Responding to this concern, the Mexican government has designated areas along the Mexican coastline to preserve marine turtle nesting habitats. Samples of seawater, sand, and marine turtle egg Dermochelys Coriaca shells were collected monthly from October, March, Contaminants investigated were oil and grease, and metals cadmium, copper, zinc, nickel, and lead. Seawater samples were collected where the turtles lay eggs in the preservation area and sand samples were taken from the area surrounding the eggs. Ramirez Guzman, L. We present the analysis of simulations at low frequency Mexico , by using a 3D crustal velocity model and an idealized geotechnical structure of the Valley of Mexico.
Mexico 's destructive earthquake history bolsters the need for a better understanding regarding the seismic hazard and risk of the region. Thus, estimates on the effects of similar or larger magnitude earthquakes on today's population and infrastructure are important. Moreover, Singh and Mortera suggest that earthquakes of magnitude 8.
In order to improve previous estimations of the ground motion e. Furumura and Singh, and lay the groundwork for a numerical simulation of a hypothetical Guerrero Gap scenario, we recast the Michoacan earthquake. We used the inversion by Mendoza and Hartzell and a 3D velocity model built on the basis of recent investigations in the area, which include a velocity structure of the Valley of Mexico constrained by geotechnical and reflection experiments, and noise tomography, receiver functions, and gravity-based regional models. Our synthetic seismograms were computed using the octree-based finite element tool-chain Hercules Tu et al.
We evaluated the model's ability to reproduce the available records using the goodness-of-fit analysis proposed by Mayhew and Olsen Once the reliablilty of the model was established, we estimated the effects of a large magnitude earthquake in Central Mexico. We built a. Laser removal of graffiti from Pink Morelia Quarry. Penide, J. Morelia is an important city sited in Mexico.
Sadly, there is a serious problem with graffiti in Morelia and its historical center is the worst affected since its delicate charming is definitely damaged. Hitherto, the conventional methods employed to remove graffiti from Pink Morelia Quarry the most used building stone in Morelia are quite aggressive to the appearance of the monuments, so actually, they are not a very good solution. In this work, we performed a study on the removal of graffiti from Pink Morelia Quarry by high power diode laser. We carried out an extensive experimental study looking for the optimal processing parameters, and compared a single-pass with a multi-pass method.
Indeed, we achieved an effective cleaning without producing serious side effects in the stone. In conclusion, the multi-pass method emitting in continuous wave was revealed as the more effective operating modes to remove the graffiti. In order to determine the effects of selective logging on pine-oak forest?
We did not find evidences to argue for effects of logging on bird communities; the study plots Background Stingless bees were significant resources managed by Mesoamerican peoples during pre-Columbian times and remain important in particular areas. Our inventory included one new record of species for the region Lestrimelitta chamelensis Ayala, The taxa identified are all used by local people. Scaptotrigona hellwegeri Friese, ; Melipona fasciata Latreille, ; Frieseomelitta nigra Cresson, and Geotrigona acapulconis Strand, are particularly valued as food honey , medicinal honey and pollen , and material for handcrafts wax.
All species recorded are wild and their products are obtained through gathering. Conclusions Local knowledge about use, management and ecological issues on stingless bees is persistent and deep in the study area. Information about this group of bees is progressively scarcer in Mexico and significant effort should be done from ethnobiological and ecological perspectives in order to complement the national inventory of bee resources and traditional knowledge and management of them. Stingless bees were significant resources managed by Mesoamerican peoples during pre-Columbian times and remain important in particular areas.
We then conducted semi-structured interviews to local experts in order to document their knowledge and management techniques of stingless bees' species. We identified a total of eight stingless bees' species in the study area as well as three additional unidentified taxa recognized by people through the local names. On average, local experts were able to collect 4 nests of stingless bees per year obtaining on average 6 L of honey and 4 Kg of wax but some came to collect up hives per year 18 L of honey and 24 Kg of wax.
Local knowledge about use, management and ecological issues on stingless bees is persistent and deep in the study area. Photogeologic and thermal infrared reconnaissance surveys of the Los Negritos-Ixtlan de los Hervores geothermal area, Michoacan , Mexico. New techniques, involving interpretation of panchromatic, ektachrome and ektachrome infrared aerographic photogaphs and thermographic infrared imagery recording emission from the earth's surface in middle and far infrared wavelengths ??
The object of this work is to evaluate the new airborne infrared techniques and equipment as a complement to the data obtained from panchromatic aerial photography. This project is part of the Mexican remote sensing program of natural resources carried out under the auspices of the Comision Nacional del Espacio Exterior and in which the Research Institute Instituto de Investigaciones de la Industria Electrica is actively participating.
The present study was made cooperatively with the U. National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the U. Geological Survey. The Los Negritos-Ixtlan de los Hervores geothermal fields are located east of Lake Chapala at the intersection of the Sierra Madre occidental and the west-central segment of the neovolcanic axis of Mexico. The two principal zones of hydrothermal activity occur in a tectonic trench filled with lake sediments of the Quaternary intercalated with Quaternary and Holocene volcanic rocks and characterized by an intricate system of block-fault tectonics, part of the Chapala-Acambay tectonic system, along which there has been volcanic activity in modern time.
Surface manifestations of geothermal activity consist of relatively high heat flow and hot springs, small geysers and small steam vents aligned along an E-W axis at Ixtlan, possibly at the intersection of major fault trends and mud volcanoes and hot pools aligned NE-SW at Los Negritos.
More than 20 exit points of thermal waters are shown on infrared imagery to be aligned along an extension of the Ixtlan fault between Ixtlan and El Salitre. A narrow zone of. To explore the information and counseling needs of a group of Mexican women during use of the HPV test. In , 24 semistructured interviews were done with women upon receiving HPV test results in two municipalities in the state of Michoacan. Qualitative analysis of the interviews was done using constant comparison techniques.
During their use of screening services women received limited counseling; they felt anguish and confusion. Women were interested in receiving information and advice on HPV and cervical cancer, the meaning of test result, next steps to be taken in their healthcare use as well as information and emotional support related to the sexual transmission of HPV.
The design and implementation of policies are needed which instigate health education and counseling in conjunction with HPV testing. On the nature of regional seismic phases-III. The influence of crustal heterogeneity on the wavefield for subduction earthquakes: the Michoacan and Copala, Guerrero, Mexico earthquakes. The most prominent feature of the regional seismic wavefield from about to over km is usually the Lg phase.
This arrival represents trapped S-wave propagation within the crust as a superposition of multiple reflections, and its amplitude is quite sensitive to the lateral variation in the crust along a propagation path. In an environment where the events occur in a subduction zone, such as the western coast of Mexico , quite complex influences on the character of the regional wavefield arise from the presence of the subduction zone. Considerable effort has been expended to explain the origin of the unusual observed waves that caused the severe damage in the capital city during the destructive earthquake.
