This beautiful theory was then so thoroughly exploded by W. Walther62 that we can hardly understand how an American church historian, who demands to be taken at face value and who contends that he can give an entirely different meaning to the Reformation by reason of his completely exhaustive study of all possible sources, dares to revive once more this old question in almost childish fashion. For Walther shows how just in all those places, where the use of the mediaeval Bible through Luther must have shown itself, granted that Luther used it at all, — for example, in difficult passages, — that just there entirely different translations are to be found, different not only as to the words used, but also as to the method of translation in respect to style as well as to syntax.
Parallels only show themselves there where the renderings — especially in the historical books — might, because of their nature, be alike, without being copied. If Luther really was acquainted with the Bible of the Middle Ages, he did not use it. Only later he became acquainted with it, and then, as we can see now, in his revisions and corrections he occasionally supplanted his own word with one from it. Keyssner62 had already before Walther compared the three versions of the Psalters from , and with each other, and in this way made interesting discoveries as to Luther's translatory activities.
Kawerau says concerning this: "Keyssner shows how Luther, in his sympathy for rhythm in language, fairly searches for an expression at the beginning and end of a Psalm, that recommends itself because of its depth of meaning and euphony. He shows how Luther, with his intuitive sense for the right term, chooses from the synonyms that are at his fingertips, how he translates the alien illustrations of the Oriental so that they are understood by the German mind or how he entirely discards them, in order to create the Bible for the Germans.
Before Luther began with the translation of the New Testament he completed the first parts of his Epistle and Gospel Postil. Bossert and Koehler64 have treated of the origin of this Wartburg Postil in thoroughgoing investigations; later on Koehler edited it as a part of the Weimar Edition in exemplary fashion Vol. In Vol. X, 2, he will give us a valuable introduction. To the time of Luther's sojourn at the Wartburg also belongs his writing on the vows of the monks.
Scheel 64 not only edited this work in German, as has been stated before, but he also furnished for it a very careful commentary, which played great havoc with the contentions of Denifle against Luther, based on this work of Luther.
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Just this influence that the vulgar superstitions exercised upon Luther, Klingner64 made the object of special study. He shows how these ideas, by no means, caused him to appear contemptible, but how in reality his firm belief in the reality of the Devil, through whom God inflicts his salutary punishments upon man, and how his idea of the mightiness of Satan were for Luther a stimulant for a continual fight against evil, as he found it within and without himself, and an incentive for the good, for the perfection of others and himself.
Therefore they are integral parts of the religious side of his personality and closely interwoven with the work of his career. How insufficient this view of Klingner may be, for according to Scripture the idea of the Devil is neither only a vulgar superstition nor only a term used in pedagogical interests, we nevertheless welcome his writing. One can not well differentiate between Luther's residence on the Wartburg and his attitude towards the Scriptures. Not, indeed, because Luther here learned to look upon the Scriptures in a new relation, so that not until now they became for him the only source of religious knowledge.
This proposition already crumbles into dust in view of the sources that were generally available prior to , and to maintain it now is to become guilty of an historical falsification for the sake of one's construction. But it is Preuss who in a perfectly trustworthy way suffers us to follow this development to the minutest detail. He begins with the rule which Staupitz, , laid down in his statutes for cloisters: "The novice shall gladly read the Scriptures, devoutly hear them, and diligently learn them," and closes with a searching investigation of the statements made by Luther at the Leipzig Disputation, To follow Luther farther than to this point is unnecessary, for with the Leipzig Disputation the Reformer had actually reached the position from which he did not deviate the rest of his life.
Already in he wrote: "Even if all the holy teachers had held this or that, they are as nothing over against one single passage from the Scriptures" Weimar Ed. The last day of the Leipzig Disputation his final statement was his confession of the authority of the Scriptures, for he concludes: Doleo, quod d. In his "Contra malignum L Eccii judicium M. Lutheri Defensio" of the same year he proves this his position over against the Scriptures with the declaration of their inerrancy, for he reaffirms the words of St. Augustine: Ego solis eis libris, qui canonici appellantur, hunc honorem deferre didici, ut nullum scriptorem eorum errasse firmissime credam Weim.
In his "Operationes in psalmos" of he already made the famous declaration: "Quid est papa? Kropatscheck and especially Seeberg have emphatically asserted this, and their assertion has been ably seconded by O. It is quite another question at what time and in which measure the Scriptures became of importance for Luther's personal religious life. His lectures on the Psalms and especially on the Epistle to the Romans now put us in a position to gain more reliable data. Scheel, Thimme, O. Ritschl, and Tschackert inform us on this score. Per tale credere nos justificat i.
The gospel for him is no longer the "nova lex" as during the whole of the Middle Ages, but the means of grace, "nuntius bonus. We now can readily trace how he gradually progressed from the allegorical interpretation of Scripture to the historical, which emphasizes the "sensus literalis," even though he never fully abandoned the former. Zoeckler, Grundt, and Eger have discussed this as well as his position to the Old Testament. Not later than we already read the sentence: "Scriptura sacra ipsa per se sui ipsius interpres" Erl. How the attempt has been made to get much capital for a freer position of Luther towards the Scriptures out of his expressions concerning James, Hebrews, the Apocalypse, etc.
