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On the level of the fourth thoracic dermatome or higher, where there might be abnormal findings for vital signs due to a sympathetic nerve block, a loss of cold sensation occurred in a total of 10 patients 4. Of these, one patient was given ephedrine due to a concurrent presence of hypotension, nausea sensation, and vomiting.

A feeling of discomfort associated with the surgical maneuver was found in a total of 7 patients. That is, there were 4 cases of lower abdominal discomfort during stapled hemorrhoidectomy and three cases of lower abdominal discomfort associated with the surgical posture due to a prolonged operation time during conventional hemorrhoidectomy. Compared with patients who did not complain of discomfort, only operation time was found to be prolonged Table 6. In these patients, NRS was significantly higher than in self voided patients Table 6.

The present study was conducted in order to examine the question of whether anesthesia could be successfully performed by maintenance of the sitting position during a shorter period, compared with conventional types of saddle block, which are routinely attempted for peri-anal surgery. This study was of significance not only because it showed a relatively lower degree of incidence of urinary retention compared with previous reports, but also because safe administration of anesthesia could be performed to a substantial extent only by maintenance of a 1-minute sitting position.

The scope of nerve block during spinal anesthesia is determined by the distribution of local anesthetics, which were administered intrathecally. Since hyperbaric local anesthetics, which are commonly used for spinal anesthesia, have a higher density compared with CSF, they flow to the dependent area. Therefore, their distribution is greatly dependent on the posture of the patient.

In addition, it can also be affected by height, weight, gender, posture, anatomy of the thecal cavity, location of drug administration, rate of drug administration, direction of drug administration, and the characteristics of local anesthetics, including density, concentration, and dose [ 8 ]. Particularly in cases in which a sitting position is maintained, the volume of CSF has been reported to have a great impact on the period of anesthesia [ 9 ].

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Conversion to general anesthesia is difficult due to the characteristics of the jack-knife position for peri-anal surgery. Accordingly, for definite anesthesia at the surgical site and to prevent a high level of spinal anesthesia extended to the upper thoracic level, a sitting position is maintained during a long-term period following injection of local anesthetics. However, the time for initiation of a surgical procedure could be delayed; incidences of excessive motor blockade of lower extremities or postoperative urinary retention could be increased.

Since the latest trends in peri-anal surgery for treatment of benign legions are based on an outpatient setting or on very-day discharge, a small dose of local anesthetics is required for administration of selective segmental anesthesia.

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Yet, complications such as bleeding and increased pain can be incurred due to the extended scope of surgery. This may lead to a prolonged hospital stay, and patients may not be satisfied with the selective segmental anesthesia [ 10 , 11 ]. There have been several studies of the relationship between duration of the sitting position before posture change and distribution of intrathecally-administered local anesthetics. If patients should be placed in a supine position after continuous maintenance of a sitting position for ten minutes following saddle block, the areas of the sensory blockade are restricted to the sacral or lumbar spinal levels.

In these cases, the volume of anesthetic agents was involved [ 8 ]. Compared to groups undergoing a position change to the supine immediately after intrathecal injection of a high-dose of bupivacaine, there were no significant differences in the maximal scope of anesthesia, the time to reach the maximal scope of anesthesia, and the time elapsed until recovery from anesthesia was achieved in groups who maintained a sitting position for 2 minutes [ 9 ].

Even in cases in which a sitting position was maintained for 3 minutes, there were no significant differences in the areas of maximal sensation blockade and those of a loss of cold sensation. In particular, it has also been reported that the motor blockade was strengthened after a sitting position was maintained for 3 minutes following saddle block [ 12 ].

Besides, according to a study conducted in elderly subjects, aged 60 years or older, although a sitting position was maintained for 20 minutes, the maximal scope of anesthesia appeared later, but showed no significant difference [ 13 ]. According to studies of fixation of intrathecally administered bupivacaine, a minute period for maintenance of the lateral decubitus position would be sufficient for the unilateral motor blockade.

However, for unilateral blockage of the sensory nerve and autonomic nervous systems, more than 30 minutes are required for a lateral decubitus position and a time period shorter than 15 minutes would be insignificant. Furthermore, a minimum length of 60 minutes would be required for intrathecal fixation of bupivacaine [ 14 ]. Since local anesthetics are continuously transferred within the CSF during that period, the maximal scope of sensory block would appear after approximately 20 minutes [ 15 ].

Even in cases in which a sitting position was maintained for 2 minutes and then converted to a supine position, the maximal scope of sensory block appeared minutes later [ 16 ]. In the current study, despite a lack of statistical significance, blood pressure was slightly lowered within minutes following conversion to a jack-knife position. Twenty minutes later, however, it was consistently maintained or recovered again. These findings are assumed to support the above reports. Postoperative urinary retention related to peri-anal surgery under spinal anesthesia has been reported with various risk factors as well as wide ranges between 7.