Numerical modelling of both P and S seismic waves in 2-D and 3-D heterogeneous crustal models for western Mexico using the pseudospectral method provides direct insight into the nature of the propagation processes through the use of sequences of snapshots of the wavefield and synthetic seismograms at the surface. A comparison of different models allows the influences of different aspects of the structure to be isolated. These S.
La influencia de "los de abajo" en tres procesos de cambio linguistico en el espanol de Morelia , Michoacan The Influence of "the Underclass" on Three Processes of Linguistic Change in the Spanish of Morelia , Michoacan. Examines the role of the educational and socioeconomic levels of the speakers in advancing linguistic change. The study reviews three grammatical phenomena found at distinct stages of change.
Individuals at the lower socioeconomic and educational strata of society embrace innovations in language more readily than their affluent and educated…. Coseismic slip of two large Mexican earthquakes from teleseismic body waveforms - Implications for asperity interaction in the Michoacan plate boundary segment. The distributions and depths of coseismic slip are derived for the October 25, Playa Azul and September 21, Zihuatanejo earthquakes in western Mexico by inverting the recorded teleseismic body waves. Rupture during the Playa Azul earthquake appears to have occurred in two separate zones both updip and downdip of the point of initial nucleation, with most of the slip concentrated in a circular region of km radius downdip from the hypocenter.
Coseismic slip occurred entirely within the area of reduced slip between the two primary shallow sources of the Michoacan earthquake that occurred on September 19, , almost 4 years later. The slip of the Zihuatanejo earthquake was concentrated in an area adjacent to one of the main sources of the Michoacan earthquake and appears to be the southeastern continuation of rupture along the Cocos-North America plate boundary. The zones of maximum slip for the Playa Azul, Zihuatanejo, and Michoacan earthquakes may be considered asperity regions that control the occurrence of large earthquakes along the Michoacan segment of the plate boundary.
Seismic and Tectonic Regionalization of the State of Michoacan. With relatively moderate seismicity. With relatively low seismicity. Multiple papillomas in a diamond python, Morelia spilota spilota. A 4-yr-old male diamond python Morelia spilota spilota was evaluated for multiple black papillated exophytic skin proliferations and signs of pneumonia.
The histopathologic structure of the skin biopsy specimens led to the diagnosis of a benign papilloma-like neoplasia. In this case, papillomavirus DNA could be amplified from a biopsy sample with a broad range polymerase chain reaction. Nested pan-herpes polymerase chain reaction was negative, and herpesvirus inclusion bodies were not found. Because of the histologically benign nature of the papilloma, the skin proliferations were left untreated. Ten mo after the first presentation, the skin lesions had regressed almost completely; 34 mo later, only scars from the biopsies were left.
June seismic swarm and dike injection event beneath the Michoacan -Guanajuato volcanic field. A seismic swarm of approximately events, magnitude 2. Over a two-week period in June , relocated hypocenters clearly show a shallowing trend with time, indicative of a possible dike injection event. Following the injection, there is a period of earthquakes, which all occurred at approximately 5 km in depth, but which migrated southwards.
The waveforms of all of these events show similarities within three major groupings: from May 28 to June 1, June 2 to June 9 which marks the end of the ascent , and from June 9 to July 2. Gastric adenocarcinoma in a diamond python Morelia spilota spilota. A 5-year-old captive male diamond python Morelia spilota spilota was presented with a 1-month history of regurgitation and anorexia and discrete coelomic distention.
Physical examination revealed a firm, immobile mass at approximately two-thirds of the snout-vent length from the front of the head. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspirate biopsy of the mass in the region of the stomach showed necrosis with bacterial infiltration and possibly neoplastic changes. A gastroscopy was conducted, but showed grossly normal gastric mucosa, confirmed by biopsy. On exploratory coeliotomy, it was confirmed the mass involved most of the stomach wall and occluded the gastric lumen. The mass was completely excised and based on histopathology, a diagnosis of gastric adenocarcinoma was made.
Most cases of adenocarcinoma in snakes go undiagnosed. This case report illustrates that the architecture of gastric masses may lead to false-negative gastric biopsy results in snakes with neoplasia. We have inverted the teleseismic P waveforms recorded by stations of the Global Digital Seismograph Network for the 8 July North Palm Springs, California, the 28 October Borah Peak, Idaho, and the 19 September Michoacan , Mexico , earthquakes to recover the distribution of slip on each of the faults using a point-by-point inversion method with smoothing and positivity constraints.
Results of the inversion indicate that the Global digital Seismograph Network data are useful for deriving fault dislocation models for moderate to large events. However, a wide range of frequencies is necessary to infer the distribution of slip on the earthquake fault. Although the long-period waveforms define the size dimensions and seismic moment of the earthquake, data at shorter period provide additional constraints on the variation of slip on the fault. Dislocation models obtained for all three earthquakes are consistent with a heterogeneous rupture process where failure is controlled largely by the size and location of high-strength asperity regions.
First report of leaf rust of blueberry caused by Thekopsora minima in Mexico. Blueberry Vaccinium corymbosum L. As the area under blueberry cultivation increases, new diseases causing severe losses are appearing. Leaf rust is one of the most destructive diseases of blueberry in Mexico. Sori on t The text explores Mexico 's history, geography, art, religion, and lifestyles in the context of its complex economy. The text focuses on Mexico 's economy and reasons for its current situation.
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Echocardiography is an established and noninvasive diagnostic tool used in herpetologic cardiology. Various cardiac lesions have been previously described in reptiles with the exception of restrictive cardiomyopathy. In this case report, restrictive cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure associated with left atrial and sinus venosus dilation were diagnosed in a 2-yr-old captive lethargic McDowell's carpet python Morelia spilota mcdowelli , based on echocardiographic, Doppler, and histopathologic examinations.
This cardiomyopathy was also associated with thrombosis within the sinus venosus. Computed tomography of the lung of healthy snakes of the species Python regius, Boa constrictor, Python reticulatus, Morelia viridis, Epicrates cenchria, and Morelia spilota. Thirty-nine healthy boid snakes representing six different species Python regius, Boa constrictor, Python reticulatus, Morelia viridis, Epicrates cenchria, and Morelia spilota were examined using computed tomography CT to characterize the normal appearance of the respiratory tissue.
Assessment was done subjectively and densitometry was performed using a defined protocol. The length of the right lung was calculated to be The length of the left lung in proportion to the right was dependent on the species examined. The most developed left lung was in P.
A median attenuation of Within the species, a significantly higher attenuation was found for P. Results of this study emphasize the value of CT and provide basic reference data for assessment of the snake lung in these species. Pathological examination revealed the accumulation of mucoid material within the airways and lungs in association with enlargement of the entire lung.
