But then something suddenly happened which no one had planned. The Holy Spirit had, so to say, once again made his voice heard. Along the same lines we find a similar thought in no. Ecclesial movements and new communities in the particular Churches. Communion with the bishops is therefore essential to the inclusion and full use of these new ecclesial groups in the Church. I know that opportune ways are being studied to give Pontifical recognition to the New Movements and Ecclesial Communities and many have already received it. The theological basis of this claim was shown by the then Cardinal Ratzinger during the World Congress of the movements of And results were not lacking [ Priests and the movements.
This is a theme dear to the Holy Father, fully aware that the introduction and growth of new ecclesial commitment hinges on the openness of priests. He does so unexpectedly, in unexpected places, and in ways previously unheard of [ These gifts, which awaken in many people the desire for a deeper spiritual life, can benefit not only the lay faithful but the clergy as well. The Pope therefore not only recommended that priests offer pastoral care to their movements and communities, but sees in them a valuable aid to nourish their own spiritual life.
The seminary is a time when you learn with one another and from one another. Juridical recognition and approval of statutes. The Pontifical Council for the Laity:. World Apostolate of Fatima. Within a few years, many centres opened, first in Italy and then abroad. Ad limina visits. Overall, the Pontifical Council for the Laity has been visited by bishops from thirteen out of sixteen ecclesiastical regions of Brazil.
The bishops unanimously confirmed the positive assessment of the laity, without which pastoral work would be difficult or impossible to carry out due to the small number of priests. Other ministries entrusted to the laity regard the Word, where Mass can not be celebrated, and especially the catechism. However there are also problems. Therefore, the formation of the laity is a major concern for the bishops who are trying to increase the opportunities for growth in faith through schools, workshops, retreats, though obviously formation is mostly offered in parishes and movements.
The bishops also seek to govern and direct the many expressions of popular religion by entrusting, when possible, groups and initiatives to the care of a priest. In an attempt to counter the growing anxiety of the younger generation, all diocese are stepping up their youth ministry, with particular attention to a pastoral care in various sectors: students, popular youth ministry, rural youth ministry and for young workers. The support of the new lay groups is also essential in this field. Moreover, many of them owe their election to ideologically structured political parties, only interested in the Catholic vote rather than the social doctrine the Church, with the result that often they take up positions that are irreconcilable with those of the Church.
Professional associations, such as Catholic lawyers or doctors, however play a positive role. For their part the bishops have redoubled their efforts to raise awareness of the Churches social doctrine. Contacts with associations and movements. Anastasia al Palatino. The undersecretary of the Pontifical Council for the Laity, Prof. On October 4 and 5, Prof. Pontifical Council for the Laity bureau chief, Msgr. On 24 November, Msgr.
The Rev. Jonas Abib. The local village store, bakery and drinking holes are all within walking distance. Casa Amarela Stylish and Traditional Villa. Unit description: Unit 2 located in the first level, with 50 m2 include a king size bed, a bathroom with a rain shower and a living room with a fully equipped kitchen. Private balcony with 15 m2, the Unit has sea and gardens views. Twin beds, cot or high chair can be requested. The complex its located in the heart of the picturesque Jardim do Mar Village within a few minutes walk to the beach, it includes 3 Private and independent Units, one in the ground floor and other two in the first level, surrounded by gardens, with a shared part that are the barbecue area, heated pool with a waterfall and hot shower, chill out zone, organic garden for guests use and the laundry.
Many guests had been suggesting that would be great to use the pool in Autumn and Winter times to enjoy at fullest the sunny days that bless Jardim do Mar village at this seasons. WoodLovers Villa is not only a holidays villa it is meant to be a state of mind in harmony with Mother Nature. Inserted in a small and welcoming local community with around two hundred habitants, proud of its rich cultural heritage, Jardim do Mar offers a very pleasant microclima all year round, placing this village on the top of the warmest places of Europe.
This tranquil unspoilt village of old stone houses and cobbled footpaths with access to ocean and to mountains hiking, it is considered one of the most beautiful on the island. It is also visited by surfers and beach nature lovers who are attracted by the fantastic wave conditions and water temperature. With these wonderful conditions, snorkelling and paddling are wonderful options. Relax in class at meters high on the sunny South West coast of Madeira, enjoying sunset and ocean views from the heated pool!
Fully refurbished traditional "Palheiro" house little barn for up to 2 guests, integrated with the two neighbouring buildings of Casas Da Vereda, facing the Atlantic ocean. Casas Da Vereda was designed to minimize its impact on the environment while being energy efficient. The project also builded harmony between tradition and innovation without sacrificing quality.
