They just do not know the whole approach and how to access it. They know classic learning like you go to a training or you study a book, but in this field, you have so many user groups, meet-ups [ And we also try to just propose a nice event. They can meet other people there and discuss with them. For example, we all went to a conference together. Today it is all very easy going. Nobody says anything against that.
It is very informal, but it also happens that I personally have to answer some questions. But then, I also pushed some things through in certain teams, [ Then they had to compromise and later they were really glad that they had reacted that way. Because the team gave the right hints after all. That is a situation in which one has to fight a battle on behalf of the team.
Investigating which role the Scrum Master plays RQ1 and in which way it changes over time RQ2 , we found that the Scrum Master played nine different roles which he transferred to the team while it matured. In addition, we found that some roles were more suitable for a transfer to the team members than others. In the following, we will elaborate on how roles were transferred from the Scrum Master to the team members. Our third research question was: How are roles transferred from the Scrum Master to the team members?
We found that roles were transferred via three steps we labelled the role transfer process shown in Fig. Before we elaborate on the role transfer process in depth, we exemplify the concept by referring to the following story:. We found that the role transfer process consists of three steps:. If you want to do Scrum, you have to make sure that people understand the different roles.
As a Scrum Master I can provide strong support at the beginning to get started. But then I have to retreat gradually so that the team gets into the mode of self-organisation. Because if you do not create some free space or a vacuum, nobody will jump in. I try to help colleagues to find their way into the roles. It is always tricky to keep the balance between what the team should do by themselves and what should be done by the PO or SM. That is one thing that one has to reflect upon and to level out. I did not have sufficient capacity to do everything myself.
Therefore, some team members took over tasks, e. They were quite proactive as a team. It takes a lot of energy but is quite nice to experience when the team gradually walks by itself. At the same time, the time effort by the Scrum Master can be reduced. Our research objective was to explore how the Scrum Master role changes while the team matures. We discovered that the Scrum Master comprises nine leadership roles.
While the team matures, more and more roles are transferred from the Scrum Master to the team. At the heart of the role transfer process lies the leadership gap: a lack of leadership which provides the opportunity for team members to step up and take on leadership roles which were previously filled by the Scrum Master. Several authors found that interference from Scrum Masters, Product Owners or management decreased self-organisation of teams [ 7 , 14 , 18 ], while communication among team members improved when the Scrum Master was absent [ 18 ].
We believe that our finding of providing a leadership gap that allows teams to take over leadership roles fits well with those earlier observations. Furthermore, the Scrum process, e. In line with other researchers our research provides empirical evidence that human interaction and the method go hand in hand [ 6 ]. Based on our results, we argue that the Scrum method combined with a certain behaviour, such as communication on equal terms, fosters a supportive team environment, such as mutual understanding and trust [ 18 ].
This empowers teams to take on leadership roles while they mature. Many practitioners on the management level have set the agile transformation of their organisations as one of their top priorities. Few have understood and accepted the time required for the team development process. When agile teams are implemented in established companies, individuals have to learn a new way of leadership in teams, which will lead to slower delivery of work products at the beginning.
Management should grant sufficient time to teams to allow them to regularly reflect upon the leadership roles during the retrospective, learn their meaning and content, build a mutual understanding and figure out how and to what extent to take on leadership roles. Teams need time to try the roles and learn them, possibly by failure. Just like any newbie in a formal leadership position needs time and is given time to learn the role, agile teams need time to learn the leadership roles of Scrum.
Furthermore, even though management expects employees to change and take on more responsibility, some managers are reluctant to grant leadership roles to the teams. External pressure, top-down changed targets and shifted priorities as well as frequent changes of the team setup destroy the sheltered space within which agile teams can grow. In established companies, it is easy to re-staff project teams because authorities have the legitimate power to do so, but it is a supreme discipline to protect the team and create hierarchy-free space for team development by the Scrum Master demonstrating lateral leadership.
Therefore, management must provide a Scrum Master to protect the team and shelter it while it matures. Simultaneously, the Scrum Master must be patient and wait until team members take on responsibility when they face a lack of leadership. Likewise, team members have to learn how to practice new ways of interacting with their team and managers, and to develop the courage to bridge the leadership gap when provided, even though it might feel inconvenient at the beginning.
To assure the quality of our research, we critically discuss construct validity, external validity and reliability:. To increase construct validity , we used multiple sources of evidence by capturing the Scrum Master role from three different angles involving Scrum Masters, Product Owners and team members. The researchers discussed the extracted results and built concepts and theories. Additionally, emerging results were frequently reflected critically with various agile practitioners from the company. Furthermore, the main author observed multiple agile teams at the company site over a period of 1.