But it is scientific levity to do so. Careful research will ever find, that the books recognized by him as canonical, under all conditions were regarded by him as the authoritative Word of God, but that he differentiated between these and such which he did not without more ado accept as God's Word, simply because he did not regard them as canonical. It is a matter, therefore, of two entirely different spheres. For this reason it is not correct to ascribe to the former what is said of the latter. That Luther in his doubts over the canonicity of this or that book during the transition period from the Middle Ages to the Reformation did not stand alone, that the conception of canonical writings was not a firmly fixed conception as it largely is today, is clearly shown by Walther and Leipold, whilst Walther and Kawerau have also investigated the question of Luther's and other's final opinion of James.
What position did Luther take towards the writings recognized by him as canonical, did he merely assert their inerrancy in religious matters or also extend this to historical, physical, etc. Walther in Rostock has shown that Luther's position here, too, was much more conservative than nearly all presentations care to admit. Even though Luther's residence on the Wartburg did not in any way involve a new position of the reformer towards the Scriptures, yet the undisturbed and careful study of the same, which he here could undertake, could only fortify the position which he had already gained.
Since the question concerning Luther's influence on the German language is closely related with the question concerning Luther's Bible, and Luther's work on the German Bible began with so much promise on the Wartburg, the most important results of the work done during the past thirty-five years to get a better understanding of this phase of Luther's life work, may be noted at this place. In the Catholic V. Hasak published his book: "Der christliche Glaube des deutschen Volkes beim Schlusz des Mittelalters dargestellt in deutschen Sprachdenkmalen.
Others, both before and since, for inst. Luther und die religioese Literatur seiner Zeit bis zum Jahre " Regensburg, assumed the same position. And Gutjahr also strongly operates with a modern High German unity in language "Einheitssprache" prior to Luther. The one-sided manner in which in certain sections the "fact is emphasized that the 'language-unifying process began long before Luther and was ended long after him' already threatens to lead to an undervaluation of Luther's merits on this score before these are even fully understood," R.
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Neubauer wrote in In opposition to the well known saying of Jacob Grimm: "Luther's language because of its almost wonderful purity and powerful influence must be regarded as the very pith and marrow of the new High German language deposit, in which to the present day there has been very little variation, and then only at the expense of its power and expressiveness. The new High German can indeed be termed the Protestant dialect, whose freedom breathing nature has long since, unknown to themselves, conquered poets and authors of Catholic faith," — this lofty evaluation of the services of Luther in behalf of the German language has been characterized as a "Protestant' legend" compare P.
Pietsch, Luther's Werke, Weimar Ed. Among the men who have carefully investigated this question Burdach and Pietsch, the Germanistic co-laborer in the Weimar Luther edition, deserve especial mention. This amply characterizes the importance of this publication. Next to Burdach and Pietsch the brief but carefully weighed and splendidly instructive dissertation of Neubauer demands special consideration.
It contains so splendid a characterization of the language of the Reformer that we have appended it almost unabridged64a in the foot notes. And Risch enlarges on all of the pertinent questions, putting into bold relief the problems in questions and also detailing the work still to be undertaken. That Luther did not newly create the language which he used as far as its externals, its grammatical cloak, is concerned, is evident. He himself also says so. In this sense a single individual can not create a language. He meant to be understood by the German people and this conditioned the existing language as his starting point.
And he studied it, if ever it was studied. The spoken, written, and printed language of his people was ever during his lifetime the object of his closest observation and study. As late as he instructs Linck to purchase everything of "German pictures, rimes, songs, books, master-songs" to be had in Nuernberg, and send it to him for the purpose of study. He compiled a collection of German adages for himself, which was first edited for us by E. He listened and learned from the German people what was to be learned.
Modern research has ever more shown how much of German literature was in existence prior to Luther. Of course the lifted treasures have not yet been carefully sifted and studied. The limits of this research work, however, must ever be more extended. Virgil Moser, , has collected everything what research work has thus far evolved.
Yet he is not quite just to the linguistic importance of Luther. And that Gutjahr succeeded in an even lesser degree has already been mentioned. Alfred Goetze essayed the attempt to create an "Early High German Glossary" on the basis of independent reading and detailed study of the early High German literature and the various dictionaries of Swiss, Bavarian, Alsatian, Suebian, etc. And now in what relation does Luther's language stand to the language prior to him? Did he simply receive it and pass it on? Or did it become a new language under his hands, which became the standard for the future?
Did he take some particular dialect and develop it, leaving aside whatever of good and beautiful is contained in the others, thereby consigning them to lingering death? Or did he take the good and beautiful and assimilate it, thereby giving it residence in the German language? Burdach answers: "Luther's genius was the 'awakening sun' that shone over the development of the modern High German. Neubauer arrives at the same conclusion. And this all the more so, since that very German, which through Luther's pioneer work was destined to be the mediator, the Middle German , had since the 14th century, where the literary center of gravity had shifted from the South to Middle Germany, received a greater literary importance than in the past and more and more had assimilated upper German elements.