Madeira is a small but very diverse island: pretty much any place can be accessed in less than one hour drive from Casas Da Vereda! Casa Palheiro Casas Da Vereda. Wake up to absolute mind blowing scenery in this mezzanine featuring floor to ceiling high windows facing the island's stunning coastline, often requiring a second look to truly appreciate the beauty that this magnificent island has to offer. The mezzanine accommodates two people, has an ensuite bathroom, a fully equipped kitchen and also has access to its own private garden.
Needless to say, our infinity pool is also there for you to enjoy and relax. Free parking is available in Jardim do Mar. Uni is a concept accommodation developed to intertwine elements essential to one's well being. Uni's incredible location transforms it into a heavenly retreat that invites you to indulge in a truly memorable experience. Uni consists of two carefully constructed houses, designed to fully maximize your experience in terms of comfort and overall enjoyment.
Each house consists of two studios, each with their own unique aspects. Uni's common areas are a beautiful, tranquil garden where you will find an area to relax and enjoy the sun and an area to cool down when the temperature requires you to. We even have our own vegetable and aromatic herbs and veggie garden where you are more than welcome to pick your own veggies to make a delicious meal for you and your friends or family.
Essentially, Uni should be seen as a means to an end: utter relaxation. The energy around it enables you to let your mind wander off daily life worries and welcomes you to simply enjoy the moment by appreciating the incredible natural surroundings we are lucky enough to have here. Uni is a boutique island retreat where upon arrival you immediately realise, as we have, that this is a no less than a dreamland.
TIP: Remember to pack light, you don't need much. The walk to the studios from the car park is made through a narrow and a bit steep path 10 min walk and thus we advise you to only take with you what you really need and leave all the remaining goods in the car. If there is no place in Madeira that stands out among the sea waves Island is undoubtedly the Sea Garden is a paradise for people to rest. The origin of the city is based on the flowers that exist and to be by the sea, got the name: Jardim do Mar.
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Privacy and mingle unique moments with the Atlantic Ocean. Access to the mountain! View the best waves in the Surf in Madeira. If there is local in Madeira that stands out among the island by sea waves is, without a doubt, the Sea Garden is a true paradise for surfers, where, even if they have held frequent competitions worldwide.
The origin of the town name, as someone once wrote, is due to the abrupt transition plumb slopes and stripped of vegetation to a laughing and green estancia, which picturesquely leans over the ocean and the beauty of the place, once blanket of wildflowers.
We can say that the Sea Garden is an oasis between the sea and the mountain. Usually the Sea Garden is presented with enough sun and winter rainfall is very low. About Safety. Contemporary luxury holiday home in the romantic, quirky, coastal village of Jardim do Mar showcasing a stunning frontline position with spectacular ocean views, mountain backdrops, vibrant sunsets and a unique location set on a cliff edge.
The spacious open plan ground floor accommodation incorporates a bright and airy contemporary lounge, dining and fully-equipped kitchen area. The enormous floor-to-ceiling aluminium sliding patio doors provide access to a large sun terrace offering the most exceptional sea views and there is also a guest cloakroom incorporating a WC and wash hand basin. An impressive stairway to the first floor accommodation leads onto the delightful master bedroom, again with floor-to-ceiling aluminium sliding patio doors.
Imagine waking up to a panoramic view of the ocean every morning! There are two double built-in wardrobes providing ample storage space and the en-suite bathroom has a superior finish incorporating double shower enclosure, vanity unit and WC. The perimeter of the property is enclosed by a stone wall and contemporary glass screening and access is via a steel gate with steps down to the house.
The private sun terrace is a suntrap for sun lovers by day and a peaceful haven by night for those who delight in watching the sun go down…. As previously mentioned, the Architect's Beach Cottage has been architecturally designed to take advantage of its unique position on a cliff edge making it the perfect holiday hideaway…. This tranquil unspoilt village of old stone houses, narrow cobbled streets and lush gardens is widely considered by both tourists and Madeirans to be one of the most beautiful on the island.
The area is noted for its world class surfing and has two friendly bars, one of which, 'Joe's Bar' offers delicious great value authentic Madeiran cuisine freshly made to order. In addition, there is a large restaurant, a village shop and a library offering free internet access. The car park at the edge of the village has enabled it to be largely pedestrianised, with a 1km long seafront traffic free promenade lined with palm trees.
