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Biology Is Technology. Robert H. A Dictionary of Chemical Engineering. Carl Schaschke. Plant Biotechnology. Adrian Slater. Planning a Career in Biomedical and Life Sciences. Avrum I. James McCumiskey. Downstream Industrial Biotechnology. Michael C. Petrochemicals in Nontechnical Language. Donald L. Bioprocess Engineering Principles. Pauline M. An Introduction to Biotechnology. Biotechnology Demystified. Sharon Walker. The aim is to minimise risks.

Risk Assessment methods should be used to determine priorities and set objectives for eliminating hazards and reducing risks. Wherever possible, risks should be eliminated through the selection and design of facilities, equipment and processes. If risks cannot be eliminated, they should be minimised by the use of physical controls and safe systems of work or, as a last resort, through the provision of PPE. Performance standards should be established and used for measuring achievement.

Specific actions to promote a positive safety and health culture should be identified. The visible and active leadership of senior managers fosters a positive safety and health culture. The organisation should measure, monitor and evaluate safety and health performance. Performance can be measured against agreed standards to reveal when and where improvement is needed.

Where Should SOPs Be Located?

Active self-monitoring reveals how effectively the safety and health management system is functioning. Self-monitoring looks at both hardware premises, plant and substances and software people, procedures and systems, including individual behaviour and performance. If controls fail, reactive monitoring should find out why they failed, by investigating the accidents, ill health or incidents, which could have caused harm or loss.

The objectives of active and reactive monitoring are:.

Advanced Procedure Writing for the Process Industries

The organisation should review and improve its safety and health management system continuously, so that its overall safety and health performance improves constantly. The organisation can learn from relevant experience and apply the lessons. There should be a systematic review of performance based on data from monitoring and from independent audits of the whole safety and health management system. There should be a strong commitment to continuous improvement involving the development of policies, systems and techniques of risk control. Performance should be assessed by:.

Many companies now report on how well they have performed on worker safety and health in their annual reports and how they have fulfilled their responsibilities with regard to preparing and implementing their Safety Statements. An organisation should carry out an initial review of the safety and health management system, and follow this up with periodic reviews. The initial review should compare existing safety and health practice with:. A Safety Statement should have a safety and health policy incorporated into it.

What is this policy? The safety and health policy must:. Critical safety and health issues, which should be addressed and allocated resources, in the safety and health policy, include the:. However, this list is not exhaustive and the critical safety and health issues that could be covered by the policy will depend on the risks in the organisation. If the above issues are adequately covered elsewhere in the Safety Statement or in the safety and health management system, they might need only to be referred to in the safety and health policy.

Backup documentation may also be referred to in the policy. Safety and health policies are specific to each individual organisation The content of the policy of an organisation should be based on the hazards and risks present in the organisation and should reflect the fact that systematic hazard identification and risk assessment have been undertaken. As a minimum, the policy should contain a commitment that safety and health legislation will be complied with and should specify those responsible for implementing the policy at all levels in the organisation and define their responsibilities.

To all employees: As your employer, we are required to comply with all safety and health legislation that applies to this company. With this in mind we have carried out Risk Assessments of all our key operations and processes in all the workplaces we control. We have discussed these Risk Assessments with all relevant employees and worked with the safety committee in preparing this Safety Statement.

This statement sets out the safety and health measures we are implementing to protect everyone who works here. I am committed to ensuring that the safety and health measures set out in our Safety Statement are met.

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John Kelly, Safety and Health Manager, will give advice and information on how to comply with this Safety Statement but everyone, especially if you are in a management or supervisory position, is responsible for ensuring compliance where they work. We expect all employees to co-operate with us so that we can achieve our target of avoiding accidents. Consultation on safety and health matters, between senior managers and all employees, will be carried out through the safety committee, which you have selected.


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You must play your part under the Safety Statement. Comply with all the safety and health rules for your area. Work safely and think of others as you do. Know and understand the Risk Assessments for your area. Report safety and health problems to your supervisor. Know who your safety representative is and contact him or her with any safety and health enquiries you may have.