The ground was prepared. It only needed the awakening sun. And we owe it to the masterful personality of Luther, his stupendous genius for language, the skillful selection in the use of his language and its masterful manipulation in his Germanizing of the Bible, the profound influence and the astounding dissemination of the latter, which soon became a popular book — originally diligently read and re-read by thousands for the sake of its contents, but like a secret master of language doing in quiet a slow but successful work in house and hut — that the incipient movement making for a unification of language increased in momentum, and that "Luther's German" finally became the unifying language for literature and cultured intercourse.
In so far Luther is the founder of the modern High German language. On the one hand he gave to his language a certain type, which embodying, as it did, certain elements of different dialects, afforded a possibility for further and more comprehensive linguistic unification, and on the other hand his genius quickened this language, enriched it, gave it flesh and spirit and life, and thus enabled it to discharge the lofty duty that fell to its lot" 1.
For this reason the more refined, the humanists looked upon it as 'barbarous' and felt scandalized to use it. Even those who spoke and wrote the most elegant and artistic Latin, men like Erasmus, Melanchthon, and even Hutten, wrote a crude and defective German. And the language was blamed for what was due only to personal incapacity, a scholarship that weaned away from nationality, or a lack of heart for one's own people and language. With Luther things took a turn.
In him the master had arisen, who recognized that the German language possesses all those elements which were regarded as lacking, and that it only remained for some one to bring them to the light of day.
He recognized the princess in the scorned Cinderella, rescued her from her despised humbleness, rinsed her beautiful eyes and noble countenance of the ashes and the dirt of common servitude, took from her her vile rags, clothed and decorated her in the habiliments of wealth and royalty, so that her inherent walk and attitude of quality, her beauty, virility, and elasticity of youth, and her entire nobility became radiantly apparent.
And the despised and nearly degenerated as a. It is literally true what Justus Jonas in his funeral sermon declares of Luther: 'He has rehabilitated the German language, so that now we can again distinctly speak and write' " 1. Risch remarks: "Luther was bound to find the proper word for the new and great that filled his heart, that filled the heart of the people, though they were unable to clothe it in words. His wonderfully developed genius of language almost always enabled him to find what he sought. And the moment he had found the word he also gave to the concept included therein an explosive power of penetrating effect.
One must clearly visualize this mental revolution with its psychological results for the linguistic expression of the masses, who stood in the midst of the stream, in order fully to appreciate Luther's importance for the history of language. And the international character of humanism was even less in a position to afford the people the mental unity. Only the imperial chancery felt the need of a uniform German written language understood by all.
But the chancery on the other hand was too little in touch with the people, and possessed too little influence among them, to bring about a healthy and vigorous linguistic movement. The great and unifying thought, that joined the north and the south was lacking, the mastering and ponderous gravity of a great personality, who knew how to press the German language into the service of a great cause, over which every German could enthuse.
And he was the right man" 1. In order to understand somewhat the tremendous influence which Luther exerted upon the German language, the whole flood of German writings poured by Luther on the German people must be considered. But in the forefront there stand his translation of the Bible, and, as Risch has again justly pointed out, his Small Catechism.
Pietsch's bibliography appended to the "German Bible" in the Weimar edition of Luther's Works, enables the student to gain a reliable conception of the distribution of the Luther Bible up to Luther's death. In the beginning only parts of the Bible, principally the New Testament, were brought to the masses through the printeries. In three original prints were issued and 22 reprints. In eight editions in Wittenberg were followed by 39 reprints.
That was the culmination point. In the years following the ratio of original editions to reprints is the following: , 3 to 22; , 7 to 25; , 3 to 21; , 4 to 15; , 1 to During the years to , 34 Wittenberg editions were followed by 72 reprints; to Pietsch enumerates 18 Wittenberg editions and 26 reprints outside of Wittenberg. During the period of to Lotter's press alone is said to have sent out no less than , complete Bibles among the people. All told Pietsch treats of 84 original editions and reprints, among which many double editions are counted as one. And only then is this fully understood when we consider 1 that the Bible was read in every Church service matins, common service, vespers, weekday service , and thus also became part and parcel for those of the people who could not read, or were too poor to purchase a copy of their own; 2 that the Low German editions as to their language; and 3 that the Catholic Bibles the Swiss Bibles also as to their language were largely dependent on Luther's Bible, so that all circles of society stood directly under its influence.
Risch in his comprehensive essay compare also Kuehn calls attention to the fact that the student in following the "German Bible" in the Weimar edition can not only trace how Luther in the course of time much better commands the text, but also ever better and with increasing skill handles the German language.
Here the development of the modern High German can be discerned as nowhere else, and one also sees his genius for language and his fidelity in the work for the language of his people in all its wonderful uniqueness.