The little harbour has a slipway for small boats, a clean pebble beach for swimming and snorkelling, and a beach bar. Within a short drive, nearby Calheta has a sandy bathing beach, shops, several restaurants and a marina where whale and dolphin watching or fishing excursions can be arranged. Some of the island's finest scenery and walking areas are within a 20 minute drive! The Architect's Beach Cottage. Show all. Popular homes. Muito arejada, com vista para o mar.
Jardim do Mar. Take in panoramic views from every angle, living area, and bedroom, thanks to the clever design of this villa set among banana plantations. Dip into an infinity pool, work up an appetite in the gym and sauna, and watch movies in the cinema room. Morning Star Villa, set among banana plantations, faces south and sits meters over the sea. All bedrooms are equipped with double bed, WI-fi internet, cable radio and private bathroom.
All of them have private patios with flowers and direct access to the swimming pool and an amazing sea view. There is an infinity swimming pool, a modern gym with sauna and a professional cinema room. The house has a beautifully kept garden with valuable mature trees and flora.
It also has a garage for 2 cars with automated doors. Only 25 minutes from Funchal, the area is close to the sea and a new marina complex. Shops and restaurants are just a few minutes away. A unique and different villa, situated in a beautiful walled garden. This country house located in the village center offers private rooms, garden,roof terrace with sunset views every night, group rooms, covered kitchen.
Your hosts, Henrique and Andreia father and daughter will welcome you making your stay enjoyable and memorable. Our Guest House was created with our own ideas, every space of the house is to remember the places in the world where we were and we live in, the concept is the "feel at home " a small paradise island of Madeira. And a very quiet neighborhood with its very clean paths, people are very lovely, always ready to help, good weather helps a lot to the customers to come visit this beautiful village!
Its a very calm village with its very clean paths, the people are very kind, they are ready to help in any information, the good weather helps a lot that the clients come to visit this beautiful village! Maktub Guest house - 3 Private Room. Casa LG Life is Good is a cosy, newly built house, offering all the modern features. Practically thought out and tastefully decorated.
It is located in the heart of the small famous picturesque village Jardim do Mar and at the most appealing, hottest part of the Island. It is close to the sea front. It has a small courtyard to eat or spend time outside in privacy. It has a small terrace great for fabulous sunsets. Excellent place for a relaxing get away in a peaceful environment. Newly built modern cottage november consisting of two levels.
The top level has two bedrooms each with king size beds and built in cupboards with sliding mirror doors. Bed linen and towels are available. One bathroom with shower. The bottom level has an open planed american styled kitchen equipped for four people and appliances such as freezer refrigerator, stove and oven, microwave oven, electric kettle, toaster, citrus squeezer, a hand blender and a washing machine.
Father Guerra was 7 See Aresta b , pp. That is precisely why this is not a case of a real school of Chinese studies with the correspondent cycle of knowledge being passed from master to student In truth, during the dictatorship, this teaching was practically limited to the chair of Cantonese in the Institute of African and Oriental Languages at the extinct Colonial Higher School in Lisbon renamed Higher 14 See Rio , pp. See also Oliveira , pp. Already under democracy, this subject continued somewhat unsystematically in the chair of Mandarin Chinese taught at the Faculty of Letters of the University of Lisbon.
At the same time it was complemented with university and non-university dissemination courses, such as those organized by the Oriental Institute of the Faculty of Social and Human Sciences of the New University of Lisbon and by the Macao Mission in Lisbon. For example, the Chinese language study indices have increased, there is greater visibility of Chinese studies in universities, a greater internationalization of this type of research and the emergence of various periodical publications on these subjects. More, such an effort was generally accompanied by a new look on most oriental matters, which was rigorous in terms of methodology and finally free of the ideological registers that had upheld the last Portuguese colonialism in such diverse fields as sociology, history, anthropology, geography, biology or even agronomy between the s and the s.
We realize this part is still barely promoted when compared with most of those forming the heterogeneous group of Portuguese-Asian studies. We are also aware that, by itself, it can never fill the void left by the lack of true Sinology. In any case, not even the inevitable diversions suffered at the hands of the 18 See Thomaz , pp. See Zhang , pp. Traditionally, studies on Portuguese-Chinese relations are organized along two lines of research: one concentrating on issues of Macao; the other substituting or extending that same research to the broader spectrum of bilateral relations between Portugal and China.