In association with spinal anesthesia, the detrusor muscles of the bladder would achieve a voiding reflex when the scope of anesthesia was diminished to lower than the third sacral level [ 21 ]. According to a study of recovery from anesthesia using a high-dose bupivacaine, the sacral nerve block was strengthened, which would lead to delayed recovery of the functions of the urinary bladder in patients who are placed in a sitting position [ 3 ]. However, in cases in which 0.

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A high speed of administration of local anesthetics could affect its distribution due to the generation of vortex in the thecal cavity [ 23 ]; it has also been reported that intrathecal distribution of local anesthetic agents would be decreased at a lower rate of administration [ 24 , 25 ]. Despite the definite presence of differences in height and weight between male and female patients in this study population, there was no significant difference in the scope of anesthesia.

Reduction of postoperative lumbar hemilaminectomy pain with Marcaine

This might be due to the difference in the capacity for locomotion among individuals. Local anesthetics accumulated in the sacral region with the actions of gravity due to a lower rate of administration, which led to prompt onset of anesthesia.

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In addition, because of insufficient time 1 minute for motor blockade, patients could assume a prone position for themselves. However, compared with adult males, more time is required for conversion of posture by women or elderly people; this might therefore affect the intrathecal distribution of local anesthetics. Based on the characteristics of a jack-knife position, it was speculated that increased abdominal pressure would affect the intrathecal distribution of local anesthetics; however, there were no effects on BMI.

A feeling of discomfort during surgery might be associated with increased intestinal peristalsis due to blockade of the sympathetic nervous system related to distribution of local anesthetics. A lower incidence of urinary retention in this study might be due to restricted replacement of fluid during surgery. However, it can also be inferred that local anesthetics were re-distributed without being fixed to the sacral region when a sitting position was maintained for only one minute. Even though postoperative urinary retention might occur due to reflective contracture of the internal urethral sphincter, which was induced from anal pain following surgery, it is presumed that the pain was aggravated due to the presence of urinary retention, not vice versa.

Limitations of the current study are as follows: First, in conventional types of saddle block, where a sitting position is typically retained for more than three minutes, no control groups were served. Therefore, no definite comparisons were made for discomfort, incidence, and cause of urinary retention during peri-anal surgery.

Second, all patients converted their posture individually. However, due to differences in methods for changing posture among patients, the discrepancy in motor function and the time elapsed until posture was converted could not be clarified. These deserve further controlled studies. Four to five grams of pressure in these areas will produce anything from tenderness to sharp shooting pain at these distribution sites if the nerve is in a state of hyperactivity.

The use of anesthesia to block the occipital nerve branches can prove to be an effective tool in the management of cervicogenic head pains. A method will be described here that is both safe and produces a high rate of success in achieving anesthesia of the occipital nerve branches at their superficial distribution.

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The practitioner is advised to spend time in review of the anatomy of the posterior head and neck prior to attempting injections in this area. Once the source of the patient's pain has been identified and the diagnosis of cervicogenic headache has been made, the tender areas associated with the occipital nerve branches should be localized. The areas are prepped with betadine scrub — followed by alcohol — to insure a sterile injection site.

The materials necessary will be a 3 ml syringe, 0. The solution will then be completed by adding 0. After preparing the injection sites for the greater and lesser branches of the side to be injected and the solution has been properly mixed, a gloved finger is used to identify the specific injection site.

For the lesser branch the needle is directed in a lateral, rostral direction maintaining a subcutaneous course see Figure 2. The patient should be told they may feel a stinging and burning sensation as the needle is placed and the material is being expressed into the tissue. The needle should be inserted to its full length and the solution expressed slowly to insure proper distribution of the medicament, as well as reduce patient discomfort. Proper aspiration techniques should be utilized prior to expressing the solution.

The needle is then redirected superior and medial to facilitate adequate dispersement of the solution. One milliliter of solution is placed per nerve branch site.

FMARC - Specimen: Bupivacaine (Marcaine)

For the greater distribution of the occipital nerve, the bony protuberance near the midline at the superior nuchal line is located. The injection site will be approximately 2 cm lateral to this landmark. The needle is directed rostrally, maintaining a subcutaneous course see Figure 3. The needle can be redirected to the medial and lateral directions to insure good distribution of the solution. The same rules for injection speed and aspiration should apply for both injection sites. A successful injection will relieve the patient's head pain and elicit anesthesia of the posterior scalp.

The patient should be advised as to the duration of the anesthetic to alleviate potential concerns of prolonged anesthesia. Ice can be placed at the anesthetized sites to reduce post procedure soreness.

Usually 10 minutes on and at least minutes off is a good protocol for ice therapy. The occipital nerve blockade is a relatively straightforward procedure with little incidence of adverse events.