The final results were supported by the observations and fruitful discussions with practitioners. All participants work at the same conglomerate, mostly in the automotive industry. To increase external validity , we tried to ask an equal number of project teams at each division. Despite their slightly similar overall working culture, the 11 business divisions embrace different subcultures.
Still, we do not claim our results to be universally applicable and they might be limited to the specific context. Further studies should compare our findings on the changing Scrum Master role with the results emerging from other conglomerates.
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Reliability: Since we used an open-ended semi-structured questionnaire that guided us through the interviews, the different interviews followed a similar structure. Yet, we asked participants about past events and what they had learned over time. Memories of individuals tend to change in retrospective. Therefore, these interviews are difficult to replicate. A cross-sectional follow-up survey on a nominal scale containing the nine roles with the respective activities we have identified would increase the reliability of this study.
So far we have only investigated how the Scrum Master role changed over time using an exploratory approach based on retrospective narratives of interviewees. We have not yet quantitatively aligned group maturity stages to the changing Scrum Master role. In a future research project, we aim to map research on maturity of agile teams [ 12 ] to the different Scrum Master roles we have identified to provide valuable insights on maturity and the changing Scrum Master role in each team development stage.
Furthermore, we have not yet captured the perspective of the management who may experience providing the leadership gap differently. Taking this aspect into account, we would like to extend this study in the near future and dig deeper into strategies on how the Scrum Master protects the leadership gap from management and Product Owner by referring to the boundary-spanning role of team leadership literature [ 8 ]. The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the chapter's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material.
If material is not included in the chapter's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. International Conference on Agile Software Development. Open Access. First Online: 27 April Download conference paper PDF. We identified a set of nine different roles that Scrum Masters played. While some teams reported that the leadership roles were rather centred on the Scrum Master, other teams revealed that the Scrum Master role had changed over time.
In the latter cases, team members started to take over some of the roles themselves and the Scrum Masters reduced the extent to which they played those roles. In the following Sect. Each role description is divided into three parts: 1. Description of the role in general RQ1. How the Scrum Master played that role RQ1. How team members took over that role after some time RQ2. Team: Several interviewees described how the Scrum Master built trust among team members, e. After some time they established psychological safety [ 9 ] and started to open up and to provide feedback to each other.
It was no longer merely the Scrum Master who provided feedback to the team. TM Role 4: Change Agent. Serves as a role model, changes habits, and convinces newly established project teams of the agile way of working. Scrum Master: While a large majority helped team members get used to the method step by step, others wanted to help people develop a certain mindset, such as not being afraid of failure or openness towards results. Either way, their overall aim was to convince individuals why the agile way of working made sense.
SM Team: We did not come across a team members who started to act as a Change Agent pro-actively, such as convincing others of the method. However, several agile teams started to serve as role models for other teams by being agile. The Change Agent role might be important at the beginning of a newly established team.
Strategy, not Technology, Drives Digital Transformation
But while the team matures, this role might become obsolete. PO Role 5: Helicopter. Possesses the ability to see the bigger picture, to know who possess the right skill for a certain task, to include relevant stakeholders and to structure work. They identified cross-boundary links between individuals and tasks from different technical expertise or domains towards a common goal.
SM Team: Due to regular communication and visualisation, team members developed a shared understanding [ 14 , 18 ] while they matured, so that they were aware of who had certain knowledge or skills. Developing a Helicopter perspective helped team members to think in networks, to serve as sparring partners for each other and to be fast in handing over the work to another professional of another expertise.
TM Role 6: Moderator. Moderates all kind of meetings and builds a bridge between perspectives and domains. This role is considered to be important to develop the necessary cross-functional understanding for agile teamwork. Scrum Master: The way in which Scrum Masters used their network depended on the current need of the team. Scrum Masters reported that they included formal leaders to gain the support for the agile approach. The last of those are particularly interesting. Will you ever go beyond the usual finish time?
What attendance level will you require? How will you track attendance? How do you pick your team for each night?
102 Behavioral Interview Questions and Answers
When do you announce it? Equally, picking it too early risks disruption if something comes up and someone can no longer make it, and everyone else has now made other plans. How do you announce it? Confirm people on in-game calendar? Post on a forum? In-game mail? Forum PM? Do you require flasks? Individually, or via a cauldron? If individually, who provides them? Do you require combat potions? Who provides them? Do you require health potions, or rely on warlock healthstones? If potions, who provides them?
