Guide Die Türkei als neue regionale Führungsmacht (German Edition)

Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online Die Türkei als neue regionale Führungsmacht (German Edition) file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with Die Türkei als neue regionale Führungsmacht (German Edition) book. Happy reading Die Türkei als neue regionale Führungsmacht (German Edition) Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF Die Türkei als neue regionale Führungsmacht (German Edition) at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF Die Türkei als neue regionale Führungsmacht (German Edition) Pocket Guide.

Lehrbuch der Politikfeldanalyse 2. Barnett, Michael N. The politics, power, and pathologies of international organizations, in: International Organization, 53 4 , pp. Rules for the world. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Barnett, Michael and Duvall, Raymond. Power in international politics, in: International Organization, 59 1 , pp. Bayley, Anthony. Cross-border initiatives for trade facilitation — an overview, presented at: Customs Cooperation Committee Regional Seminar on Trade Facilitation and Customs Modernization.

Issyk-Kul, Kyrgyzstan August Bechev, Dimitar. Bekbolotov, Kumar. Bekmagambetov, Murat. Beliaeva, Olga. Prigranichnaia torgovlia. Bhatty, Robinder and Auty, Richard M. En- ergy, wealth and governance in the Caucasus and Central Asia. Bicchi, Federica. Blanchard Jean-Marc F. Giving the unrecognized their due: regional actors, international institutions, and multilateral economic cooperation in Northeast Asia, in: Drezner, Daniel W. Locating the proper authorities: the interaction of domestic and international institutions.

Ann Arbor: The Univ. Blank, Stephen J. After two wars: reflections on the American strategic revolution in Central Asia. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Strategic Studies Institute. Boas, Morten. Do intergovernmental organizations promote peace? Bogner, Alexander and Menz, Wolfgang. Das Experteninterview: Theorie, Methode, Anwendung. Bohr, Annette. Regional cooperation in Central Asia: mission impossible? Regionalism in Central Asia: new geopolitics, old regional order, in: International Affairs, 80 3 , pp.

Border management in Central Asia: phase 4. Final report, December. Border management and drug action programs in Central Asia. Description of the action, 31 January. Description of the action, 28 June. Border management in Central Asia: phase 5. Border management in Central Asia: phase 6. Description of the action, June. Boonstra, Jos and Hale, Jacqueline. EU assistance to Central Asia: back to the drawing board? New avenues for technical cooperation in Africa: improving the record in terms of capacity building, Policy Management Report No.

Refine your results

Die Wirkung internationaler Institutionen. Regieren in internationalen Institutionen. BP [British Petroleum Company]. BP statistical review of world energy June Neopatrimonial regimes and political transitions in Africa, in: World Politics, 46 4 , pp. State capacity and effective governance, in: Ndulu, Benno J. New Brunswick and Oxford: Transaction Publishers, pp.

Bretherton, Charlotte and Vogler, John. The European Union as a global actor. Broome, Andre. Basingstoke, Hampshire [u. Bukhari-zade, Nigora. Bull, Benedicte and Boas, Morten. Burchill, Scott. The national interest in International Relations theory. Caporaso, James. Dependence, dependency, and power in the global system: a structural and behavioral analysis, in: International Organization, 32 1 , pp. Carcamo-Diaz, Rodrigo. Towards development in landlocked economies.

Santiago, Chile: UN. Urumqi, PRC, August Almaty, Kazakhstan, April Regional trade facilitation and customs cooperation program. Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, September Manila, Philippines, September Dushanbe, Tajikistan, November Baku, Azerbaijan, November Dushanbe, Tajikistan, September Regional projects. Tokyo, Japan, September Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 24 February Carothers, Thomas. Democracy assistance: political vs. Cartwright, Dorwin. Cassen, Robert. Does aid work? Oxford [u. Chayes, Abram and Chayes, Antonia Handler. Regime architecture: elements and principles, in: Nolan, Janne E.

Global engagement: cooperation and security in the 21st century. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, pp. Checkel, Jeffrey T. Why comply? Social learning and European identity change, in: International Organization, 55 3 , pp. International institutions and socialization in Europe: introduction and framework, in: International Organization, 59 4 , pp.

Chino, Tadao. Manila, 30 June Chowdhury, Anwarul K. Geography against development: a case for landlocked developing countries. Introduction: have the changes actually changed anything? New international poverty reduction strategies. London, New York: Routledge, pp. Collins, Kathleen. The logic of clan politics: evidence from the Central Asian trajectories, in: World Politics, 56 2 , pp.

