominently featuring some shade of the color.
During the s when red was strongly associated with communism in the United States, the modern Cincinnati Reds team was known as the "Redlegs" and the term was used on baseball cards. After the red scare faded, the team was known as the "Reds" again. In boxing , red is often the color used on a fighter's gloves. George Foreman wore the same red trunks he used during his loss to Muhammad Ali when he defeated Michael Moorer 20 years later to regain the title he lost. In martial arts, a red belt shows a high degree of proficiency, second only, in some schools, to the black belt.
An Alfa Romeo Grand Prix car in , painted Rosso Corsa , "racing red" , the traditional racing color of Italy from the s until the late s. Red is one of the most common colors used on national flags. The use of red has similar connotations from country to country: the blood, sacrifice, and courage of those who defended their country; the sun and the hope and warmth it brings; and the sacrifice of Christ's blood in some historically Christian nations are a few examples. Red is the color of the flags of several countries that once belonged to the British Empire.
The British flag bears the colors red, white and blue; it includes the cross of Saint George , patron saint of England, and the saltire of Saint Patrick , patron saint of Ireland, both of which are red on white. Red flags are also used to symbolize storms, bad water conditions, and many other dangers. Navy flags are often red and yellow. Red is prominently featured in the flag of the United States Marine Corps.
The red on the flag of Nepal represents the floral emblem of the country, the rhododendron. Red, blue, and white are also the Pan-Slavic colors adopted by the Slavic solidarity movement of the late nineteenth century. Initially these were the colors of the Russian flag; as the Slavic movement grew, they were adopted by other Slavic peoples including Slovaks , Slovenes , and Serbs.
In Georgia adopted a new white flag , which consists of four small and one big red cross in the middle touching all four sides. Red, white, and black were the colors of the German Empire from to , and as such they came to be associated with German nationalism. In the s they were adopted as the colors of the Nazi flag. In Mein Kampf , Hitler explained that they were "revered colors expressive of our homage to the glorious past.
Red, white, green and black are the colors of Pan-Arabism and are used by many Arab countries. Red, gold, green, and black are the colors of Pan-Africanism. The Pan-African colors are borrowed from the flag of Ethiopia , one of the oldest independent African countries. The flags of Japan and Bangladesh both have a red circle in the middle of different colored backgrounds. The flag of the Philippines has a red trapezoid on the bottom signifying blood, courage, and valor also, if the flag is inverted so that the red trapezoid is on top and the blue at the bottom, it indicates a state of war.
The flag of Singapore has a red rectangle on the top. The field of the flag of Portugal is green and red. The Ottoman Empire adopted several different red flags during the six centuries of its rule, with the successor Republic of Turkey continuing the Ottoman Flag. The flag of the Byzantine Empire from to its fall in The St George's cross was the banner of the First Crusade , then, beginning in the 13th century, the flag of England.
It is the red color along with that of the Cross of Saint Patrick in the flag of the United Kingdom, and, by adoption, of the red in the flag of the United States. This is the Grand Union Flag , the first U. It dates back to the banner of Medieval Georgia in the 5th century. The maple leaf flag of Canada, adopted in The red color comes from the Saint George's Cross of England. The national flag of Cambodia in its present form was originally adopted in and readopted in , after the Constituent Assembly election in and restoration of the monarchy.
Red color in the flag represents bravery. In the Middle Ages, ships in combat hoisted a long red streamer, called the Baucans, to signify a fight to the death. A besieged castle or city would raise a red flag to tell the attackers that they would not surrender. The red flag appeared as a political symbol during the French Revolution , after the fall of Bastille. A law adopted by the new government on October 20, authorized the Garde Nationale to raise the red flag in the event of a riot, to signal that the Garde would imminently intervene.
During a demonstration on the Champs de Mars on July 17, , the Garde Nationale fired on the crowd, killed up to fifty people. The government was denounced by the more radical revolutionaries. In the words of his famous hymn, the Marseillaise , Rouget de Lisle wrote: "Against us they have raised the bloody flag of tyranny! Beginning in , the most radical revolutionaries adopted the red flag themselves, to symbolize the blood of those killed in the demonstrations, and to call for the repression of those they considered counter-revolutionary.
During the French Revolution, many in the Paris crowds also wore a red phrygian cap , a symbol of liberty, modeled after the caps worn in ancient Rome by freed slaves; but the colors of the Revolution finally became blue, white and red. The red in the French flag was taken from the emblem of the city of Paris, where it represented the city's patron saint, Saint Denis.
Karl Marx published the Communist Manifesto in February , with little attention. However, a few days later the French Revolution of broke out, which replaced the monarchy of Louis Philippe with the Second French Republic. In June , Paris workers, disenchanted with the new government, built barricades and raised red flags.