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Overwhelming and humiliating alike it stands forth in bold relief. Next to the translation of the Bible the Small Catechism claims attention, to show Luther's influence on the German language. This was recited daily in the homes, and read in nearly every service. It was the first and only German reader for many. It was committed. Gillhoff has written a splendid booklet on this subject, of which we quote several passages in the footnotes. Alfred Goetze calls attention to the influence of Luther's hymns in forming the German language.
In our period Luther's language has been treated in its entirety by Franke, briefer but good by Neubauer. The lexicon for Luther's German writings by Dietz has unfortunately been left incomplete. Luther's influence on the German sequence of words, syntax, and above all things vocabulary, and the development of the meaning of words, in spite of the wealth of material in Grimm's German dictionary and Paul's German dictionary, has not. The upheaval in Wittenberg during March, , caused Luther to return. The question whether Luther returned upon his own initiative or whether he thought at the same time that the Elector, while desiring his return, did not dare to voice his wish publicly because of political considerations, has been much discussed during the last decade.
Meaning of "Ablasshandel" in the German dictionary
This was especially the case since Barge, in his lamentably one-sided, over-estimation of Carlstadt65 and the things he started at Wittenberg, called Luther an "administrator of the Justice Department," who, in agreement with his prince made null and void the promising beginning of the "fruehreformatorischen Gemeindechristentums. Mueller65 refused to let it stand, not even as far as it alone was concerned, and much less as Barge had represented it.
Nikolaus Mueller65 then pictured the entire Wittenberg movement in a work that distinguishes itself because of its detail and minuteness. Several months after his return to Wittenberg Luther wrote his well-known and blunt answer to the charges made against him by Henry VIII of England — cf. After his return the time had arrived to arrange an evangelical order of Divine Service, and to take into consideration the organization of congregations and entire regions that had severed connections with Rome.
Gottschick, Gruenberg, Hans, Achelis, Rietschel and others attempted to state what views Luther held concerning an evangelical Divine Service. In order that the German Service might also possess a German hymnary , Luther not only called on others to compose German hymns, but also applied himself to this task.
And, although about forty years of age, he still became the author of quite a number of the most precious church hymns. This view had obtained pretty generally at least67 until a short while ago, even though Groessler contended more and more steadfastly that at least "Ein' feste Burg" was traceable to April, , to his journey to Worms. It was due to Spitta,67 however, that many who held this view, became otherwise convinced and accepted the one Spitta offered, to wit, that we possess hymns from Luther that already date back to his student years, to the time of his spiritual unrest as a monk, and to the days of his early reformatory activity.
The more careful historians of the Reformation, however, have up until now abstained with due cause from giving this theory their support. Thanks are due to F. Zelle67 for a thoroughgoing work on the first hymn-books that contained Luther's hymns. Wolf rum and Zelle67 have also made us better acquainted with them in respect to their melodies and musical setting.
Luther's conception of married life and his views about betrothing and the solemnization of marriage were often treated before ; in our period H. In the center the coat of arms of the Medici, to which house Pope Leo X belonged. Five balls and three lilies of Florence. Also the triple crown of the pope and the keys of St. From a print of The "Kuesterschule" of the Reformation period is the kernel out of which is grown of whatever we have to-day of Christian common schools.
It was in his "German Mass" that Luther declared catechetical instruction of the young a necessary part of an evangelical Divine Service. Here he also illustrated in a remarkable manner, in which way children could be brought to a correct understanding of the Ten Commandments, the Creed, the Lord's Prayer. It is the merit of Ferdinand Cohrs"69 and the Society for the History of Education in Germany that more than thirty catechisms published between and were again made accessible, the majority of which was brought forth by this appeal of Luther.
Buchwald has shed new light on Luther's own catechetical work. Buchwald, Knoke and Albrecht,69 by means of new discoveries and most thorough and extensive investigations in a conclusive way, made us acquainted with the origin of the two catechisms , with the form in which the Small Catechism was at first published, with the different editions up to Luther's death, with its translations into Latin, Greek, Hebrew, French, English, etc. That through the publication of his "Passionale" in , Luther became the father of Bible story instruction , is covered by my article in "Kirchliche Zeitschrift" , and the little book has been made known again through the second part of my "Quellen zur Geschichte des kirchlichen Unterrichts.
Hardeland presents the rich thoughts that are hidden in all of Luther's catechetical writings, and Meyer shows plainly how the Large Catechism grew out from the three series of Luther's sermons on the catechism-texts of Luther was the advocate of an entirely new relation of the evangelical congregations that now arose all over Germany towards the State. Mueller, Holl, Hermelink and Waring aim at making us acquainted with this view of Luther of the State and its relation to the Church, as well as with the dream of founding ideal congregations that was once dreamed by him.
The year was replete with many different kinds of weighty decisions for Luther. In the first place there was the Christian-socialistic revolution, as it manifested itself in the Peasants' War; the immoderate spiritualism of the Anabaptists, the Catholic humanists such as Erasmus; and even now the dispute with Zwingli and others on the Eucharist had begun. Bezold71 present all the material necessary for a full understanding of the situation that led to the Peasants' War and made it so difficult for Luther to take the correct position.