Idea Fusion

Clan politics and regime transition in Central Asia. Cambridge [u. Economic and security regionalism among patrimonial authoritarian regimes: the case of Central Asia, in: Europe-Asia Studies, 61 2 , pp. Cooley, Alexander. Western conditions and domestic choices: the influence of external actors on the post-Communist transition, in: Nations in transit democratization in East Central Europe and Eurasia. New York, NY [u. Cooper, Julian. The multilateral dimension in Russian foreign policy. Commonwealth and independence in post-Soviet Eurasia.

Council of the European Communities. Council of the European Union. External relations. Brussels, 10 December Brussels, 17 November Luxembourg, 25 October Crawford, Gordon. Foreign aid and political reform: a comparative analysis of democracy assistance and political conditionality.

Basingstoke [u. Cummings, Sally N. Understanding Central Asia: politics and contested transformations. Conceptualizing state capacity: comparing Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, in: Political Studies, 52 4 , pp. Customs Service under the Government of Tajikistan. Baku, Azerbaijan, September Czerniecka, Katarzyna and Heathershaw, John.

Security assistance and border management, in: Warkotsch, Alexander ed.

Boomerang Trick Shots - Dude Perfect

The European Union and Central Asia. Dahl, Robert A. New York: The Free Press, pp. De Lombaerde, Philippe and Schulz, Michael eds. The EU and world regionalism: the makability of regions in the 21st century. Farnham [u. Delcour, Laure. Shaping the post-Soviet space? EU policies and approaches to region-building. Farnham, Surrey [u. Dent, Christopher M. Denzin, Norman K. Introduction: the discipline and practice of qualitative research, in: Denzin, Norman K.

The landscape of qualitative research. Thousand Oaks, Calif. Devlet, Nadir. Taking stock: Turkey and the Turkic world 20 years later. Dijkzeul, Dennis and Gordenker, Leon. Cures and conclusions, in: Dijkzeul, Dennis and Beigbeder, Yves eds. Rethinking international organizations: pathology and promise. New York [u. Dollar, David. World Bank policy research report. Dossymkhanova, Sholpan. Challenges of automation and electronic exchange of trade information and the way forward, prepared for: Asia-Pacific Trade Facilitation Forum Setting the Regional Agenda.

Drezner, Daniel W. Introduction: the interaction of domestic and international institutions, in: Drezner, Daniel W. Dutt, Nitish. Annual report securing the recovery. London: EBRD. Kazakhstan factsheet, Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East. Regional economic cooperation for development of trade and industries, Resolution 31 XVI at the 16th session.

Bangkok, 18 March Economic Intelligence Unit. Uzbekistan country profile Tajikistan: trade facilitation and logistics development strategy report. Ekonomika zheleznykh dorog. Elborgh-Woytek, Katrin. Of openness and distance: trade developments in the Commonwealth of Independent States, Emerson, Michael and Vinokurov, Evgeny. Optimisation of Central Asian and Eurasian trans-continental land transport corridors. Brussels: Center for European Policy Studies. Erzhanova, Zhanna and Panfilova, Viktoriya. EU — Uzbekistan Cooperation Council. Statement by Mr. Brussels, 20 January European Commission.

Communication on European Community support for regional economic integration efforts among developing countries, COM 95 final, 16 June. Evaluation unit. TACIS annual report Report from the Commission. Brussels, TACIS program annual report Communication from the Commission on conflict prevention. Strategy paper and Indicative program for Central Asia. Synthesis report, vol.

European Community Regional strategy paper for assistance to Central Asia for the period Central Asia Indicative Program Central Asia. Action fiche No. Guidelines for integrated border management in EC external cooperation. Mobility and Transport. Final report draft , 22 December [online], available at: erc. Development and Cooperation — EuropeAid. European Council. A secure Europe in a better world: European security strategy. Brussels, 12 December. European Union. European Union foreign direct investment yearbook data The EU in the world: a statistical portrait.

Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. Evraziia vesti. Evraziiskoe Ekonomicheskoe Soobshchestvo. Farrell, Mary. From EU model to external policy? Making history: European integration and institutional change at fifty. Oxford: Oxford Univ. A global security triangle: European, African and Asian interaction.