We performed a full necropsy and histological examination on 12 affected green tree pythons from 7 different breeders to characterize the pathogenesis of this mucinous pneumonia. By histology we could show a marked hyperplasia of the airway epithelium and of faveolar type II pneumocytes. Since routine microbiological tests failed to identify a causative agent, we studied lung tissue samples from a few diseased snakes by next-generation sequencing NGS. From the NGS data we could assemble a piece of RNA genome whose sequence was Morelia viridis liver and brain cells, which we inoculated with homogenates of lung tissue from infected individuals.
Ultrastructural examination of concentrated cell culture supernatants showed the presence of nidovirus particles, and subsequent NGS analysis yielded the full genome of the novel virus Morelia viridis nidovirus MVNV. This suggests that in natural infection MVNV damages the respiratory tract epithelium, which then results in epithelial hyperplasia, most likely as an exaggerated regenerative attempt in association with increased epithelial turnover. Herein we report on the. In we observed a noticeable increase in sudden deaths of green tree pythons Morelia viridis. Pathological examination revealed accumulation of mucoid material within airways and lung, associated with enlargement of the entire lung.
We performed full necropsy and histological examination on 12 affected green tree pythons from 7 different breeders to characterise the pathogenesis of this "mucinous" pneumonia. Since routine microbiological tests failed to identify a causative agent, we studied lung samples of a few diseased snakes by next-generation sequencing NGS. From the NGS data we could assemble a piece of RNA genome Morelia viridis liver and brain, which we inoculated with lung homogenates of infected individuals. Ultrastructural examination of concentrated cell culture supernatants showed the presence of nidovirus particles, and subsequent NGS analysis yielded the full genome of the novel virus, Morelia viridis nidovirus MVNV.
This suggests that in natural infection MVNV damages the respiratory tract epithelium which then results in epithelial hyperplasia, most likely as an exaggerated regenerative attempt in association with increased epithelial turnover. Importance Fairly recently novel nidoviruses associated with severe respiratory disease were identified in ball pythons and Indian pythons. Herein we report isolation and identification of a further nidovirus from green tree pythons Morelia viridis with fatal pneumonia.
In areal extent, Mexico is the third largest country on the continent of North America not counting Greenland, which is a province of Denmark , comprised of almost 2 million square kilometers , square miles of land. Home to roughly million people, Mexico is second only to the United States in population, making it the world's largest Spanish-speaking nation. To the north, Mexico shares its border with the United States-a line that runs some 3, kilometers 1, miles east to west.
About half of this border is defined by the Rio Grande River, which runs southeast to the Gulf of Mexico partially obscured by clouds in this image and marks the dividing line between Texas and Mexico. Toward the upper left northwest corner of this image is the Baja California peninsula, which provides the western land boundary for the Gulf of California. Toward the northwestern side of the Mexican mainland, you can see the Sierra Madre Occidental Mountains brownish pixels running southeast toward Lake Chapala and the city of Guadalajara.
About km miles east and slightly south of Lake Chapala is the capital, Mexico City. Extending northward from Mexico City is the Sierra Madre Oriental Mountains, the irregular line of brownish pixels that seem to frame the western edges of the bright white cumulus clouds in this image. Between these two large mountain ranges is a large, relatively dry highland region. To the south, Mexico shares borders with Guatemala and Belize, both of which are located south of Mexico 's Yucatan Peninsula.
Focus in this discussion of Mexico is on the following: geography; the people; history; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations; and relations between the US and Mexico. As of July , the population of Mexico numbered Mexico is the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world and the 2nd most populous country in Latin America. Education is decentralized and expanded. Mexico 's topography ranges from low desert plains and jungle-like coastal strips to high plateaus and rugged mountains. Hernan Cortes conquered Mexico in and founded a Spanish colony that lasted for almost years.
Independence from Spain was proclaimed by Father Miguel Hidalgo on September 16, ; the republic was established on December 6, Mexico 's constitution of provides for a federal republic with a separation of powers into independent executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. Significant political themes of the administration of President Miguel de la Madrid Hurtado, who began his 6-year term in , have been restructuring the economy, liberalizing trade practices, decentralizing government services, and eliminating corruption among public servants.
In , estimates put the real growth of the Mexican economy at 1. Mexico has made considerable progress in moving to restructure its economy. It has substantially reduced impediments to international trade and has moved to reduce the number of parastatal firms. Other problems include.
Specific variations of air temperature and relative humidity around the time of Michoacan earthquake M8. The recent development of the Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere LAI coupling model and experimental data of remote sensing satellites on thermal anomalies before major strong earthquakes have demonstrated that radon emanations in the area of earthquake preparation can produce variations of the air temperature and relative humidity. Specific repeating pattern of humidity and air temperature variations was revealed as a result of analysis of the meteorological data for several tens of strong earthquakes all over the world.
The high effectiveness of this process was proved by the laboratory and field experiments; hence the specific variations of air humidity and temperature can be used as indicator of radon variations before earthquakes. We analyzed the historical meteorological data all over the Mexico around the time of one of the most destructive earthquakes Michoacan earthquake M8. Several distinct zones of specific variations of the air temperature and relative humidity were revealed that may indicate the different character of radon variations in different parts of Mexico before the Michoacan earthquake.
The most interesting result on the specific variations of atmosphere parameters was obtained at Baja California region close to the border of Cocos and Rivera tectonic plates. This result demonstrates the possibility of the increased radon variations not only in the vicinity of the earthquake source but also at the border of interacting tectonic plates. The background notes on Mexico provide text and recent statistical information on the geography, population, government, economy, and foreign relations, specifically the North American Free Trade Agreement with US.
There are 8 years of compulsory education. Life expectancy for males is 68 years and 76 years for females. There are 31 states and a federal district. Military expenditures were. Mexico City with 20 million is the largest urban center in the world. In recent years, the economy has been restructured with market oriented reforms; the result has been a growth of GDP of 3.
Dependence on oil exports has decreased. There has been privatization and deregulation of state-owned companies. Subsidies to inefficient companies have been stopped. Tariff rates were reduced. The financial debt has been reduced and turned into a surplus of. Agricultural reforms have been ongoing for 50 years. Land was redistributed, but standards of living and productivity have improved only slightly.
Rural land tenure regulations have been changed, and other economic reforms are expected. Mexico engages in ad hoc international groups and is selective about membership in international organizations. NPPO in the monitoring and supervision of those activities. The personnel conducting the trapping and The avocados may be imported only if the Mexican avocado industry association A new Proposal to Mexico Valley Zonification.
The effects of the Michoacan earthquake 19th September, , Mw 8. Since then, numerous efforts have been made to understand and determine the parameters that caused the special features registered. One of these efforts had began on with the work by Marsal and Masari, who published the Mexico Valley seismological and geotechnical zonification , based on gravimetric and shallow borehole data. In this work, we present a revision of the studies that proposed the zonification, a description of the valley geology, and basing on it we propose a new zonification for Mexico Valley.