By means of their writings it also becomes apparent why Luther necessarily had to separate himself from the peasants. Riggenbach, v. Nathusius, Lezius, and Seeberg have very excellently portrayed the deep sympathy which Luther at all times had for the social question of his days. The great difference that separated Luther from the fanatic Anabaptists is duly emphasized by the works of Gruetzmacher and Walther.
Gottschick, Hegler, Scheel, Otto, and Sachsse,72 however, ought to be compared. Wappler72 raises the question in which sense we can speak of liberty of creed and conscience during the Reformation period, and makes plain the tenacity with which the Anabaptists, even in Thuringia, held their own for a long time. Burckhardt, Lezius, Richter, J.
They belong to two entirely different periods, and their religious and moral convictions stood in direct opposition to each other. We understand readily that Wernle Die Renaissance des Christentums im i6. Jahrhundert, , p. Leipzig, , IV, 1 p. Jahrhundert"; but this only shows, as Hauck correctly says, how so many representatives of modern theology have forgotten the objectiveness that to Ranke was the necessary requisite for historical judgment. All the greater is the debt we owe to J. Walter has again also edited the "Diatribe" of Erasmus, and Scheel has offered us Luther's "De servo arbitrio" in a new translation, together with a good introduction and many explanatory notes.
The essays of C. Stange are also to be noted in this connection. Walther74 has shed new light. He discloses the dishonest methods to which the opponents of Luther constantly resorted during the Eucharistic controversy, and thus he explains the feeling of distrust Luther had for Zwingli and his brothers in arms. In the Religious Discussion at Marburg took place.
In his "Augsburger Konfession"75 he has also made easily accessible the text of the Articles of Marburg. The Articles of Schwabach very likely were already written by Luther in June, to serve as the basis for a common confession of Brandenburg-Ansbach, Nuernberg and Saxony cf. Luther took them to Marburg, where they were divested of some of their darts against Zwingli. The separation from Zwingli and his friends was kept up at Augsburg. Through Kolde's investigations76 we have gained a concrete idea of how much of the Augustana was placed before Luther, and of what great dimensions Melanchthon's lamentable yielding to Rome really was.
Burkhardt76 informed us about the route of travel the Elector and Luther took to Coburg, while Buchwald76 discovered and published some of the sermons Luther delivered during his second exile, i. The most important one is the sermon of the 2d of October, in which he touches the Diet of Augsburg and expresses his unshakable confidence about the future: "Fuerchte sich denn der Teufel," he said, "wir wollen uns nicht fuerchten!
Die Stunde und Zeit wird kommen, dass die Weisheit und Gewalt, darauf sie jetzt pochen, wird dahingehen, dass wir sagen werden: wo sind sie nun? In , i. Thoma and E. Kroker77 portray the life of his wife, Katharina von Bora, thus affording us a glimpse into Luther's domestic life. By his marriage Luther became the founder of the evangelical parsonage, this rich source of intellectual and religious life, this home of good music, of genuine art and of all what is pure, lovely and good.
Luther's close relation to art and artists is sketched by P. Lehfeldt in "Luther's Verhaeltnis zu Kunst und Kuenstlern," Compare also W. Baur, "Das deutsche evangelische Pfarrhaus," 2 Kawerau deals in general, and very learnedly concerning the "Reformation and matrimony. It was Ebstei77 who, in , published an investigation into the different ailments of Luther and their subsequent influence on his physical and mental condition.
He asserts that Luther suffered from calculi, constipation, piles, catarrh of the middle ear — almost deafness —, periostitis, stomach-affections, weakness of the heart, dysentery, cataract on one eye, and rheumatism! Ebstein finds that it was a particularly virulent kind of rheumatism which was in the main cause for his many pains, and acknowledges that "das ganze Ach und Weh" was the consequence of this sickness, even his corpulency. His mental work, however, was not influenced for the worse through this sickness, even though nervous affliction, fits of mental depression, etc.
He was not an epileptic, or, as some have even said, a maniac. Through the strength of his will and his unflagging energy he invariably rose above his sickness, and until his death he remained the victor in a fight, whose successful termination demanded the greatest possible mental resistance. Thus does the greatness of his genius only show itself all the more resplendent when we think of his numerous illnesses. The more independent and organized evangelical churches appear, especially since , the more does Luther disappear from the foreground. Our review for that same reason can from now on be also much briefer and of a more elective character.
In the evangelical princes and cities organized the Alliance of Schmalkalden. In , with the help of Luther, an order of ordination , as we understand this term to-day, was introduced at Wittenberg. Originally it had not been Luther's intention to create a holy act that in any respect could be considered as a substitute for the Roman consecration to the priesthood.
If the person who wished to become an evangelical pastor had been found worthy and capable by the superintendents and visitators and had been called by the magistrates secular government , the representative of the congregation, the office was established in the single congregation; especially the latter, the call, was the main requisite. Often a divine service was held in this connection, in which the call of the pastor was confirmed, in which he was introduced to the congregation, and where under laying-on of hands, prayers were offered for him. All of this, and sometimes with the exception of the divine service, Luther formerly called ordination, but according to present terminology it was more of an introduction to the congregation rather than an ordination.