Faye, Michael L. The challenges facing landlocked developing countries, in: Journal of Human Development, 5 1 , pp. Fearon, James and Wendt, Alexander. Rationalism v. Feigenbaum, Evan A. Central Asian economic integration: an American perspective. Washington, DC, 6 February The Hague [u. Nijhoff Publ. Finnemore, Martha. National interests in international society. Ithaca, NY [u. Finnemore, Martha and Sikkink, Kathryn. International norm dynamics and political change, in: International Organization, 52 4 , pp. Flick, Uwe. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt-Taschenbuch-Verl.

Flink, Olga. French, John R. The bases of social power, in: Cartwright, Dorwin ed. Studies in social power. Ann Arbor: Univ. Frieden, Jeffry A. Actors and preferences in international relations, in: Lake, David A. Strategic choice and international relations. Princeton, NJ [u. Gavrilis, George. The dynamics of interstate boundaries. George, Alexander L. Case studies and theory development in the social sciences. Cambridge, Mass. Gerring, John. Case selection for case-study analysis: qualitative and quantitative techniques, in: Box-Steffensmeier, Janet M.

The Oxford handbook of political methodology. Gheciu, Alexandra. Security institutions as agents of socialization? Giese, Ernst and Sehring, Jenniver. Konflikte ums Wasser. Nutzungskonkurrenz in Zentralasien, in: Osteuropa, 57 , pp. Glassman, Jim. Gleason, Gregory. The Central Asian states: discovering independence.

Boulder, Colo. Markets and politics in Central Asia: structural reform and political change. Goldsmith, Arthur A. Beyond structural adjustment: the institutional context of African development. Gordon, Lincoln. Economic regionalism reconsidered, in: World Politics, 13 2 , pp. Gosudarstvennyi tamozhennyi komitet KR. Gosudarstvennyi tamozhennyi komitet RU. Agreement between the Governments of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, and the Republic of Uzbekistan on the use of water and energy resources of the Syr Darya Basin, Water energy nexus in Central Asia: improving regional cooperation in the Syr Darya basin.

Appendix 4. Washington, DC: World Bank. Cross-border agreement on Bishkek — Almaty route. Bishkek, The Sage handbook of power. Los Angeles, Calif. Green, David J. Gregg, Robert W. International regionalism: readings. Boston: Little, Brown, pp. Grieco, Joseph M. Cooperation among nations: Europe, America, and nontariff barriers to trade. Ithaca [u. Grindle, Merilee S. Challenging the state: crisis and innovation in Latin America and Africa. Uproshchenie protsedur eksporta i importa v Respublike Tadzhikistan.

Gutner, Tamar and Thompson, Alexander. Haas, Michael. Asian Development Bank, in: International Organization, 28 2 , pp. Haas, Ernst B. When knowledge is power: three models of change in international organizations. Berkeley, Calif. Haas, Peter M. Epistemic communities and the dynamics of international environmental co-operation, in: Rittberger, Volker ed. Regime theory and international relations.

Haggard, Stephan and Kaufman, Robert R. The politics of economic adjustment: international constraints, distributive conflicts, and the state. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Halbach, Uwe. Hall, Michael. The EU and Uzbekistan: where to go from here? Brussels: Centre for European Policy Studies, pp. Harsanyi, John C. Measurement of social power, opportunity costs, and the theory of two-person bargaining games, in: Behavioral Science, 7 1 , pp.

Herzig, Edmund. London: Royal Institute of International Affairs, pp. Comparing re- gionalisms: implications for global development. Theorising the rise of regionness, in: New Political Economy, 5 3 , pp. Hill, Christopher. European foreign policy: power bloc, civilian model — or flop? Boulder: Westview Press, pp.

ξυλοσομπες καλοριφερ βουλγαριας Τα φιλικά της Τριτωνίας

Hill, Fiona. London: The Foreign Policy Center. Hillion, Christophe. Horsman, Stuart. Water in Central Asia: regional cooperation or conflict? Hout, Wil. Development cooperation, poverty reduction and the European Union, in: Hout, Wil ed. EU development policy and poverty reduction: enhancing effectiveness.

Aldershot [u. Hunter, Shireen. Hurrell, Andrew. Regionalism in theoretical perspective, in: Fawcett, Louise and Hurrell, Andrew eds. Regionalism in world politics: regional organization and international order. Hyde-Price, Adrian. Loan No. Central Asia: border disputes and conflict potential. Asia report No 33, 4 April. The failure of reform in Uzbekistan: ways forward for the international community. Central Asia: what role for the European Union?