Do you require food? If so, feasts or individual food? What level do you require? Do you require Vantus runes? Who decides what rune to use? How do you handle loot distribution? What happens with loot nobody needs? What happens with BoE loot? What happens with crafting mats?
Do you reset every week? If not, when do you extend? Are you going to log the fights? Publicly or privately? Do you require raiders to read up on fights in advance, or will you cover the tactics on the night? Do you require raiders to optimise their gear? If so, what point? Do you require raiders to have fully unlocked their class hall in order to allow a second legendary to be equipped? Do you require raiders to independently run lower difficulty levels e.
LFR for gear? Do you require raiders to run other content e. Are people required to be capable of raiding in one or more offspecs? What do you require from offspecs e. Are people required to have raid-ready alts? Similar questions as per offspecs. Do you require raiders to have any specific addons e.
Are you going to use voice comms? If so, which? And are you going to require raiders to have a microphone, or just to be able to hear? The answers, of course, depend on you, your vision and your team. What I will say is: Your systems and policies should be fair. A note on this below! The more systematic things are, the better. They should be clearly communicated. Expectations that nobody knows about will not be met. They should be handled openly. Decisions made behind closed doors engender mistrust and gossip. You should be consistent. I mentioned being fair.
Whatever you choose, though, you should make sure everyone agrees with it. I maintain a Google Docs spreadsheet that everyone can see that tracks attendance and standbys. If I have to put someone on standby twice in succession, e. If you have an established team, I also recommend that you get input from your raiders on some of those questions. These will seem obvious to most people - but not everyone!
Scheduled raids are a must. Regularly failing at any one of those things should have significant consequences. Use either personal loot or master looter. Have a forum. Use voice comms. Not only is it an incredibly useful tool for executing raid fights, but it also makes the raids far more social and fun. What does that mean for you? Depends on the way you run things, of course.
Ensure you have the appropriate set of addons for the night installed and enabled e. Deal with people dropping out or no-showing etc; contact possible substitutes, put together the actual team. Grab feasts from the guild bank. Send out invites. Convert to raid. Set to master looter.
Set loot level. Set difficulty level. Extend if appropriate. Give the right people assist. Ensure summons are happening. Get everyone on Teamspeak. Make any general announcements that need making. Combat log. Do you have the courage to be an adult? Do you have the courage to decide for yourself what your values are? The problem with writing about any sort of hierarchy like this is that every reader tends to immediately imagine themselves on the top rung, taking discreet pleasure in judging the masses of poor, unfortunate souls stuck on the rungs below them.
I know this for the simple reason that the majority of the population is still floundering in these stages most of the time myself included. On top of that, these high-level, adult values are the definition of what we consider to be noble and virtuous. We all know and revere these stories. Because we rarely, if ever, are able to do these things ourselves. This is because we tell ourselves all sorts of elaborate stories to justify what we want. And that story is usually highly biased and vastly overestimates how noble and selfless we were. Therefore, we must learn to distrust our thoughts.
We must become skeptical of the interpretations of our own actions. Instead, we must focus on the actions themselves. Thoughts can lie. Interpretations can be changed or forgotten. But actions are permanent. Therefore, the only way to get at your values — to truly understand what you value and what you do not — is to observe your actions. What you want is to feel like you want to go back. And that is completely different.
You say you do to justify your lower-level values. There are people who are great friends but shitty parents. There are people who are great parents but shitty professionals. There are people who are just shitty people but holy fuck, are they productive. We all have our areas of maturity and immaturity.
Most recurring emotional problems people experience are simply first- and second-level value systems that are being held onto despite the fact that they are failing. A co-worker who steals your work and calls it their own is indulging in a compulsive desire for pleasure or, in this case, success. These are things you come to understand about yourself because you question not only your actions but your interpretations of your own actions.
Any time you sit down with a therapist or coach or friend, this is the process that is happening. You are describing your actions and your interpretation of those actions. Or are you just deluding yourself? Do your actions reflect what you think is important? If not, where is the disconnect? To become happy and healthy. Modern democracy was basically invented under the assumption that the average human being is a selfish delusional piece of shit.
The belief went that the only way to protect us from ourselves is to create systems so interlocking and interdependent that no one person or group can completely hose the rest of the population at any given time. Put another way, the founders and Enlightenment thinkers understood that the games of politics and statecraft are inevitably played at the level of bargaining and transactional relationships, and therefore systems need to be constructed in such a way that no one person or organization can win too much, too often.