Illustration from the second German Bible produced by the printing press. Printed about by H. Eggesteyn in Strassburg. Thanks to the investigations of G. Rietschel we know that Luther conducted such an ordination October 20, Buchwald quotes the address that Luther held on this occasion.
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Afterwards Drews calls attention to the fact that candidates were already ordained in Wittenberg before the 14th of August; he even calls our attention to a writing of the Elector of the 12th of May, in which attention is called to an edict of the Elector that those about to be ordained should be sent to Wittenberg, for the "learned men of Holy Scriptures" should ordain them. Drews also proves that in connection with this the candidates were no longer to be examined by the superintendents as heretofore, but by the theologians in Wittenberg. The faculty turned over the ordination to Bugenhagen.
The doubts of Bugenhagen concerning the edict of the Elector79a did not concern the ordination itself, but had their cause in his conviction, already expressed in his church constitution for Pommerania that the candidates for the ministerium should be examined by their home superintendents, solemnly bound to do their whole ministerial work in accordance with the Word of God by their home bishops or superintendents and then be installed by laying on of hands and prayer in the midst of the congregation by which they had been called. When, in July, , Bugenhagen went to Denmark for a period of two years, Luther officiated regularly and began "the catalogus ordinatorum," which Buchwald has published.
With the exception of a report of an ordination which we know through the Table-talk and a Latin formula for those unversed in German, we now possess five forms for the order of ordination that date back to the time until One of these, obligatory for use in Wittenberg since , was recast by Bugenhagen after his return from Denmark by using an existing sketch. Did the other four have their origin in Luther? Drews believed that he certainly had traced one to Luther, which he published as "the oldest formula for ordination in the Lutheran Church," in the 38th volume of the Weimar Luther Edition p.
But later Vetter contended that this formula could by no means be considered the oldest, and that it does not date back to Luther. On the contrary, it may be that the formula C — taken back by the preachers of Kulmbach, Schnabel and Eberhard, from Wittenberg to their home in — and that the formula F — in the minutes of the visitators of Freiberg from the year — are the oldest that we possess and are directly traceable to Luther, Believe what Saint Paul says that those who are unworthy also receive the body of our Lord, as long as the institution and the word of the Lord are not changed; about this point we shall not quarrel.
Because you stand thus, we are one, and we acknowledge and receive you as our dear brethren in the Lord. Here we also learn why, in spite of all this, a real union was not achieved later on, why even before Luther's death the dispute with the Swiss broke out anew. In the year , not only the representatives of upper Germany appeared with Luther in Wittenberg, but a deputation from England came in order to treat with the Wittenberg theologians. The object of their coming was no less important than that of ascertaining how closely the German evangelicals could approach the representatives of Henry VIII in doctrine, so that a nation like England might enter into the Smalkald Union.
Mentz has edited for the first time the "Articles of Wittenberg" of , and has therewith documentarily proven how dependent the 48 articles of Edward VI, and therefore, also the 39 articles of Elizabeth, are upon the Augsburg Confession. For the "Wittenberg Articles" have their origin in the Augustana. On the other hand they stand in the closest relation to these English confessions. All this is only another example of the penetrative power of Luther's influence, it reaches directly into the confessions of those who, to-day, boast of being a completely separate branch of the Christian Church.
When, about 12 years previously, Tyndale completed his translation of the New Testament into the English language , he made copious use of Luther's translation. He did this work in Germany, where his New Testament was also printed. Tyndale's version, though revised, is virtually our English Bible of today. Through Tyndale and his friends translations of the Bible and many Lutheran writings were smuggled into England and were distributed. So as not to depend on the Latin writings of Luther and his coworkers, however, several of their works were translated into English.
For instance, the first English catechism, Marshall's Primer, 2d edition , is a translation of Luther's "Betbuechlein," and thus also of his "Short Form of the Ten Commandments, the Creed, and the Lord's Prayer" , the important precursor of his later catechism confer: M. Reu, Katechetik, , p. In Cranmer published "A Short Instruction into the Christian religion for the syngular commoditie and profit of children and young people in England," an English version of the "Kinderpredigten," written by Osiander Cranmer married Osiander's niece.
These sermons for children were an explanation of Luther's small catechism. Kawerau and Jacobs have again called attention to this. Geschichte des Kirchl. Unterrichts zwischen and The English Book of Common Prayer, in addition to other influences, manifests a copious use of Lutheran forms of worship, especially of the "Koelner Reformation," , edited by Melanchthon and Butzer. In there appeared in England, "M.
In the same year Walter Lynne, a London printer, published and dedicated to the Princess Elizabeth, another of Luther's works, namely, "A frutefull and godly exposition and declaration of the kyngdome of Christ and of chrysten lybertye made upon the words of the prophete Jeremye of the same matter by the famous clerke Doctor Martyn Luther". London, In the following year Lynne published another of Luther's writings under the title, "A briefe collection of all such testes of the scripture as do declare the most blessed and happie estate of them that be with syckness. Smith in 'The Nation," Dec.