IISS Manama Dialogue book by International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) - Issuu

Asia Report No. Uzbekistan: stagnation and uncertainty. Asia Briefing N 67, 22 August. Central Asia: migrants and the economic crisis. Central Asia: decay and decline, Asia report N , 3 February. Idoyatova, Galiya. Ikenberry, John G. Socialization and hegemonic power, in: International Organization, 44 3 , pp. Neopatrimonialism, interest groups and patronage networks: the impasses of the governance system in Uzbekistan, in: Central Asian Survey, 26 1 , pp. Common issues and interrepublic relations in the former U. Direction of trade statistics yearbook.

Regional economic outlook: Middle East and Central Asia. International Finance Corporation. Business environment in Tajikistan as seen by small and medium enterprises. Ishiyama, John. Neopatrimonialism and the prospects for democratization in the Central Asian republics, in: Cummings, Sally N.

Power and change in Central Asia. Ismailov, Sukhrobjon and Jarabik, Balazs. The EU and Uzbekistan: short-term interests versus long-term engagement. Ivashchenko, Ekaterina. Jacobson, Harold K. Networks of interdependence: international organizations and the global political system. New York: Knopf. Jay, Keith and Michalopoulos, Constantine. Aid and development. Baltimore [u. Johnston, Alastair Iain. Treating international institutions as social environments, in: International Studies Quarterly, 45 4 , pp.

International relations theory and the Asia-Pacific. Conclusions and extensions: toward mid-range theorizing and beyond Europe, in: International Organization, 59 4 , pp. Jones Luong, Pauline. Institutional change and political continuity in post- Soviet Central Asia: power, perceptions, and pacts. Jonson, Lena. Vladimir Putin and Central Asia: the shaping of Russian foreign policy. Tajikistan in the new Central Asia: geopolitics, great power rivalry and radical Islam. Kabinet Ministrov pri Prezidente RU. Kabinet Ministrov RU.

Postanovlenie Kabineta Ministrov Respubliki Uzbekistan ot Potanovlenie Kabineta Ministrov Respubliki Uzbekistan ot Kahharov, Akhadjon. Singapore, July Kahler, Miles. External influence, conditionality, and the politics of adjustment, in: Haggard, Stephan and Kaufman, Robert R. Kaminsky, Alexandr. Ekspress-K, No.

Bonn: Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung e. Kanbur, Ravi. Aid, conditionality and debt in Africa, in: Tarp, Finn ed. Foreign aid and development: lessons learnt and directions for the future. Kappagoda, Nihal. The Asian Development Bank. Kapur, Devesh and Webb, Richard. Governance-related conditionalities of the international financial institutions. New York and Geneva: UN. Karandawala Geetha. Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, 26 May Karbuzov, Kozy-Korpesh.

Karns, Margaret P. International organizations and foreign policy: influence and instrumentality, in: Hermann, Charles F. New directions in the study of foreign policy. Boston: Allen and Unwin, pp. Kassenova, Nargis. A view from the region, in: Melvin, Neil J. Brussels: Center for European Policy Studies, pp. Kasymbekov, Kubat. Katzenstein, Peter J. Introduction: Asian regionalism in comparative perspective, in: Katzenstein, Peter J.

Network power: Japan and Asia. Kawato, Akio. What is Japan up to in Central Asia? Kazakhstan [mezhdunarodnyi delovoi zhurnal]. Kazakhstan Today. Kazakhstan today. Keeler, John T. Opening the window for reform: mandates, crisis and extraordinary policy-making, in: Comparative political studies, 25 4 , pp. International actors on the domestic scene: membership conditionality and socialization by international institutions, in: International Organization, 58 3 , pp. Keohane, Robert O. After hegemony: cooperation and discord in the world political economy. International institutions and state power: essays in international relations theory.

Keohane, Robert. Multilateralism: an agenda for research, in: International Journal, 45 4 , pp. Keukeleire, Stephan and MacNaughtan, Jennifer. The foreign policy of the European Union. Khamidov, Alisher. Khashimov, Abdulla. Manila: ADB. Kilby, Christopher. The political economy of conditionality: an empirical analysis of World Bank loan disbursements, in: Journal of Development Economics, 89 1 , pp.