These changes are due i large part to the institutionalization of a population policy enacted in that has continued to receive strong support from the government. The TFR declined from 6. Contraceptive prevalence rates mirror changes in desired family sizes; women between now desire 2. This difference is related to differences in the ages of the 2 groups; as education has spread, women without any schooling tend to be older and have higher parity; and in spite of wanting to stop childbearing, they are 10 times less likely to use contraception than their more educated counterparts.
Factors affecting hematology and plasma biochemistry in the southwest carpet python Morelia spilota imbricata. Despite increased worldwide popularity of keeping reptiles as pets, we know little about hematologic and biochemical parameters of most reptile species, or how these measures may be influenced by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Blood samples from 43 wild-caught pythons Morelia spilota imbricata were collected at various stages of a 3-yr ecological study in Western Australia.
Reference intervals are reported for 35 individuals sampled at the commencement of the study. As pythons were radiotracked for varying lengths of time radiotransmitters were surgically implanted , repeated sampling was undertaken from some individuals. However, because of our ad hoc sampling design we cannot be definitive about temporal factors that were most important or that exclusively influenced blood parameters.
There was no significant effect of sex or the presence of a hemogregarine parasite on blood parameters. Erythrocyte measures were highest for pythons captured in the jarrah forest and at the stage of radiotransmitter implantation, which was also linked with shorter time in captivity. Basophil count, the only leukocyte influenced by the factors tested, was highest when the python was anesthetized, as was globulin concentration. Albumin and the albumin:globulin ratio were more concentrated in summer as was phosphorous and at the initial stage of radiotransmitter placement as was calcium.
No intrinsic or extrinsic factors influenced creatinine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, uric acid, or total protein. This study demonstrates that factors including season, location, surgical radiotransmitter placement, and anesthetic state can influence blood parameters of M. For accurate diagnosis, veterinarians should be aware that the current reference intervals used to identify the health status of individuals for this species are outdated and the interpretation and an understanding of the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors are limited.
One of the most urgent issues facing the human environment, a result of current human evolution is the increase in the production of Urban Solid Waste USW. SIGs are one tool for addressing this kind of need. A model which has been commonly used for selecting areas for the final deposit of USW, and which has obtained good results, is so-called multicriterion decision-making. The methodology consists of a quadrant analysis of 25 ha of five factors. A rank was assigned to each of the factors, and this rank was standardized according to a scale from 0 to 10 and subsequently multiplied by a weight W which numerically represents the degree of importance and influence of each factor in the environment.
Five represented the largest impact, and two represented the smallest impact. Another example is its application in the hydrogeologic context, which generated the Aquifer Veda index a restriction diagram for the opening of new exploitations , and which is intended to regulate and give advice about the design of wells, their depth and optimum slot interval, their appropriate location and caudal, in those cases in which well-drilling is permitted.
This approach is intended to influence the scientific handling of the hydro resource, promoting sustainable politics and rules of operation. The September 19, Michoacan Earthquake: Aftershock acceleration data recorded by a temporary installation of strong motion instruments. We describe acceleration signals recorded for nine aftershocks of the September 19, Michoacan earthquake. Peak horizontal accelerations of 0.
It was observed that the peak accelerations recorded at a site on the embankment of the dam near the crest are approximately three times those recorded on the abutment bedrock portion of the dam. Although these sites were spatially separated by no more than m, differences among their records are also significant. Waveforms recorded at the embankment site look more complex than those from the abutment site. This fact, as well as the higher peak accelerations on the embankment, provides evidence of a strong influence of the structure of the dam on the ground motion at the embankment site.
The commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias: made in Mexico. In this paper we made a general description of the CI and we relate how this instrument, build under international standards, was entirely made in Mexico. Low cost MEMS accelerometers are becoming increasingly higher resolution making them useful in strong motion studies.
Here we present a building response analysis in the lakebed zone of the Valley of Mexico. The Valley of Mexico represents one of the highest seismic risk locations in the world and incorporates Mexico City and part of Mexico State. More than 20 million people live there and it is the political and economic center of Mexico. In addition the valley has very high site effects with amplifications - times that of sites outside of the basin Singh et al. The building known as the Centro Cultural de Tlateloco is located in an important historical and political area as well as a zone with some of the highest amplifications in the Valley of Mexico that had some of the worst destruction after the M8.
During the earthquake most of the buildings that failed were between 7 - 18 stories tall. The peak accelerations near Tlateloco were at periods of 2 seconds. Since the earthquake the building has been retrofitted with N-S crossing supports to help withstand another earthquake. We present the measurements of frequencies and amplifications between floors for the length of the building.
Correlation analysis of symmetry breaking in the surface nanostructure ordering: case study of the ventral scale of the snake Morelia viridis. In contrast to the majority of inorganic or artificial materials, there is no ideal long-range ordering of structures on the surface in biological systems. Local symmetry of the ordering on biological surfaces is also often broken. In the present paper, the particular symmetry violation was analyzed for dimple-like nano-pattern on the belly scales of the skin of the pythonid snake Morelia viridis using correlation analysis and statistics of the distances between individual nanostructures.
The results of the analysis performed on M. The analysis revealed non-random, but very specific symmetry violation. In the case of the moth eye, the nano-nipple arrangement forms a set of domains, while in the case of the snake skin, the nano-dimples arrangement resembles an ordering of particles molecules in amorphous glass state.
The function of the nano-dimples arrangement may be to provide both friction and strength isotropy of the skin. A simple model is suggested, which provides the results almost perfectly coinciding with the experimental ones. Possible mechanisms of the appearance of the above nano-formations are discussed. Forecasting generation of urban solid waste in developing countries--a case study in Mexico. Based on a study of the composition of urban solid waste USW and of socioeconomic variables in Morelia , Mexico , generation rates were estimated. For residential sources, the independent variables analyzed were monthly wages, persons per dwelling, age, and educational level of the heads of the household.
For nonresidential sources, variables analyzed were number of employees, area of facilities, number of working days, and working hours per day. The forecasted values for residential waste were similar to those observed. This approach may be applied to areas in which available data are scarce, and in which there is an urgent need for the planning of adequate management of USW. Carrillo, A. We report the calibration test of a radiotelecope to carry out interplanetary scintillation IPS observations in Mexico.
This will be a dedicate 24 hrs radio array for IPS observations of nearly well know radio sources in the sky to perform solar wind studies. The IPS array is located in the state of Michoacan at km north-west from Mexico City, 19'48 degrees north and '41 degrees west, meters above the sea level. The radiotelescope operates in MHz with a bandwith of 1. The antenna is a planar array with 64 X 64 full wavelength dipoles along 64 east-west rows of open wire transmission lines, occupying 10, square meters 70 x m.