The latter reads,. Our God is a defense and towre A good armoure and good weapon, He had been ever oure helpe and sucoure In all the troubles that we have ben in Therefore wyl we never drede For any wondrous dede By water or by lande In hilles or the see side: Our God hath them al in his hande. The Council was announced in In view of this Luther, at the behest of the Elector, wrote his so-called Smalkald Articles, in a way his last will and testament.
Luther must not have known of Melanchthon's "small conduct" on this occasion and of the fact that his articles were not officially recognized, for otherwise he could not have written in his preface "These have been accepted by our side and unanimously subscribed to, etc. It is known that the antinomistic tendencies of Agricola once more threatened to disturb the peace in , and it is also known how Luther stood in regard to this. Kawerau shows that Luther was not only compelled to deal with Agricola in in the same matter, but that already in he, Bugenhagen and Melanchthon gave their opinion in a very similar case — concerning the method of preaching of the pastor in Chemnitz, Dominicus Beyer.
Kawerau also shows just what the final stand of Luther in against Agricola had been. He sheds new light on Agricola's character who, as soon as he had escaped to Brandenburg, retracted every concession made by him to the Wittenberg theologians and immediately taught his heresy in the new edition of his catechism, His catechism is again made accessible through the.
In l0th of December Luther gave his unfortunate "confessional advice" to Philip the Landgrave of Hesse concerning the latter's bigamy. It will be readily understood that Luther has been much attacked within the last decades because of this, and that the event has been thoroughly aired in order to drag Luther himself into the mire.
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Mueller, and Koehler have contributed much toward clearing up this episode and toward the correct understanding of Luther's action. It is exceedingly strange that men have dared to consider just this man guilty of lying who has said, among other things, "No virtue has made us Germans more famous, and, as I believe, has elevated us higher heretofore and has kept us in that position, than the fact that we have been esteemed faithful, trustworthy and steadfast folk, to whom 'no' meant 'no' and 'yes' meant 'yes. However, Koehler errs when he traces back this mistake of Luther in the matter with Philip to his theology, i.
Or it may be explained according to Hermelink, first, through the distinct difference between spiritual and secular justice as it existed in Luther's conception of religion, i. The year saw the completion of the revision of his Bible translation which he had begun in , which gave us the German Bible as we know it today, with the exception of a few individual passages, the revision of which took place later on. What great care and work Luther devoted to the work of his translation of the Bible is now made evident by the third volume of Luther's "Deutsche Bibel" Weimar Edition.
Here we find the newly-discovered minutes of the sessions arranged by Luther with Melanchthon, Bugenhagen, Jonas, Cruciger, Aurogallus, etc. Three such revisions have taken place in , and In only the Psalter was revised, in the entire Bible. The minutes of the revision in are lost, so nothing can be stated positively. Simultaneously, Luther sent the theses to other addressees outside Wittenberg. As the total number of indulgences had not been updated after the Feast of , it has been suggested that Frederick ceased buying relics by that year.
To appease those who clung to past customs and to convince the Emperor and the Reich that he was making an effort to keep up traditional practices, Frederick explained that he approved the display of only few objects because he wished to maintain the respectability of the artefacts in the face of increasing rejection of them. The period of — was a turning point in the manner of worship in Wittenberg, and also in religious visuality in the city.
On changes in liturgy and on image-breaking in Wittenberg in —, see Koerner, The Reformation n. Brady Jr. Oberman and James D. Tracy Leiden, New York and Cologne I thank Aviva Schmelzinger for this and all the other translations from German. He did not deny that the frame of the pre-Reformation journeys was pilgrimage, but through their classicization he disarmed them from having any sense of Catholic devotional context. In other words, Frederick is presented as a ruler who had followed the misguided sentiments of earlier times but who subsequently converted to a Lutheran point of view.
Georgi provided an illustration with an accompanying list, which together document all the works of art and furnishings in the church before it all went up in flames. The list appears on pp. Luther; 16 a wooden panel showing D. Luther on a podium, pointing with his right hand at the crucified Christ and with his left hand at the Pope, who falls with his cardinals into hell; 17 D.
In some cases they briefly reflect his wording. Ist ebenfalls aus Ertz gegossen. In addition, both sections present numerous epitaphs and effigies of sixteenth- eighteenth-century Lutheran theologians and professors 13, 22, 23, 25, 26, 33, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 46, 47, 50, 51, 53, 54, 58 as well as the seats of the faculties of Theology, Law, Medicine 12, 48 and Philosophy This list reflects not simply the corpus of images presented in the church, but the very meaning ascribed to them in and by the Lutheran society.
The effigies and tombs of both electors, Frederick and John, received places of honor because they were regarded as rulers who had fostered the Reformation and brought about the cultural change. The effigies and epitaphs of later Lutherans linked the distant past with the present. The method of presenting Lutheran personages in evangelical churches is well known. As Joseph Koerner has observed, Lutherans replaced icons of the saints with effigies of themselves for manifesting a Lutheran approach of faith. According to the illustration, the mentioned painting was the triptych see n.