Killick, Tony. Aid and the political economy of policy change. Kimmage, Daniel. Klingebiel, Stephan. Koichumanov, Talaibek. Komitet tamozhennogo kontrolia Ministerstva finansov RK. Tekhnikoekonomicheskoe obosnovanie. Proekt razvitiia tamozhennoi sluzhby Respubliki Kazakhstan. Kopstein, Jeffrey. The transatlantic divide over democracy promotion, in: The Washington Quarterly, 29 2 , pp. Kosaev, Kikbay. Defending the national interest: raw materials investments and U.

Krasner, Stephen. Power structures and regional development banks, in: International Organization, 35 2 , pp. Krasner, Stephen D. Approaches to the state: alternative conceptions and historical dynamics, in: Comparative politics, 16 2 , pp. Kratochwil, Friedrich and Ruggie, John Gerard. International organization: a state of the art on an art of the state, in: International Organization, 40 4 , pp.

Krutov, Anatoly and Spoor, Max. Institutional change, cooperation and conflict in two Central Asian river basins, in: Arsel, Murat and Spoor, Max eds. Water, environmental security and sustainable rural development: conflict and cooperation in Central Eurasia. Kukushkin, Mikhail Kulmatov, Kubanychbek. Baku, Azerbaijan, December Kuryatov, Vladimir. Prezident N. Kuvatova, Jyldyz. Kyrgyzskoe telegrafnoe agentstvo. Laruelle, Marlene. Russia in Central Asia: old history, new challenges? Laumulin, Murat T. Discussion paper C Laumulin, Murat. Central Asia: a gathering storm?

Armonk, NY [u. Lavenex, Sandra. Lavenex, Sandra and Schimmelfennig, Frank. EU external governance: projecting EU rules beyond membership. Thinking strategically: the major powers, Kazakhstan, and the Central Asian nexus. Legvold, Robert. Levy, Jack S. Learning and foreign policy: sweeping a conceptual minefield, in: International Organization, 48 2 , pp. Libman, Alexander. Limao, Nuno and Venables, Anthony J. Infrastructure, geographical disadvantage and transport costs, in: The World Bank Economic Review, 15 3 , pp. Linn, Johannes. Lo, Bobo. Russian foreign policy in the post-Soviet era: Reality, illusion and mythmaking.

Lobjakas, Ahto. Lombardi, Domenico and Woods, Ngaire. Lowe, David. Intermodal freight transport. Amsterdam [u. Luika, Pamela. Lukes, Steven. Power: a radical view. Lumpe, Lora. Occasional Paper Series No. The democratic dilemma: can citizens learn what they need to know? Lvova, Olga. MacFarlane, Neil. Western engagement in the Caucasus and Central Asia. MacFarlane, Neil S.

International organisations in Central Asia: understanding the limits, in: Helsinki Monitor, 3, pp. European strategy toward Kazakhstan, in: Legvold, Robert ed. European Union foreign and security policy: towards a neighbourhood strategy. Maksutov, Ruslan. Manners, Ian. Normative power Europe: a contradiction in terms? The normative power of the European Union in a globalised world, in: Laidi, Zaki ed. EU foreign policy in a globalized world: normative power and social preferences.

Mansfield, Edward D. The new wave of regionalism, in: International Organization, 53 3 , pp. Marat, Erika. March, James G. The new institutionalism: organizational factors in political life, in: The American Political Science Review, 78 3 , pp. The Oxford handbook of public policy. Markus, Ustina. Martin, Lisa L. Theories and empirical studies of international institutions, in: International Organization, 52 4 , pp. Matveeva, Anna. EU stakes in Central Asia. Chaillot paper No. Paris: Institute for Security Studies. Maur, Jean-Christophe. Regionalism and trade facilitation: a primer, in: Journal of World Trade, 42 6 , pp.

Mayntz, Renate. Mazhilis RK. McCormick, John. Understanding the European Union: a concise introduction. McDermott, Roger. Megoran, Nick. Performance, representation and the economics of border control in Uzbekistan, in: Geopolitics, 10 4 , pp. Melvin, Neil J. Meuser, Michael and Nagel, Ulrike. Migdal, Joel S.

  • Stressed Out Moms Devotions to Go.
  • The Science of Being Great;
  • Educational Psychology.
  • La Strana Storia di Eros Liverani (Italian Edition)?
  • [nesos-editors] [sos-all] 2015-08-01, 87 papers.
  • Build Your Own Dovecote Instructions.
  • Centro Studi sul Federalismo.