The new government called in the French Army to put down the uprising, the first of many such confrontations between the army and the new worker's movements in Europe. Red was also the color of the movement to unify Italy, led by Giuseppe Garibaldi. His followers were known as the camicie rosse , or redshirts during the fight for Italian Risorgimento in In , following the stunning defeat of the French Army by the Germans in the Franco-Prussian War , French workers and socialist revolutionaries seized Paris and created the Paris Commune.
The Commune lasted for two months before it was crushed by the French Army, with much bloodshed. The original red banners of the Commune became icons of the socialist revolution; in members of the French Communist Party came to Moscow and presented the new Soviet government with one of the original Commune banners; it was placed and is still in place in the tomb of Vladimir Lenin, next to his open coffin. With the victory of the Bolsheviks in the Russian Revolution of , the red flag, with a hammer to symbolize the workers and sickle to symbolize peasants, became the official flag of Russia, and, in , of the Soviet Union.
It remained so until the breakup of the Soviet Union in After the Communist Party of China took power in , the flag of China became a red flag with a large star symbolizing the Communist Party, and smaller stars symbolizing workers, peasants, the urban middle class and rural middle class. The flag of the Communist Party of China became a red banner with a hammer and sickle , similar to that on the Soviet flag. In the s and s, other Communist regimes such as Vietnam and Laos also adopted red flags.
Some Communist countries, such as Cuba, chose to keep their old flags; and other countries used red flags which had nothing to do with Communism or socialism; the red flag of Nepal , for instance, represents the national flower. A demonstration in Moscow during the unsuccessful Russian Revolution of , painted by Ilya Repin.
Red was the color of the Russian Revolution in The Bolshevik , painting by Boris Kustodiev The flag of the Soviet Union — The hammer symbolized workers, the sickle represented peasants, and the red star symbolized the Communist Party.
Why Red Is Such a Powerful Color
The Flag of the People's Republic of China. Red symbolizes revolution, the large star is the Communist Party, and the smaller stars represent the working class, the peasants, and the urban middle class, the rural middle class, as described by Mao Zedong. In 18th-century Europe, red was usually associated with the monarchy and with those in power.
The French Revolution saw red used by the Jacobins as a symbol of the martyrs of the Revolution. In the nineteenth century, with the Industrial Revolution and the rise of worker's movements, it became the color of socialism especially the Marxist variant , and, with the Paris Commune of , of revolution.
In the 20th century, red was the color first of the Russian Bolsheviks and then, after the success of the Russian Revolution of , of Communist Parties around the world. Red also became the color of many social democratic parties in Europe, including the Labour Party in Britain founded ; the Social Democratic Party of Germany whose roots went back to and the French Socialist Party , which dated back under different names, to Members of the Christian-Social People's Party in Liechtenstein founded advocated an expansion of democracy and progressive social policies, and were often referred to disparagingly as "Reds" for their social liberal leanings and party colors.
The Communist Party of China , founded in , adopted the red flag and hammer and sickle emblem of the Soviet Union, which became the national symbols when the Party took power in China in Today the Communist Party of China claims to be the largest political party in the world, with eighty million members. But in the s, some European socialist and social democratic parties, such as the Labour Party in Britain and the Socialist Party in France, moved away from the symbolism of the far left, keeping the red color but changing their symbol to a less-threatening red rose.
Red is used around the world by political parties of the left or center-left. In the United States, political commentators often refer to the "red states", which traditionally vote for Republican candidates in presidential elections, and "blue states", which vote for the Democratic candidate. This convention is relatively recent: before the presidential election , media outlets assigned red and blue to both parties, sometimes alternating the allocation for each election.
Fixed usage was established during the day recount following the election, when the media began to discuss the contest in terms of "red states" versus "blue states". Logo of the German Social Democratic Party. A map of the U. The Red Hat Society is a social group founded in for women 50 and over. In reference to humans, term "red" is often used in the West to describe the indigenous peoples of the Americas. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about the color. For other uses, see Red disambiguation. This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. The readable prose size is 64 kilobytes. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding subheadings. March Main article: Shades of red. A pair of European red foxes. The European robin or robin redbreast. Roman wall painting showing a dye shop, Pompeii 40 BC. Dyed fabrics have been hung up to dry. Seats in opera houses and theaters are traditionally red. This is the Opera House in Vienna. This section needs expansion with: more information about associating red with hatred, anger, aggression, passion, heat and war..
You can help by adding to it. June Wedding dress in Rajput , India. Wedding dress from Vietnam. Ancient Roman mosaic of the winner of a chariot race, wearing the colors of the red team. Main article: Red flag. A French soldier takes down a red flag from the barricades during the Paris uprising of HyperPhysics site. Retrieved October 20, A dictionary of color. Chinese red. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press.
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