He formulates an early philosophical example of a disenchantment narrative, arguing that Judaism was responsible both for realizing the existence of Geist and, by extension, for separating nature from ideas of spiritual and magical forces and challenging polytheism. Hegel continued to develop his thoughts on religion both in terms of how it was to be given a 'wissenschaftlich', or "theoretically rigorous," account in the context of his own "system," and, most importantly, with how a fully modern religion could be understood.
Hegel published four works during his lifetime: 1 The Phenomenology of Spirit or The Phenomenology of Mind , his account of the evolution of consciousness from sense-perception to absolute knowledge, published in During the last ten years of his life, Hegel did not publish another book, but thoroughly revised the Encyclopedia second edition, ; third, He also published some articles early in his career and during his Berlin period. A number of other works on the philosophy of history , religion , aesthetics and the history of philosophy  were compiled from the lecture notes of his students and published posthumously.
There are views of Hegel's thought as a representation of the summit of early 19th-century Germany's movement of philosophical idealism. It would come to have a profound impact on many future philosophical schools, including schools that opposed Hegel's specific dialectical idealism , such as existentialism , the historical materialism of Marx, historism and British Idealism.
Hegel's influence was immense both within philosophy and in the other sciences. The more recent movement of communitarianism has a strong Hegelian influence. Some of Hegel's writing was intended for those with advanced knowledge of philosophy, although his Encyclopedia was intended as a textbook in a university course. Nevertheless, Hegel assumes that his readers are well-versed in Western philosophy.
Those without this background would be well-advised to begin with one of the many general introductions to his thought. As is always the case, difficulties are magnified for those reading him in translation. In fact, Hegel himself argues in his Science of Logic that the German language was particularly conducive to philosophical thought.
According to Walter Kaufmann, the basic idea of Hegel's works, especially the Phenomenology of Spirit , is that a philosopher should not "confine him or herself to views that have been held but penetrate these to the human reality they reflect". In other words, it is not enough to consider propositions, or even the content of consciousness; "it is worthwhile to ask in every instance what kind of spirit would entertain such propositions, hold such views, and have such a consciousness.
Every outlook in other words, is to be studied not merely as an academic possibility but as an existential reality". Some historians have spoken of Hegel's influence as represented by two opposing camps. Today this faction continues among conservative Protestants, such as the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod , which was founded by missionaries from Germany when the Hegelian Right was active.
The Left Hegelians , also known as the Young Hegelians, interpreted Hegel in a revolutionary sense, leading to an advocation of atheism in religion and liberal democracy in politics. In more recent studies, this paradigm has been questioned. Critiques of Hegel offered from the Left Hegelians radically diverted Hegel's thinking into new directions and eventually came to form a disproportionately large part of the literature on and about Hegel.
The Left Hegelians also influenced Marxism, which has in turn inspired global movements, from the Russian Revolution , the Chinese Revolution and myriad of practices up until the present moment. According to Benedetto Croce , the Italian Fascist Giovanni Gentile "holds the honor of having been the most rigorous neo-Hegelian in the entire history of Western philosophy and the dishonor of having been the official philosopher of Fascism in Italy".
In previous modern accounts of Hegelianism to undergraduate classes, for example , especially those formed prior to the Hegel renaissance, Hegel's dialectic was most often characterized as a three-step process, " thesis, antithesis, synthesis "; namely, that a "thesis" e. However, Hegel used this classification only once and he attributed the terminology to Kant.
The terminology was largely developed earlier by Fichte. The "thesis—antithesis—synthesis" approach gives the sense that things or ideas are contradicted or opposed by things that come from outside them. To the contrary, the fundamental notion of Hegel's dialectic is that things or ideas have internal contradictions. From Hegel's point of view, analysis or comprehension of a thing or idea reveals that underneath its apparently simple identity or unity is an underlying inner contradiction. This contradiction leads to the dissolution of the thing or idea in the simple form in which it presented itself and to a higher-level, more complex thing or idea that more adequately incorporates the contradiction.
The triadic form that appears in many places in Hegel e. For Hegel, reason is but "speculative", not "dialectical". According to their argument, although Hegel refers to "the two elemental considerations: first, the idea of freedom as the absolute and final aim; secondly, the means for realising it, i. Furthermore, in Hegel's language the "dialectical" aspect or "moment" of thought and reality, by which things or thoughts turn into their opposites or have their inner contradictions brought to the surface, what he called Aufhebung , is only preliminary to the "speculative" and not "synthesizing" aspect or "moment", which grasps the unity of these opposites or contradiction.