But the painting of Luther pointing at the Pope and what he symbolizes falling into Hell inevitably neutralized the old devotional images showing the electors adoring the saints, or Frederick traveling in the Holy Land. In the new Lutheran context, the triptych showing Frederick in the Holy Land was no more a devotional image laden with Catholic connotations of pilgrimage, than an emblematic one of a journey to a land symbolizing the promise and the Word of God.
Martina Bagnoli, Holger A. Klein, Griffith C. The object is presented in Holger A. Mann and James Robinson London 64 and fig. A remarkable example for the clever utilization of traditional iconography for promoting the new doctrine is the woodcut of the Virgin and Child from the Wittenberg book fig. While this iconography held a variety of devotional connotations—and in the Wittenberg book it was explained as representing a reliquary containing fifty-six Marian relics see Appendix 1: 4 —in it was reproduced in Wittenberg by Georg Rhau in his edition of Lutheran educational Hortulus Animae, Lustgarten der Seelen.
While these stones were physical memorials of the salvation of Israel as such they are presented in the Bible , they were part and parcel of a landscape that became a medium of memory. The river Jordan, the Sea of Galilee, Mount Tabor, or the city of Jerusalem were regarded not as mere landmarks but as memorials to great episodes encapsulating religious and cultural values.
This brings me to the significance of the map of the Holy Land. Like the land it presented, this map inherently manifested religious and cultural memory. This twofold achievement was attained by providing his subjects with an object of worship and a means to gain personal salvation. His Holy Land installation perpetuated his devout pilgrimage and provided his subjects with a substitute of that land and valuable indulgences.
Frederick did not try to restrain the revolution against the practice, but adjusted the worship in his church to the new principles. Whether Catholics who regarded the land and its visuals as physical media for salvation, or Lutherans who assigned the land and its visuals with cognitive significance—they all utilized the biblical land in constructing their cultural and religious identities.
Yet, in that respect Luther was no different from Catholic theologians. Reliquary silbern ubergult pacifical Silver gilt pacifical with with a mit siben Steynen Zum seven precious stones. Ein silbern Bildt The 2nd. The inclusion of their relics in this reliquary is puzzling, as they fit the galleries of martyrs and confessors. John Baptist partickle 1 particle; holding a Von eym finger ein From one finger 1 particle; Lamb of God.
Ein brust Bildt The 3rd. Ein Silbern Bildt The 5th. Virgin Mary was taken to Summa. Ein Silbern bilt The 6th. Silver sculpture Reliquary des kindes Jesu of infant Jesus statuette of Von der stadt do der herr From the town where the Christ child Jesus geborn ist vier Lord Jesus was born 4 holding a partickel particles; globe in his Von den tuchlein dorein er From the cloth in which he left hand. From the town where Lord Von der Stadt do der herr Jesus was circumcised 1 Jhesus beschnitten wardt particle; ein partickel Sum: 25 particles. Ein silbern The 7th.
Silver gilt Reliquary ubergult bildt eins sculpture of one bishop statuette of a Bischoffs From the mountain where bishop Vom berg do der herre the Lord Jesus fasted 4 holding a Jhesus gefast hat. Ein Silbern The 8th. A silver gilt cross Reliquary uberguldt Creucz mit with rounded crystalline Cross einer schonen Runden glass. From the tablecloth on ptic. Ptickel 8 Zum. A golden Reliquary mit d wurtzel und stam reliquary with the Tree with a tree of Jesse of Jesse.
Jesse Von der gulden pfortten ein From the Golden Gate 1 including at partickel particle; the top the Ein partickel 1 particle from the field of Virgin and vom gotzacker gekaufft God, bought for 30 Child umb die. Ein Oelbergk The 10th. Ein grosse Sum: 19 particles schone silberen ubergult The 11th. From the cloth that Saint mittel vom hern ent Veronika received from pfangen ii. A large Zum. Sum: 10 particles 15 Zum. Ein silberen The 4th. Sum: 1 particle That is, suffered on the cross. Ein silbern The 5th.
Ein gulde The 7th. Ein silbern The 8th. Ein Silbern Bilde The 9th. A silver Reliquary in eins engels gestalt mit sculpture of an angel statuette of an ubergulten flugelen with golden wings angel playing Ein gros mercklich A noticeably large particle a harp partickel von dem heiligen from the holy cross; Creutz Sum: 1 particle Summa. A deliciously Reliquary krewcz mit viel golden cross with many Cross topped furtrefflichen steinen und excellent stones and by a crown berlen. Ei grosz Silbern The 11th. Large silver Reliquary Bildt der aufferstheung sculpture of the statuette of Christi resurrected Christ Christ holding Vom Stein so auff dem From the stone on which a banner Grab Christi gelegen i.
Ein Sarch mit Silber beschlagen darinne sindt A coffin studded with ut? Frederick in front of Jerusalem detail of fig. Eran Laor Cartographic Collection. The Exodus detail of fig. The end of the route of wanderings detail of fig. Related Papers. Sacred Things and Holy Bodies. By Holger A Klein. By Christopher P. Nebelsick, L.