We report the final testings of the antenna array, the matrix Butler and receivers. We expect to initiate the firs IPS observations by the end of this year. Characterization of the temporal and spatial distribution and reproductive ratio of vesicular stomatitis outbreaks in Mexico in To characterize the temporal and spatial distribution and reproductive ratio of vesicular stomatitis VS outbreaks reported in Mexico in Bovine herds in Mexico in which VS outbreaks were officially reported and confirmed from January 1 through December 31, The Poisson model of the space-time scan statistic was used to identify periods and geographical locations at highest risk for VS in Mexico in The herd reproductive ratio R h of the epidemic was computed by use of the doubling-time method.
The temporal extent of the VS outbreaks and the value and pattern of decrease of the R h were different in the endemic zone of Tabasco and Chiapas, compared with findings in the region included in the space-time cluster. The large number of VS outbreaks reported in Mexico in was associated with the spread of the disease from the endemic zone in southern Mexico to areas sporadically affected by the disease. Results suggested that implementation of a surveillance system in the endemic zone of Mexico aimed at early detection of changes in the value of R h and space-time clustering of the disease could help predict occurrence of future VS outbreaks originating from this endemic zone.
This information will help prevent VS spread into regions of Mexico and neighboring countries that are only sporadically affected by the disease. This unexpected result is difficult to reconcile with the geophysical characteristics of the TMVB, e. Visual inspection of seismograms indicates that for earthquakes with seismic waves traveling along the TMVB, the amplitude decay of Lg coda is anomalously slow as compared to other earthquakes in southern Mexico.
Thus, it seems that the high Q value found does not entirely reflect the attenuation characteristics of the TMVB but it is probably contaminated by a wave-guide effect. This phenomenon produces an enhancement in the time duration of the Lg wave trains travelling along this geological structure. This result is important to establish the role played by the transmission medium in the extremely long duration of ground motion observed during the September 19, Michoacan earthquake. The tectonostratigraphic evolution of the southern margin of the North America Plate in Mexico is still in debate.
Recent explanations assert Laramide age Campanian-Eocene accretion of far-travelled oceanic terranes. In , we began an effort to bring new data to this debate through field mapping, incorporating Landsat Thematic Mapper and digital elevation data, along a 30 km by km, east-west geologic transect of northern Guerrero State. Covering the region from Huetamo, Michoacan , to Papalutla, Guerrero between latitude deg N and longitude deg W , our mapping results show that no stratigraphic incompatibilities suggesting terrane accretion exist in the region.
One objective of this hyperspectral survey was to improve mapping of limestone, dolostone and gypsum-bearing facies of the Morelos Formation which record rudist carbonate platform environments during mid-Cretaceous time. And today, after the intense big earthquake activity observed in our world during and , local governments of Mexico City, Oaxaca Estate, and the Mexican Ministry of the Interior have been promoting the expansion of this technological EEW development.
The seismic warning range in each case is seated in accordance with local Civil Protection Authorities: Public Alert, if they expect strong earthquake effects, and Preventive Alert one, the effect could be moderated. Kinematics and age of Early Tertiary trench parallel volcano-tectonic lineaments in southern Mexico : Tectonic implications. We present new geological, structural, and geochronological data that constrain the timing and geometry of Early Tertiary strike slip deformation in southwestern Mexico and its relation with the concurrent magmatic activity.
Geologic mapping in Guerrero and Michoacan States documented two regional WNW trending volcano-tectonic lineaments sub parallel to the present trench. Its southeastern part is marked by the alignment of at least eleven silicic to intermediate major domes as well as by the course of the Balsas River.
The northwestern part of the lineament is characterized by ductile left lateral shear zones in Early Tertiary plutonic rocks observed in the Rio Chiquito valley. These rocks, unaffected by ductile shearing, give a minimum age of deformation similar to the southern Totolapan-Sanquicheo lineament. Other trench-parallel left lateral shear zones active in pre-Oligocene times were recently reported in western Oaxaca. The recognizing of Early Tertiary trench-parallel and left-lateral ductile shearing in internal areas of southern Mexico suggest a field of widely.
Another Mexico. American media these days interpret that notion with a vengeance. Story after story depicts a country overrun by out-of-control drug wars and murder, where corrupt police officers trip over beheaded victims more often than they nab perpetrators. South of the…. Rupture process of large earthquakes in the northern Mexico subduction zone. The Cocos plate subducts beneath North America at the Mexico trench.
The northernmost segment of this trench, between the Orozco and Rivera fracture zones, has ruptured in a sequence of five large earthquakes from to ; the Jan. Body wave inversion for the rupture process of these earthquakes finds the best: earthquake depth; focal mechanism; overall source time function; and seismic moment, for each earthquake.
In addition, we have determined spatial concentrations of seismic moment release for the Colima earthquake, and the Michoacan mainshock and aftershock. These spatial concentrations of slip are interpreted as asperities; and the resultant asperity distribution for Mexico is compared to other subduction zones. The body wave inversion technique also determines the Moment Tensor Rate Functions; but there is no evidence for statistically significant changes in the moment tensor during rupture for any of the five earthquakes.
An appendix describes the Moment Tensor Rate Functions methodology in detail. The systematic bias between global and regional determinations of epicentral locations in Mexico must be resolved to enable plotting of asperities with aftershocks and geographic features. The best point source depths for the five earthquakes are all above 30 km, consistent with the idea that the down-dip edge of the seismogenic plate interface in Mexico is shallow compared to other subduction zones. Consideration of uncertainties in.
Egade, Mexico. Presents a business school design in Mexico , whose spiral building sits atop a parking structure creating a compact, symbolic form for an arid urban landscape. Includes seven photographs, a floor plan, and sectional drawing. Tequila, Mexico. Its red volcanic soil surrounding Tequila is particularly well suited to the growing of blue agave, and more than million plants are harvested each year. Transboundary pollution: Persistent organochlorine pesticides in migrant birds of the Southwestern United States and Mexico.
The hypothesis that migratory birds accumulate persistent organochlorine pesticides POPs during the winter in Latin America has been prevalent for many years, particularly since 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2—bis p-chlorophenyl ethane DDT was banned in the United States in It has been suggested that peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus , black-crowned night herons Nycticorax nycticorax , white-faced ibises Plegadis chihi , various migratory waterfowl and shorebirds, and other avian species accumulate higher concentrations of POPs while on migration or on their wintering grounds in Latin America.
Nonetheless, the data obtained thus far are limited, and there is no clear pattern to suggest that such accumulation occurs on a widespread basis. In this review wildlife contaminant studies conducted along the U.
The results for the most part seem to indicate that no major accumulation of 2,2-bis p-chlorophenyl -1,1-dichloroethylene DDE , the most persistent organochlorine compound, has occurred or been reported for most parts of Mexico. The majority of the DDE values in birds from Mexico were similar to those reported in birds from the southwestern United States during the same years. More work needs to be done, particularly in those cotton-producing areas of Mexico where DDT was applied heavily in the past e. Because DDT is still used for malaria control and may still be used in agriculture in Chiapas, this state is probably the one where most migrant species would still be at a significant risk of increased accumulation of DDE and DDT.