Most politicians make their names and their livings by existing in a vast web of transactional relationships. They bargain with their voters and donors. They bargain with each other to build coalitions and alliances. They bargain with other branches of government and political parties to jockey for prominence and position. That is, by being childish. This is what extremists are: childish. Because extremists are intractable and impossible to bargain with, extremists are, by definition, childish.
They want the world to be a certain way and they refuse to acknowledge any interests or values other than their own. They refuse to bargain. They refuse to appeal to a higher virtue or principle above their own selfish desires. Therefore, they ruin everything around them. Extremists are dangerous because they know how to dress up their childish values in the language of transaction or universal principle.
But what he really means is that he wants freedom from any other values. He wants freedom from having to deal with change or the marginalization of other people. He wants the freedom to pursue his own impulses and desires. Extremists on the left play the same game, the only thing that changes is the language.
And that she will give up anything for it. But what she really means is that she never wants to feel inferior or harmed. That she never wants to feel threatened or unsafe. Essentially, that she never wants to feel pain. And demanding that everyone be treated equally at all times, in all circumstances, is one way of running away from that pain.
Extremism, on both the right and the left, has undeniably risen in the past few decades. There are likely many complicated and overlapping reasons for this. American culture is based on the indulgence of pleasure and avoidance of pain. American consumerism has become so good at indulging these childish impulses that much of the population has come to see them as rights.
Extremists on the right respond to the fact that they believe climate change is a hoax or evolution is fake with the claim that they have the right to believe anything they want to. The problem is that the media again, both on the right and the left has discovered that reinforcing the childish wishes of extremists on each side is good for business. They are addicts for their cause. They throw their lives away for it. And because they will throw their lives away for an imagined cause, they make for the most impassioned audience. The extremes get the most attention.
They get the most clicks. And they cause the most controversy.
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Before you can move on and learn from these flawed value systems, you must experience the pain of them failing. That means not denying that they are failing. That means not avoiding the pain of that failure. Therefore, when they feel good, they feel good about themselves, and when they feel bad, they feel bad about themselves. What was I thinking? This is harmful. This likely makes the problem worse. The problem is not you. You fucked up because you caused pain for bad reasons. They want to teach alcoholics the virtue of honesty.
They want to convince violent abusers of the importance of generosity and patience. People stuck at compulsion need to first learn to think of things in transactional terms. It hurts people. People you love and want to help. It fucks up other life plans. It destroys families, finances, and fidelity. Addicts and criminals often overcome this by latching onto some transactional value. I once spoke to a recovered drug addict who said the only thing that got him through was his daughter. But the thought of her losing out on the opportunity to have a father, when she had done nothing to deserve it, brought him to his knees and eventually got him sober.
That their choices have consequences, not just for their future self, but for others. And those consequences must be managed. We move beyond our childish values when we realize that we have skin in the game — that there are repercussions for our actions beyond our immediate self. This is why research has found that the most effective ways to break any bad habit is to — you guessed it — to bargain for it.
Create consequences for yourself. Create accountability. And if they fail to bargain with the world, then they will blame themselves. For this reason, the adolescent is scared to death of rejection or failure. To them, to fail or be rejected is a sort of death because everything they want from the world — all meaning, all purpose — will be denied them.
Adulthood occurs when one realizes that the only way to conquer suffering is to become unmoved by suffering. An adult accepts that there are some ways of living life that are worse than not living at all. And because they recognize this, they are able to act boldly in the face of their own shame or fears. In my book, The Subtle Art of Not Giving a Fuck , I relate a number of painful and traumatic experiences from my adolescence: the dissolution of my family, painful social rejections, the loss of my first romantic relationship, the death of a friend. I pursued sex relentlessly, in an attempt to make up for the depth of my emotional pain with superficial, hollow relationships.
For many years of my life, I saw friendships simply in terms of utility: I do this for someone so I can get something in return. And the moment a relationship began to cause me pain, I would find a way to escape it. I was very successful at this for many years. I created and then escaped from — literally, I traveled the world to get away — dozens of relationships with otherwise good people, some of whom really cared about me, but who I was not mature enough to handle.
But this escapism was a solution that was as painful as the problem. The only thing more painful than losing a significant relationship is not having a significant relationship. And it slowly began to dawn on me that happiness was not the point — pain was. That the same way the struggle and challenge in my professional life made my accomplishments more meaningful, the willingness to face pain and discomfort was actually what made relationships feel meaningful.
Not the sexiness or excitement or satisfaction.