Montalto de Jesus Jesus Despite the relative discretionary aspects 23 Second edition, revised and enlarged: Jesus Of this group, we underline the following references: Gomes ; Edmonds ; Loureiro ; Loureiro ; Loureiro a ; Ptak ; Wu Furthermore, it has the advantage also of covering the period of a number of political and cultural successes that were sufficiently coherent to make the Macanese and Portuguese contribution to the study and disclosure of Chinese affairs a decisive chapter in constructing modern European information on China.
In the end, it was basically through the Portuguese and their networks that Europe established relations with Ming China. Whenever justified, we will not hesitate to detour from the Portuguese and Macanese field of writings, which we favour, to extend the enquiry to the contributions on PortugueseChinese relations made by other scholars and writers. This work was preceded by an introductory essay entitled Contribution to an historical sketch of the Portuguese settlements in China, principally of Macao; of the Portuguese envoys and ambassadors to China; of the catholic mission in China; and the papal legates to China A few years later, part of its contents reappeared in Contribution to an historical sketch of the Roman Catholic Church at Macao; and the domestic and foreign relations of Macao Several decades passed before A.
Marques Pereira or C. Both the full Portuguese 26 Expression taken from Saldanha , p. In it he compared European and Chinese published sources which was an unusual step for the time. The first two volumes of this work cover the sixteenth century and the four first decades of the seventeenth century and it is important to underline the effort made to contextualise the main events that marked the existence of the territory during the period under analysis. A contrasting perspective of the Macanese phenomenon, which has the added bonus of making ample use of Chinese sources, appeared at the same time in Macao Years, by Fei Chengkang Fei Gunn ; Portuguese edition: Gunn Regarding the period between the middle of the sixteenth century and the first decades of the seventeenth century, many of the pages written by the English historian Charles R.
Boxer between and were and continue to be extremely important today. The following books should be highlighted: Fidalgos in the Far East, We must also refer 31 The first version of this study in Chinese was that published in Shanghai in We return to the chronological line by referring to Almerindo de Vasconcelos Lessa, a surgeon in charge of the Mission of Tropical Anthropology of Macao from onwards. The local history of Macau in the more specific field related with matters of geography, town-planning and architecture constitutes one of the lines that researchers have visited over and over in the last few years.
We also highlight the detailed retrospective analyses by Maria de Lourdes R. Cross-referenced perspectives on relations between Portugal and China One can easily see that the separation between what will be a study on the local history of Macao and what might appear listed as research on Portugal-China relations is often based on an artificial option, taken deliberately to help organise a great variety of writings.
Na aba da vestidura 35 this was a field in which the confrontation between western and eastern sources was soon tested. At the same time, this is also an area that early on saw an extended dialogue, or at least an increasingly greater supply of interpretations, between researchers of different countries. This is a comparative advantage that moved this area out of that Portuguese-Macanese claustrophobia that almost to our days has conditioned the writings dedicated and restricted to the history of Macao.
Even considering the major contribution made by the institutional logic characteristic of moments that preceded the transfer of powers in Macao in the fact that several of the works mentioned were reprinted in these last few years is a sign of its intrinsic importance.
In , the initial version of the first major interpretation of commercial and diplomatic relations between the Portuguese and the Chinese was published in Leyden: Sino-Portuguese trade from to Braga, when he published in Hong Kong The Western pioneers and their discovery of Macao Braga and also when in he presented to that British colony China Landfall, Braga a — the title being revised and transformed that very same year into the extensively quoted China Landfall, Among other works by this author on other issues, usually accompanied by the extensive use and dissemination of Portuguese sources: Smith a ; Smith b ; Smith Despite their undeniable merits, we must note that almost all these works are influenced both by the bias found in official historiography, namely that somewhat old-fashioned rhetoric that often affects many of the forms of comemmorativism, as well as by a chronic difficulty in completing the narration of political, administrative and military facts — privileged above all others — within a framework of the object treated in the broader context of East Asia.
Curiously, however, whilst the fact that his work was boycotted during the dictatorship of the New State explains why the earlier model of historiographic production governed by ideologies had continued for too long,43 we must also note that the segment of the studies dedicated to the historic presence of the Portuguese in China did not benefit from any significantly new contribution in the years immediately after the revolution.
While Macao continued capturing the attention of researchers and publicists, the phenomenon that this city represented failed to be integrated in a wider historical and geographical context. To this we can add the short series of essays published by Lea E.
Williams on these subjects, in particular her reading on the start of contacts between Portugal and China Williams a. On the other hand, the methodical line traced by Zhang Tianze in Sino-Portuguese trade from to was also taken by Bryan de Souza in his text The Survival of Empire.