Excitation of high-frequency surface waves with long duration in the Valley of Mexico. We interpret high-frequency seismic wave fields in the three geotechnical zones the hill, the transition, and the lake bed zones in the Valley of Mexico on the basis of a systematic analysis for borehole strong motion recordings. We make identification of wave types for real seismograms. First, amplitude ratios between surface and underground seismograms indicate that predominant periods of the surface seismograms are largely controlled by the wave field incident into surficial layers in the Valley of Mexico.
We interpret recorded surface waves as fundamental-mode Love waves excited in the Mexican Volcanic Belt by calculating theoretical amplification for different-scale structures. Second, according to a cross-correlation analysis, the hill and transition seismograms are mostly surface waves. In the lake bed zone, while early portions are noisy body waves, late portions are mostly surface waves. Third, using two kinds of surface arrays with different station intervals, we investigate high-frequency surface-wave propagation in the lake bed zone.
The wave propagation is very complicated, depending upon the time section and the frequency band. Finally, on the basis of a statistical time series model with an information criterion, we separate S- and surface-wave portions from lake bed seismograms. Surface waves are dominant and are recognized even in the early time section. Thus high-frequency surface waves with long duration in the Valley of Mexico are excited by the Mexican Volcanic Belt. Mexico 's Oxbridge. For years the National Autonomous University of Mexico has remained at the hub of the country's intellectual and political life.
The history of the University from the Mayas and the Aztecs, University expansion, upward mobility of students, and student pressure groups and politics are described. Urban solid waste generation and disposal in Mexico : a case study. The adequate management of municipal solid waste in developing countries is difficult because of the scarcity of studies about their composition. Residential and non-residential waste sources were sampled, and a structured interview was made to evaluate the socioeconomic characteristics of the studied area.
Also, to determine the seasonal patterns of solid waste generation and the efficiency level of the collection service, quantification of solid waste deposited in the dumping ground was measured. Our results show that the recorded amount of SW deposited in the municipal dumping-ground is less than the estimated amount of SW generated; for this reason, the former amount is not recommended as an unbiased indicator for planning public waste collection services.
It is essential that dumping-grounds are permanently monitored and that the incoming waste be weighed in order to have a more efficient record of USW deposited in the dumping-ground per day; these data are fundamental for developing adequate managing strategies. The alert dissemination covers the cities of: Acapulco, Chilpancingo, Morelia , Puebla, Oaxaca, Toluca and Mexico City, reaching the earthquake warnings to more than 25 millions of people.
The other cities have only some of those systems. The Mw 8. This earthquake offered an opportunity to show the developments and lacks to reduce the risk, such as the need to increase the seismic detection coverage and the earthquake warning dissemination in towns with high seismic vulnerability. The Mw 7. The earthquake early warning gave 11 seconds after the arrivals of S waves, however the activation occurred few seconds after the P waves arrives to Mexico City, and due to the seismic focus was near to the city, the P waves were felt for the people.
The Accelerographic Network. Shallow depth of seismogenic coupling in southern Mexico : implications for the maximum size of earthquakes in the subduction zone.
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Studies of locally recorded microearthquakes and the centroidal depths of the largest earthquakes analyzed using teleseismic data show that the maximum depth of thrust faulting along the Mexican subduction zone is anomalously shallow. A leveling line that crosses the rupture zone of the 19 September Michoacan event was revisited after the earthquake and it shows anomalously low deformation during the earthquake. The comparison between the observed coseismic uplift and dislocation models of the seismogenic interplate contact that extend to depths ranging from 20 to 40 km shows that the maximum depth at which seismic slip took place is about 20 km.
This unusually shallow and narrow zone of seismogenic coupling apparently results in the occurrence of thrust events along the Mexican subduction zone that are smaller than would be expected for a trench where a relatively young slab subducts at a rapid rate of relative motion. A comparison with the Chilean subduction zone shows that the plate interface in Mexico is half that in Chile, not only in the down-dip extent of the seismogenic zone of plate contact, but also in the distance of the trench from the coast and in the thickness of the upper continental plate.
It appears that the narrow plate contact produced by this particular plate geometry in Mexico is the controlling variable defining the size of the largest characteristic earthquakes in the Mexican subduction zone. The estimation of scenarios of the strong ground motions caused by future great earthquakes is an important problem in strong motion seismology. This was pointed out by the great Michoacan earthquake, which caused a great damage in Mexico City, km away from the epicenter.
morelia michoacan mexico: Topics by abepivurev.tk
Since the seismic wavefield is characterized by the source, path and site effects, the pattern of strong motion damage from different types of earthquakes should differ significantly. In this study, the scenarios for intermediate-depth normal-faulting, shallow-interplate thrust faulting, and crustal earthquakes have been estimated using a hybrid simulation technique. The character of the seismic wavefield propagating from the source to Mexico City for each earthquake was first calculated using the pseudospectral method for 2D SH waves.
The site amplifications in the shallow structure of Mexico City are then calculated using the multiple SH wave reverberation theory. The scenarios of maximum ground motion for both inslab and interplate earthquakes obtained by the simulation show a good agreement with the observations. This indicates the effectiveness of the hybrid simulation approach to investigate the strong motion damage for future earthquakes. Massive groundwater extraction is very common in Mexico and is well known to result in land subsidence.
However, most surveys dedicated to land subsidence focus on one single city, mainly Mexico City, and thus fail to provide a comprehensive picture of the problem. Here we use a space-based radar remote sensing technique, known as Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar InSAR to detect land subsidence in the entire central Mexico area. We used data from the Japanese satellite ALOS, processed over SAR images acquired between and produced over interferograms to cover and area of , km2 in central Mexico.
Regional surveys of this type are necessary for the development of hazard mitigation plans and efficient use of ground-based monitoring. We additionally correlate subsidence with land use, surface geology, and faults distribution and suggest that groundwater extraction for agricultural, urban, and industrial uses are the main causes of land subsidence. We also reveal that the limits of the subsiding areas often correlate with existing faults, motion on these faults being driven by water extraction rather than by tectonic activity. In all the subsiding locations we observe high ground velocity gradients emphasizing the significant risks associated with land subsidence in central Mexico.
Also, the largest, Ms 8. The frequency of occurrence of large TSS earthquakes in Mexico is poorly known, but it might vary from decades to centuries . The proposed scenarios are based on the seismic history and up. We develop simple relations to estimate dynamic displacement gradients and hence the strains and rotations during earthquakes in the lake-bed zone of the Valley of Mexico , where the presence of low-velocity, high-water content clays in the uppermost layers cause dramatic amplification of seismic waves and large strains.