Strong societies and weak states: state-society relations and state capabilities in the Third World. Trade Facilitation in Developing Countries. University of Nottingham. The European Parliament was able to strongly expand its competences. However, it never succeeded in filling the legitimation gap of the deeper union, and its legitimacy is not recognised by a large part of non- voters. This is because the European Parliament is not supported by a standardised election, nor seriously accountable to voters, or even constrained by having to keep a government in office.

Integration to this extent would necessitate a new qualitative ruling foundation for the European Union. Such a new foundation, which would presumably entail pan-European elections without national lists, would take the EU one clear step closer towards statehood. However, politically, this is neither achievable nor even conceivable in the short or long term. Therefore, the issue remains: member states need to muddle through inter-governmentally, always in the hopes that the newest compromise will encounter sufficient support within the population instead of further eroding approval of the EU.

By , this dilemma will have intensified dramatically. This could lead to the EU becoming paralysed in intergovernmental problem solving. Such a paralysis is also more likely to drive up the price of pro-European action through the exacerbated domestic policy situation in which nationalist parties, strengthened by fears of globalisation, identity crises, hatred of the elites and established parties, as well as concerns about economic regression.

Overcoming the north-south divide in the EU on the topic of the euro and the east-west divide on the topic of migration and the constitutional state seems hopeless at the moment. Another factor that will come into play in addition to the major restructuring of global politics is the fundamental upheaval of the global economy. The Third Industrial Revolution, triggered by the victory march of information technology and the Internet, and elevated into new dimensions through the interplay of big data, artificial intelligence, quantum computers, and blockchain technology, might present the most important challenge to the order in which Germany and Europe fared so well in the past seventy years.

The First Industrial Revolution brought mechanisation. Great Britain was its pioneer and founded its global empire on its utilisation of it. The Second Industrial Revolution introduced industrial mass production and the associated new organisational and management techniques. The Third Industrial Revolution is that of digitalisation, in which the United States and China are battling for the leading position.

US companies are currently dominating the markets, but the innovative power of the huge Chinese market is growing quickly, and the Chinese leadership, in close cooperation with the state-affiliated industry, can test the feasibility of new technologies as quickly as possible and apply them without regard for individual civil liberties or the restrictions of a constitutional state. If the mere industrialisation of China and Asia has led to the currently observable global shift in power since the late s, how massive will the changes be if China wins the technological race with the US?

US companies are currently dominating the markets, but the innovative power of the huge Chinese market is growing quickly. Although Europe might not be considered as lagging behind completely, it is too undynamic, too sceptical of technology, and too resistant to change to succeed in ascending to the global premier league. Should Europe fail to keep up, this would not only have consequences for its economic strength, but also for its position of power in the future global order. By , it will have become clear whether Europe will merely receive orders, or help shape global conditions.

Based on current perspectives, the future does not look bright. Passivity in foreign policy and a lack of self-exposure no longer constitute German virtues. European integration is not irreversible, but rather requires constant and massive financial and political investments. Europe has not arrived at the stage of eternal peace yet. Globalisation has not yet inspired Russia and China to convert to the Western political model. The nation state is not dead and buried; it is alive and kicking.

Becoming rich as the export world champion, but contributing little to maintaining the global order, is no longer an option. Maintaining an operational army is not such a terrible idea after all. By , Germany will need to bear a foreign policy load unprecedented in the history of the Federal Republic.

A new global order is emerging, and Germany will play a crucial role in determining whether the European part of this order follows the principles of a free, democratic, and open society, aligns itself with its own, homemade European illiberalism, or turns towards the authoritarian regulatory concepts of Russia and China. To become rich as the export world champion, but contribute little to maintaining the global order, is no longer an option for Germany. The ambition must be to maintain a stable, peaceful, prospering, and free Europe, even without the protective power of America if necessary.

Historically, Europe has been rather inadequate in stabilising and pacifying inherently unstable political structures. Now, it must master a task it has never mastered before, all of this in the face of resistant forces. In its coalition agreement, the parties of the current Federal Government have hinted that they suspect what Germany may lack as a bearer of this immense task.

The only concrete measure they come up with is to increase the funding of those institutions that are at least partly responsible for the hitherto lack of strategic competence — but at least the defect is acknowledged. Strategic competence is a result of enabling citizens and decision-makers to think in the categories of order, interests, power, law, and responsibility on a large scale and in the long term. It emerges if the formulation of wishes and goals is preceded by a sober and realistic assessment of the situation, as well as of available funds and instruments.