The German Sinologist Roderich Ptak, author of a broad series of studies on maritime Asia, is nowadays one of the most consistent authors writing on the subject of relations between Portugal and China from the early days of the Portuguese presence on the coast of the Middle Empire. Na aba da vestidura 39 War Period is still unpublished. As a broad interpretation of the available written records on the informal commitment that instituted Macanese reality, on that date it still represented one of the few studies based on simultaneous handling of Chinese and Portuguese sources.
Despite that publishing obstacle, the main conclusions of this important work of comparative history have been published in several fragmentary texts, both in English Fok and in Portuguese Fok This is a text we must mention, although the particularly virulent way that Dai attacks the validity of most of the western sources documenting the settlement of the Portuguese in Macao is very questionable.
Together with Jin Guo Ping, Wu Zhiliang is one of the most prolific Chinese researchers into relations between Portugal and China and one of 47 For a brief reading of this book, see Flores , pp. These include a very heterogeneous group of subjects, frequently retrieved and developed from volume to volume: from the analysis of the start of Portuguese trade on the coast of Guangdong to the part played by certain goods in this same relation until the beginning of the Qing era; from the variety of interests and the evolution of the Chinese attitude towards Macao to the toponymy or cartography of the places visited by Portuguese shipping; from the inventory and commentary of sources in Chinese and Manchu , containing information about Macao, to examination of the part played by the Jesuits in the transition between the Ming and the Qing dynasties.
Another renowned modern expert on Portuguese-Chinese relations is Tang Kaijain, as any reader can confirm by reading the eight articles on the Ming period included in the fourteen found in Ming Qing shidafu yu Aomen Ming and Qing scholars and Macao Tang b , or the eleven essays gathered in Aomen kaibu chuqi shi yanjiu Studies about the early stages of the opening of Macao Tang We should also mention Zhang Wenqin and begin by reading the first of the thirteen essays that are part of the collection Aomen yu Zhonghua lishi wenhua Historical culture of Macao and China — dedicated to the broader subject of the inspections that highranking Ming and Qing officials made in Macao Zhang Na aba da vestidura 41 Historiography in search of internationalization The renewal by Portuguese authors of the theme of Portuguese-Chinese relations that tentatively began between the end of the s and the beginnings of the s and has since been studied in-depth, can be seen in some particular acquisitions.
Firstly, whatever the phenomenon under analysis we see that in general it is no longer considered separately but in conjunction with general background conditions that must be highlighted: the situation of China and Portuguese expansion in the East, the trade and civilisational dynamics of the Asian seas, the Japanese internal situation, the dynamics of the Catholic missionaries, and competition with other European powers in the region, to name just a few. Lastly, there has been both improved use of oriental sources and also a progressively more rigorous interpretation of the teachings provided in Western sources, that the practice of acritical reading had neglected for too long.
In conclusion, this is a methodically more rigorous and broader investigation on the subject under analysis, a precondition for a definitive internationalization of this field of studies. The most obvious ones are: the predominance of individual research initiatives, resulting in what is still a very fragmentary bibliography; the prevalence of studies on the political, institutional or economic dimensions of the historical matters studied with the consequent disregard for aspects associated to the history of the culture and mentality; and also an immense void in the treatment of Oriental — Chinese and other — documentary sources, a logical consequence of the lack of a true Portuguese Sinology tradition, as described above.
Another study denoting this new interest in China by Portuguese researchers is focused on unpublished documentation about 51 See Loureiro , pp. The latter texts should be read together with an article that Jorge M. Santos Alves In addition to the contributions mentioned, such as those by J.
Loureiro in which he updated the knowledge on the facts and circumstances surrounding the first Portuguese embassy to Beijing Loureiro b. As far as we are most concerned, an overall view of the China Sea in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was attempted: see what Zhang Zengxin wrote about the various Portuguese entrepots on the Chinese coast throughout the sixteenth century Zhang At the same time the connection between Macao and Japan in the double trade-missionary dimension was considered: for example the text in which J.
Oliveira e Costa compares the poles of Macao and Nagasaki Costa Advances were made on unravelling the crucial themes of Catholic missionary action in China: see the texts on the Jesuit 53 Portuguese version of the same text: Alves Na aba da vestidura 43 project by R. Oliveira e Costa Costa Lastly, progress was made in listing the representations of Portuguese activities in China through the Chinese sources: see the new explanation provided by Geoff Wade Wade and James Chin Kong Kong Such investigations can and should be completed with five of the ten detailed essays Jin Guo Ping included in Xi li dong jian.