It is widely admitted today that the old-fashioned description of Hegel's philosophy in terms of thesis—antithesis—synthesis is inaccurate. Nevertheless, such is the persistence of this misnomer that the model and terminology survive in a number of scholarly works. In the last half of the 20th century, Hegel's philosophy underwent a major renaissance.
This was due to a the rediscovery and re-evaluation of Hegel as a possible philosophical progenitor of Marxism by philosophically oriented Marxists; b a resurgence of the historical perspective that Hegel brought to everything; and c an increasing recognition of the importance of his dialectical method. In Reason and Revolution , Herbert Marcuse made the case for Hegel as a revolutionary and criticized Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse 's thesis that Hegel was a totalitarian. Beginning in the s, Anglo-American Hegel scholarship has attempted to challenge the traditional interpretation of Hegel as offering a metaphysical system: this has also been the approach of Z.
Pelczynski and Shlomo Avineri. This view, sometimes referred to as the "non-metaphysical option", has had a decided influence on many major English language studies of Hegel in the past forty years. Late 20th-century literature in Western Theology that is friendly to Hegel includes works by such writers as Walter Kaufmann , Dale M. Schlitt , Theodore Geraets , Philip M. Two prominent American philosophers, John McDowell and Robert Brandom sometimes referred to as the " Pittsburgh Hegelians" , have produced philosophical works exhibiting a marked Hegelian influence.
In a separate Canadian context, James Doull 's philosophy is deeply Hegelian. Beginning in the s after the fall of the Soviet Union, a fresh reading of Hegel took place in the West. Marx plays little-to-no role in these new readings. Criticism of Hegel has been widespread in the 19th and the 20th centuries. Ayer have challenged Hegelian philosophy from a variety of perspectives. Among the first to take a critical view of Hegel's system was the 19th-century German group known as the Young Hegelians , which included Feuerbach, Marx, Engels and their followers.
In particular, Russell considered "almost all" of Hegel's doctrines to be false. Hegel's contemporary Schopenhauer was particularly critical and wrote of Hegel's philosophy as "a pseudo-philosophy paralyzing all mental powers, stifling all real thinking". Kierkegaard criticized Hegel's "absolute knowledge" unity.
A guardian fearing that his ward might become too intelligent for his schemes might prevent this misfortune by innocently suggesting the reading of Hegel. Karl Popper wrote that "there is so much philosophical writing especially in the Hegelian school which may justly be criticised as meaningless verbiage".
Popper further proposed that Hegel's philosophy served not only as an inspiration for communist and fascist totalitarian governments of the 20th century, whose dialectics allow for any belief to be construed as rational simply if it could be said to exist. Kaufmann and Shlomo Avineri have criticized Popper's theories about Hegel.
Voegelin argued that Hegel should be understood not as a philosopher, but as a "sorcerer", i. The secondary literature on Hegel is vast. The following references provide only a small selection of introductory English-language texts. For a more complete listing, see the external links section or the library resources box to the right.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Hegel disambiguation. German philosopher who influenced German idealism. Portrait by Jakob Schlesinger , Berlin , Kingdom of Prussia. Continental philosophy German idealism Objective idealism Absolute idealism Hegelianism Historicism  Naturphilosophie Epistemic coherentism  Conceptualism  Empirical realism  Coherence theory of truth . Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. See also: Civil society. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. See also: Hegelianism. Main article: Thesis, antithesis, synthesis. Main article: Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel bibliography. Philosophy portal. Sarlemijn, Hegel's Dialectic , Springer, , p.
In short, he adopts a view very similar to Kant's empirical realism. II, Meiner, , pp. SUNY Press. Hegel and Marx: After the Fall of Communism. University of Wales Press. Journal of the History of Economic Thought. Oxford University Press. Subjects of desire: Hegelian reflections in twentieth-century France. New York: Columbia University Press. Stanford University Press. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. Retrieved Duden in German.
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. It does not occur anywhere in The Science of Logic though he comes close in a remark on p. Greraets, Suchting and Harris note in the introduction to their translation of this later text that the term is more strongly associated with English movement in that later part of the 19th century Hackett: , xiii.
Daniel Breazeale. In Breazeale, Daniel; Fichte, Johann Fichte: Early Philosophical Writings. Cornell University Press. Jahrhundert , Harper, Herbert L. Hegel: A Biography. Cambridge University Press. The Cambridge Companion to Hegel. Phenomenology and System. Lexington Books. Archived from the original PDF on Hegel, Dissertatio philosophica de Orbitis Planetarum.
Hegel, Philosophical Dissertation on the Orbits of the Planets. Journal for the History of Astronomy. Bibcode : JHA The letter was not published in Hegel's time, but the expression was attributed to Hegel anecdotally, appearing in print from L. Noack, Schelling und die Philosophie der Romantik , , p. The phrase become widely associated with Hegel later in the 19th century, e.