The study uses results from a companion article Bodin et al. In this article, we find that the deformations at other lake-bed sites may differ from those at Roma by a factor of 2 to 3. More accurate estimates of the dominant components of the deformation at an individual instrumented lake-bed site may be obtained from the maximum horizontal velocity and displacement,?? The maximum surface strain??
From the analysis of data from sites equipped with surface and borehole sensors, we find that the vertical gradient of peak horizontal displacement?? This is the largest gradient component, and the latter simple relation permits its estimation from surface records alone. The observed profiles of umax versus depth suggest a larger gradient in some depth range of 10 to 20 m, in agreement with synthetic calculations presented in Bodin et al. We also hope to spend some time here on our return.
As we had but six leagues to ride in order to reach Morelia, we did not leave San Bartolo till four in the afternoon, and enjoyed a pretty ride through a fertile and well-wooded country, the road good and the evening delightful. Morelia is celebrated for the purity of its atmosphere and the exceeding beauty of its sky; and this evening, upheld its reputation. Toward sunset, the whole western horizon was covered with myriads of little lilac and gold clouds, floating in every fantastic form over the bright blue of the heavens. The lilac deepened into purple, blushed into rose-color, brightened into crimson.
The blue of the sky assumed that green tint peculiar to an Italian sunset. The sun himself appeared a globe of living flame. Gradually he sank in a blaze of gold and crimson, while the horizon remained lighted as by the flame from a volcano. Then his brilliant retinue of clouds, after blazing for a while in borrowed splendor, melted gradually into every rainbow hue and tinge; from deep crimson to rose-color and pink and pale violet and faint blue, floating in silvery vapor, until they all blended into one soft, gray tinge, which swept over the whole western sky. But then the full moon rose in cloudless serenity, and at length we heard, faintly, then more distinctly, and then in all its deep and sonorous harmony, the tolling of the cathedral bell, which announced our vicinity to a great city.
It has a singular effect, after travelling for some days through a wild country, seeing nothing but a solitary hacienda, or an Indian hut, to enter a fine city like Morelia, which seems to have started up as by magic in the midst of the wilderness, yet bearing all the traces of a venerable old age. We rode through the city, to the house of Colonel Y —— , where we now are; but as we intend to continue our journey to its furthest limits without stopping, we are now, after a night's rest, preparing to resume our ride. They are saddling the horses, strapping on the sarapes behind the saddles, taking down and packing up our lits de voyage , and loading the mules, all which is a work of time.
On our return we hope to remain here a few days, to see everything that is worthy of notice. Accompanied by several gentlemen of Morelia, who came early in the morning to see C —— n, we set off for the warm baths of Cuincho ; and as we rode along, the hill of Las Bateas was pointed out to us, where, by order of the Curate Morelos, two hundred Spaniards were murdered in cold blood, to revenge the death of his friend, the Curate Matamoros, who was taken prisoner and shot by orders of Yturbide.
Horrible cruelty in a Christian priest! It is singular, that the great leaders of the independence should have been ecclesiastics; the Curate Hidalgo its prime mover, the Curates Morelos and Matamoros the principal chiefs. Hidalgo, it is said, had no plan, published no manifesto, declared no opinions; but rushed from city to city at the head of his men, displaying on his colors an image of the Virgin of Guadalupe, and inciting his troops to massacre the Spaniards.
Matamoros, equally brave, was better informed. Both were good generals, and both misused the power which their position gave them over the minds of the unenlightened populace. When Morelos became generalissimo of the revolutionary forces, he took a step fatal to his interests, and which led to his ultimate ruin. He formed a congress, which met at Chilpansingo, and was composed of lawyers and clergymen; ignorant and ambitious men, who employed themselves in publishing absurd decrees and impossible laws, in assigning salaries to themselves, and giving each other the title of Excellency.
Disputes and divisions arose amongst them, and in , they published an absurd and useless document in the village of Apatzingan, to which they gave the name of the "Mexican Constitution. The revolutionary party considered him as a martyr in the cause of liberty, and he is said to have died like a true hero. The appellation of Morelia, given to the city of Valladolid, keeps his name in remembrance, but her blood-stained mountain is a more lasting record of his cruelty.
A vile action is recorded of a Spaniard, whose name, which deserves to be branded with infamy, escapes me at this moment. We contrasted the conduct of this miserable wretch with the noble action of the Prince de Polignac, under similar circumstances. At half past ten, after a pleasant ride of about five leagues, we arrived at the natural hot springs of Cuincho. The place is quite wild, the scenery very striking. The building consists of two very large baths, two very damp rooms, and a kitchen. All the streams that cross your path are warm. You step by chance into a little streamlet, and find the water of a most agreeable temperature.
They put this water in earthen jars to cool, in order to render it fit for drinking, but it never becomes fresh and cold. It contains muriatic acid, without any trace of sulphur or metallic salt. The famous volcano of Jorullo is in this department, and boiling fountains are common in various parts of it. We stopped here to take a bath, and found the temperature of the water delicious, about the ordinary temperature of the human body.
The baths are rather dark, being inclosed in great stone walls, with the light coming from a very small aperture near the roof. A bird, that looked like a wild duck, was sailing about in the largest one, having made its entry along with the water when it was let in.
I never bathed in any water which I so much regretted leaving. After bathing, we waited for the arrival of our mules, which were to follow us at a gentle pace, that we might have breakfast, and continue our journey to Pascuaro , a city nine leagues further. But several hours passed away, and no mules appeared; and at length we came to the grievous conviction that the arrieros had mistaken the road, and that we must expect neither food nor beds that night; for it was now too late to think of reaching Pascuaro.
In this extremity, the gentlemen from Morelia suffering for their politeness in having escorted us, the two damsels of the bath, naiads of the boiling spring, pitying our hungry condition, came to offer their services; and one asked me if I should like "to eat a burro in the mean time?
Upon this, the gentlemen came to our assistance, and burros or pecadoras were ordered forthwith. They proved to be hot tortillas, with cheese in them, and we found them particularly good. It grew late, but no mules arrived; and at length the young ladies and their father rushed out desperately, caught an old hen that was wandering amongst the hills, killed, skinned and put it into a pot to boil, baked some fresh tortillas, and brought us the spoil in triumph!
One penknife was produced—the boiling pan placed on a deal table in the room off the bath, and every one, surrounding the fowl, a tough old creature, who must have clucked through many revolutions, we ate by turns, and concluded with a comfortable drink of lukewarm water. We then tried to beguile the time by climbing amongst the hills at the back of the house—by pushing our way through the tangled briars—by walking to a little lake, where there were ducks and waterfowl, and close to the margin, a number of fruit trees. We returned to the baths—the mules had not been heard of—there was no resource but patience.
Our Morelian friends left us, to return home before it should grow dusk; and shortly after, an escort of twenty-three lancers, with a captain, arrived by orders of the governor, Don Panfilo Galiudo, to accompany us during the remainder of our journey. The captain had with him his wife and daughter, and a baby of about two years old, which, during all the time they were with us, was constantly carried by one of the soldiers, with the utmost care, in front of his horse. Meanwhile, the moon rose, and we walked about disconsolate, in front of the baths—fearing greatly that some accident might have overtaken our unescorted mules and servants; that the first might be robbed—and that the drivers might be killed.