Zhong Pu zaoqi jiechu zhuixi West in quest for the East , which favour the approach to some of the more pertinent toponymic matters from the time before Macao Jin A sixth essay in this book develops several of the plans to conquer China drawn up in Macao and Manila throughout the sixteenth century, and it is useful to compare it with the abovementioned text by M. Loureiro Loureiro It is the first major collection of works about the most important facets of the Portuguese presence in East Asia between the sixteenth and the twentieth centuries. Santos Alves in a chapter on Christianisation and ecclesiastic organisation Alves The same could be said about the four chapters of tome 2 of that volume, in which Jorge M.
Flores, covering 55 See also Valladares , pp. Na aba da vestidura 45 Macanese political life during the period between the end of the first half of the seventeenth century and the last years of the eighteenth century Flores b.
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There is every advantage in comparing it with the reflections that R. In a certain sense, the book The Survival of Empire by George Bryan de Souza constitutes the informal terminus ad quem of this work Souza Edition and critical analysis of Portuguese sources We know that the printed and manuscript Portuguese sources from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, together with those that arrived from East Asia through trade and information networks, correspond to the 58 For a quick synthesis of the different perspectives of Chinese historiography regarding this matter, see Ptak , p.
We also know that most of the knowledge Europe acquired about the Chinese world during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries from letters and treaties was based on Portuguese sources of the preceding period. Today it is generally accepted that most modern Sinology can only be understood in the light of the Portuguese texts from the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries on which they are based. In spite of the facts we have just recalled, we must acknowledge that the publication of sources about the Portuguese presence in China and in other East Asia territories is one of the tasks of this specific field of historiography that is still pending.
Discovering written sources kept in Portuguese, Italian, Spanish, Dutch or English archives, whose contents are vital to clarify the past relations between the Portuguese and China, is the most important part of the immense task still remaining of surveying and analysing of testimonies. In this domain, we must point out the patient work done by Rui M. The English version of the treaties of Galiote and Cruz appear in Boxer b , pp. After the princeps of , the important Tractado das cousas da China by Gaspar da Cruz was reprinted in Portugal on two occasions, in both cases with no critical analysis: Cruz ; Cruz For an overall reading of the main catalogues and collections of written and printed documentation on Portuguese-Chinese relations and Macao, see Barreto , pp.
The same cannot be said regarding the imposing corpus of Portuguese chronicles of this time they never specifically dealt with the subject of China but dedicated a substantial number of pages to the early days of the exchange between Portugal and China. This idea is still valid in spite of the sporadic progress such as that Zhang Weimin achieved for words of Chinese origin Zhang Another subject with many as yet unresolved investigational aspects is that of Chinese language texts published by the Catholic missionaries at the end of the Ming period, whether lexicographical or actual evangelization instruments.
With about entries — from aba de vestidura to zunir a orelha — it is most probably the oldest western dictionary of Mandarin Chinese that has reached our days. Among the historians who in later years have left an indelible mark on research into the abovementioned issues, we evoke the partnership between Donald Lach and Edwin J. This is the continuation of the monumental investigation Lach had been making since For our subject this had led to the chapter in Volume I of this work dedicated to European books and maps that portrayed China during the sixteenth century Lach ; Lach Among the studies carried out by Portuguese researchers, we have selected three syntheses that extended the results achieved by works such as those that Donald Lach and Edwin J.
The first of these two syntheses was offered by Rui M. Madrid: Ediciones El Viso, pp. Alves, Jorge M. In Francis A.
The Portuguese and the Pacific. Santa Barbara, California: University of California, pp. In Jorge M. Oporto: Lello Editores. Macao: Leal Senado de Macau, pp. Baldini, Ugo Baracho, Carlos Um percurso ao encontro do medievalismo em Macau.
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O Livro de Duarte Barbosa, ed. Augusta da Veiga e Sousa, 2 vols. Witek, S. Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda. Segunda decada da Asia de Joam de Barros, ed. Lindley Cintra. Terceira decada da Asia de Joam de Barros, facsimile ed. Batalha, Graciete Nogueira a. Batalha, Graciete Nogueira b. Batalha, Graciete Nogueira Estado actual do dialecto macaense. Macao: Instituto Cultural de Macau. Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional. Boxer, Charles R. Macao: Imprensa Nacional.
Na aba da vestidura 55 Boxer, Charles R. South China in the Sixteenth Century. London: The Hakluyt Society. O Grande Navio de Amacau. Fidalgos no Extremo Oriente, Factos e Legendas de Macau Antigo.