October , p. Hegel, letter of 13 October to F. Niethammer, no. Hoffmeister, vol. Pinkard In Kenny, Kenny ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Most reference books say that Hegel died of cholera. There was an epidemic of it and Hegel was worried about being infected. But Hegel's most recent biographer Terry Pinkard argues conclusively that it was not cholera that killed Hegel.
He had no diarrhoea and no swelling. It was probably, Pinkard says, 'some kind of upper gastro-intestinal disease'. It is somehow typical of Hegel that the cause of his death should be so vague and ambiguous.
His Master's Voice
This detail is characteristic of the immense thoroughness and pertinacity of Pinkard's 'Hegel, a Biography' C. An Introduction to Hegel's Logic. Lars Aagaard-Mogensen trans. Hackett Publishing. A History of Philosophy: Volume 7: 18th and 19th century German philosophy. Continuum International Publishing Group. Chapter X. Krug", Kritisches Journal der Philosophie , I, no. Museum Tusculanum Press. Vickroy and Susan E. Blow - who were both minor associates of the St. The Journal of Speculative Philosophy in print from was the official journal of the St.
Louis Philosophical Society. The St.
Hegel and Political Economy (Part I)
Louis Philosophical Society - the organization which served as the hub of the St. Susan Elizabeth Blow June 7, - March 27, was an educator who in opened the first successful public kindergarten in the U. Louis, Missouri. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Hegel - A Biography. United States: Cambridge University Press. Science of Logic. George di Giovanni. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kaufmann , Hegel: A Reinterpretation , Anchor, p.
Kaufmann, , Hegel: A Reinterpretation , p. Mueller Jon Stewart ed. The Hegel Myths and Legends. Northwestern University Press. Francis Fukuyama and the End of History. Russell, History of Western Philosophy , chapter 22, paragraph 1, p. Page 1. A History of Western Philosophy. Fraser, F.
Muller eds. Instead, I argue that we must understand Hegel as a Hermetic thinker, if we are to truly understand him at all. Beiser, Frederick C. New York: Routledge. Burbidge, John, Broadview Press. Hegel: A Re-examination. New York: Oxford University Press. Harris, H. Hegel: Phenomenology and System.
Indianapolis: Hackett. Houlgate, Stephen, An Introduction to Hegel. Freedom, Truth and History. Oxford: Blackwell Houlgate, Stephen, Purdue University Press. Paris: Aubier. Inwood, Michael , Athens: Ohio University Press. Kaufmann, Walter , Hegel: A Reinterpretation. Paris: Gallimard. James H. Nichols, Jr. Losurdo, Domenico , Hegel and the Freedom of Moderns. Der junge Hegel. Berlin, Maker, William, Philosophy Without Foundations: Rethinking Hegel. State University of New York Press.
Marcuse, Herbert , Social practices and institutions such as religion, morality and politics were all closely interwoven. The individual citizen was able to develop a roundedness and wholeness to his personality by being able personally to take part in all these interwoven social activities—an integrity of the personality which has been denied to the modern man. For many, and for Hegel in particular in his early years, Greece was the model; and even when his enthusiasm for it had evaporated somewhat, he still extrapolated from Greek political culture a deep and abiding political conviction about the need for society to recapture some sense of the harmony of Greece—albeit in a modified, contemporary form—and to recover something of that sense of human wholeness which had been such a dominant part of Greek culture.
On the contrary: during the period in question Hegel seems to have seen religion as the key to the unified structure of Greek life and religious changes to have been the cause of the baneful structure of modern society. It appealed to all the powers of the human mind, to head and heart, whereas modern European religion had become too deeply rationalistic and theological, neglecting the need for religion to nourish the emotions.
All practices in a society had a religious dimension and, as such, there were close relations between them mediated by this communal bond. In its social function Greek folk religion was very different from modern Christianity, the practices of which have become a rite reserved for special days of the week, involving specialized ceremonies and liturgical forms, with the result that it has become more and more dislocated from the ongoing life of the community. The recapture of a sense of community, and with it the regeneration of personal life, is thus seen by Hegel at this time very much in terms of rediscovering something like Greek folk religion, largely by a fundamental re-shaping of Christian beliefs and, in particular, by a rigorous attempt to demythologize the gospels, in order to exclude all elements of transcendence and positivity.
Christianity was now seen against a background of the social and political changes of the later Roman era. Far from appearing to have a determining role in the fashioning of life and social experience, it was now seen very much as the projection of a social malaise which has already set in.
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All activity and every purpose now had a bearing on something individual—activity was no longer for the sake of the whole or the ideal.