Furthermore, it only develops if this realistic assessment is then communicated to citizens and voters to be debated. It arises when decision-makers are willing to take representative democracy seriously and lead it where it is needed — even if this is unpopular — and are ready to conclusively explain the necessity of their actions to the sovereign. For paltry reasons and out of hubris, the one-time strategic opportunity of TTIP was wasted. But all too often the country shows that it is not up to the new duty it must perform in Europe.

The one-time strategic opportunity of TTIP was wasted for paltry reasons and out of hubris. We do not recognise the necessity of defence expenditure amounting to two per cent of the gross domestic product, even though it represents the cheap option, not the expensive one. With the euro currency, Germany fails to realise the scope of the task at hand as well as its responsibility to pay because it also benefits the most.

For a long time, the plight of EU member countries who could no longer shoulder the burden of receiving refugees on their own was ignored on a legalistic rationale — until it was too late, and Germany became a supplicant itself. The strategic necessity of integrating Turkey into the EU was not recognised due to a lack of foresight, a resentment against the Turks, and a solely inwardly looking perspective on the integration project. After the end of the Cold War, the German army was reformed over the course of twenty-five years, with the final result that it is no longer operational.

How can a community that has missed the most important strategic penalty shots of the recent past achieve strategic competence? It is difficult to bring about a mentality change that unlocks strategic horizons that were previously inaccessible. But if Germany wants to take the right steps — for its own sake as well as for the sake of Europe — in this current phase of upheaval and with an emerging new order, a mentality change is imperative.

The country must recognise and humbly accept its importance, power, and relevance for Europe. It must assume its leadership role, but execute it with servitude, in the sense of progressive self-interest that prioritises the interests of partners and neighbours at the same level as its own. It must be communicated that maintaining order will require maximum effort and tremendous costs. These will be well an investment because the alternative — a loss of order, and thereby of freedom and peace — would be much more expensive.

The country should understand that defensibility is not the enemy of freedom, but its prerequisite. And that the law is not valid because of its good intentions, but because it can be enforced.

The End of Borrowed Stability

And that geopolitics does not have to be rejected from the outset for moral reasons. It is rather of central importance as a category of analysis for the understanding of international politics. Politicians must explain all of this to the population, again and again, even if it costs them their mandate. And the executive leaders of the Federal Republic must do the same when shaping the political agenda itself. The euro must be supported by a political union. This will cost a lot of money. And if it does not prove popular, the leaders must risk their political lives for it. The defence expenditures of two per cent should not accommodate Trump, but take stance against him, as they are intended to strengthen the multilateral, rule-based order that he wants to abolish.

The same applies to unlocking a trade policy which currently puts emerging countries at a unilateral disadvantage as to offer these countries development opportunities and fair market conditions. To understand the scope of the task facing Germany and Europe, strategy must be taught at German universities, and strategic training must be compulsory for all officials with a B6 salary grade and above, as has been the standard in other European countries for years. As has been common for economic matters for decades, an advisory council could process the expertise pooled from science, think tanks, and policy consultation on an annual basis and make it available to government.

Little time remains to complete all of this, as the transition is actively underway, and for the most important matters the course will have been set by Europe is starting the round of poker played for the upcoming world order with rather mediocre cards. The time is now. There is no bigger task facing our generation. The focus lies on three main tasks:. The publication suggests that German foreign policy should be orientated on the principle of serving leadership. From to , he worked at the Federal Ministry of Defence. Foreign Policy Pressure on Europe — Russia, China, Turkey This scepticism is further fed by two other trends that are taking place parallel to the departure of the protective power.

Turkey as an Emerging Power Turkey has been identified as another factor of foreign policy pressure on European order. Europe — the Already Weakened Anchoring System To make matters worse, the EU is currently experiencing a development dilemma: even if the member states are willing to take greater integrative steps to solve urgent problems, in-depth integration can hardly be justified without establishing new forms of political legitimation.

It All Revolves around Strategic Competence Strategic competence is a result of enabling citizens and decision-makers to think in the categories of order, interests, power, law, and responsibility on a large scale and in the long term. The Mentality of Benevolent Leadership How can a community that has missed the most important strategic penalty shots of the recent past achieve strategic competence?