What are the responsibilities of management regarding the implementation of safety and health in the organisation? Responsibility for safety and health management ultimately rests with the employer. This responsibility is normally delegated to executive directors, senior managers, line managers, supervisors and employees. The organisational and reporting structure for implementing these duties should be illustrated in an in-house organisational chart. Accidents, ill health and incidents are seldom random events. They generally arise from failures of control and involve multiple contributory elements.

The immediate cause may be a human or technical failure, but such events usually arise from organisational failings, which are the responsibility of management.

50 Ideas for an Effective Maintenance Program

Successful safety and health management systems aim to utilise the strengths of managers and other employees. The organisation needs to understand how human factors affect safety and health performance. Senior executive directors or other senior management controlling body members and executive senior managers are primarily responsible for safety and health management in the organisation. These people need to ensure that all their decisions reflect their safety and health intentions, as articulated in the Safety Statement, which should cover:.

Although organisations routinely contract out either all or parts of their work activities, they may still retain some of the legal responsibility for health and safety, particularly if they directly control how this work is done. For this reason, the organisation should establish and maintain procedures for controlling the safety and health aspects of contractor work.

These should include:. Additionally, it is also necessary for organisations to check the ability of contractors where they work close to, or in collaboration with, direct employees or with other contractor's employees. Such arrangements should cover the:. Effective safety and health management includes effective emergency planning. What should this cover? The organisation should establish and maintain procedures to respond to accidents and emergency situations, and to prevent and minimise the safety and health impacts associated with them. Emergency planning should cover:.

The organisation should periodically test, review and revise its emergency preparedness and response procedures where necessary, in particular after the occurrence of accidents or emergency situations. The emergency plan should dovetail with the Safety Statement as required by Section 20 of the Act. Details of what is required are covered at Control of Major Accident Hazards on this website. The following are some key questions for employers to assist in determining the adequacy of their safety and health management in the organisation:. It should be a line-management responsibility to monitor safety and health performance against predetermined plans and standards.

Two types of monitoring are required:. Every organisation should collect information to investigate the causes of substandard performance or conditions adequately. Documented procedures for carrying out these activities on a regular basis for key operations should be established and maintained. The monitoring system should include:. Techniques that should be used for active measurement of the safety and health management system include:.

How to Write Effective Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)

A system of internal reporting of all accidents which includes ill health cases and incidents of non-compliance with the safety and health management system should be set up so that the experience gained may be used to improve the management system. The organisation should encourage an open and positive approach to reporting and follow-up and should also put in place a system of ensuring that reporting requirements are met.

Those responsible for investigating accidents, and incidents should be identified and the investigation should include plans for corrective action, which incorporate measures for:. Monitoring provides the information to let the organisation review activities and decide how to improve performance. Auditing and performance review are the final steps in the safety and health management control cycle. The organisation should establish and maintain a programme and procedures for periodic safety and health management system audits to be carried out.

This enables a critical appraisal of all the elements of the safety and health management system to be made.

50 Ideas for an Effective Maintenance Program

Procedure Training. Chapter 4. Writing Operating and Maintenance Procedures. Considerations for Effective Procedures. Importance of Procedure Format. Introductory Sections. Procedure Steps Section. Drafting the Procedure. The Procedure Review and Approval Cycle. Special Considerations for Maintenance Procedures.

Batch Process Considerations. Chapter 5. Elements of Effective Procedures. Importance of Procedure Evaluation Criteria. Procedure Checklists Elements. Chapter 6. Writing Emergency Operating Procedures. Identifying Emergency Situations. Developing and Writing Emergency Operating Procedures.

Learn to Write Effective Policies & Procedures

Chapter 7. Procedure Control. What Is Procedure Control? Controlling Procedure Revisions and Development. Who Should Review the Procedures? Procedure Approval.