But it was as well to try to sleep if it were only to get over the interminable night; and at length some clean straw was procured, and spread in a corner of the damp floor. There K —— and I lay down in our mangas. C —— n procured another corner—Colonel Y —— a third, and then and thus, we addressed ourselves seriously to repose; but in vain. Between cold and mosquitoes and other animals, we could not close our eyes, and were thankful to rise betimes, shake the straw off, and resume our march.
The road was pretty and flowery when the light came in, and we gradually began to open our eyes, after taking leave of our fair hostesses and their father. When I say the road , you do not, I trust, imagine us riding along a dusty highway. I am happy to say that we are generally the discoverers of our own path-ways. Every man his own Columbus. Sometimes we take short cuts, which prove to be long rounds;. Arrived at some huts, we stopped to make inquiries concerning the mules.
Two loaded mules, the peasants said, had been robbed in the night, and the men tied to a tree, on the low road leading to Pascuaro. We rode on uneasy enough, and at another hut were told that many robbers had been out in the night, and that amongst others, a woman had been robbed, and bound hand and foot. The road now become bleak and uninteresting, the sun furiously hot, and we rode forward with various misgivings as to the fate of the party; when at a cluster of huts called el Correo , we came up with the whole concern.
The arrieros had forgotten the name of Cuincho, and not knowing where to go, had stopped here the previous night, knowing that we were bound for Pascuaro, and must pass that way. They had arrived early, and missed the robbers. We stopped to breakfast at some huts called La Puerta de Chapultepec, where we got some tortillas from a half-caste Indian, who was in great distress, because his wife had run off from him for the fourth time, with "another gentleman!
After leaving Chapultepec, the scenery improves, and at length we had a beautiful view of the hills, at the foot of which lies the ancient city of Tzintzontzan, close by the opposite shore of the Lake of Pascuaro; formerly capital of the independent kingdom of Michoacan, an important city, and called in the time of Cortes, Hurtzitzila.
It was formerly the residence of the monarch—King Calsonsi , an ally of Cortes, and who, with his Indian subjects, assisted him in his Mexican war. It is now a poor Indian village, though it is said that some remains of the monarch's palace still exist. Apropos to which, we have several times observed, since we entered this State, large stones lying in fields, or employed in fences, with strange hieroglyphic characters engraved on them, some of which may be very curious and interesting.
The view as we approach Pascuaro, with its beautiful lake, studded with little islands, is very fine. The bells were tolling, and they were letting off rockets for some Indian festival, and we met parties of the natives who had been keeping the festival upon pulque or mezcal , a strong spirit and were stumbling along in great glee. We came up to an old church, that looks like a bird's-nest amongst the trees, and stands at the outskirts of the city.
Here, it is said, his Majesty of Michoacan came out to meet his Spanish ally, when he entered this territory. C —— n says that Pascuaro resembles a town in Catalonia, It is entirely unlike any other Mexican city. We made a great sensation as we entered with our lancers and mules, tired and dust-becovered as we were—and brought all the Pascuaranians to their balconies. We passed churches bearing the date of ! We went to the largest and best house in the town, that of Don Miguel H —— a, a friend of Colonel Y —— 's.
He was from home, but we were most hospitably entertained by his wife, who received us without any unnecessary ceremony or compliments, and made us quite at home. We walked out with her by moonlight, to see the Square and the Portales, which is a promenade in the evening; and were followed by crowds of little boys; strangers being rather an uncommon spectacle here.
The only foreign lady. We have not been able to visit the lake, or the Indian islands, on account of the weather, but we hope to do so on our return from Uruapa , our next destination. We did not expect to meet such a person in this corner of the world. He was the father and benefactor of these Tarrascan Indians, and went far to rescue them from their degraded state. He not only preached morality, but encouraged industry amongst them, by assigning to each village its particular branch of commerce. Thus one was celebrated for its manufacture of saddles, another for its shoes a third for its bateas , painted trays and so on.
Every useful institution, of which some traces still remain amongst them, is due to this excellent prelate; an example of what one good and zealous and well-judging man can effect. It was about eight o'clock when we left Pascuaro, and mounted the hills over which our road lay, and stopped to look down on the beautiful lake, lying like a sheet of silver in the sun, and dotted with green islands. Two disagreeable personages were added to our party. Early in the morning, intelligence was brought that a celebrated robber, named Morales , captain of a large band, had been seized along with one of his companions; and permission was requested to take advantage of our large escort, in order that they may be safely conducted to Uruapa, where they are to be shot, being already condemned to death.
The punishment of hanging is not in use in Mexico. The first thing therefore that we saw, on mounting our horses, was the two robbers, chained together by the leg, guarded by five of our lancers, and prepared to accompany us on foot. The companion of Morales was a young, vulgar-looking ruffian, his face livid, and himself nearly naked; but the robber-captain himself was equal to any of Salvator's brigands, in his wild and striking figure and countenance. He wore a dark colored blanket, and a black hat, the broad leaf of which was slouched over his face, which was the color of death, while his eyes seemed to belong to a tiger or other beast of prey.
I never saw such a picture of fierce misery. For years he has been the scourge of the country, robbing to an unheard of extent, so that whatever he may have done with them, tens of thousands of dollars have passed through his hands, carrying off the farmers' daughters to the mountains, and at the head of eighty ruffians, committing the most horrible disorders. His last crime was murdering his wife in the mountains, the night before last, under circumstances of barbarity too shocking to relate, and it is supposed, assisted by the wretch now with him.
After committing the crime, they ran to hide themselves in an Indian village, as the Indians, probably from fear, never betray the robbers. However, their horror of this man was so great, that perfect hate cast out their fear, and collecting together, they seized the ruffians, bound them, and carried them to Pascuaro, where they were instantly tried, and condemned to be shot; the sentence to be executed at Uruapa.
Then horror and disgust at the recollection of their savage crimes, took the place of pity, and not even —— 's suggestion that the robber chief might have killed his wife in a transport of jealousy, could lessen our indignation at this last most barbarous murder of a defenceless woman. But these thoughts took away half the pleasure of this most beautiful journey, through wild woods, where for leagues and leagues we meet nothing but the fatal cross; while through these woods of larches, cedars, oaks and pines, are bright vistas of distant pasture-fields, and of lofty mountains covered with forests.
Impossible to conceive a greater variety of beautiful scenery—a greater waste of beauty, if one may say so—for not even an Indian hut was to be seen, nor did we meet a single passing human being, nor a trace of cultivation. As we came out of the woods, we heard a gun fired amongst the hills, the first token of human life that had greeted us since we left Pascuaro.